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Mood dysregulation disorder

Brittany A Matthews, Junchao Tong, Sophia Attwells, Xin Xu, Anh Le, Stephen J Kish, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: A key component of alcohol dependence (AD), a severe form of alcohol use disorder, is the negative emotional state during withdrawal. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme that metabolizes monoamines and creates oxidative stress. Elevations in MAO-A level, especially in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), are associated with low mood states, including the dysphoria of early alcohol withdrawal in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic alcohol vapor exposure causes an upregulation of MAO-A activity or level in the PFC and ACC of rodents during acute withdrawal...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Loren Leclezio, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Petrus J de Vries
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. The lifetime prevalence of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) is in the region of 90% in an apparently unique, individual pattern. This "uniqueness" poses significant challenges for diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. To date, no studies have explored whether there may be natural clusters of TAND. The purpose of this feasibility study was (1) to investigate the practicability of identifying natural TAND clusters, and (2) to identify appropriate multivariate data analysis techniques for larger-scale studies...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Francisco R de la Peña, Marcos F Rosetti, Andrés Rodríguez-Delgado, Lino R Villavicencio, Juan D Palacio, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A Mayer, Fernando J Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaímes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Rosa E Ulloa
Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
David E Fleck, Jeffrey A Welge, James C Eliassen, Caleb M Adler, Melissa P DelBello, Stephen M Strakowski
BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sakina J Rizvi, Clare Lambert, Sidney Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To focus on the clinical and behavioral presentation of anhedonia in mood disorders, as well as the differences and commonalities in the underlying neurocircuitry. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence suggests that depression is characterized by hypofunction of the reward system, while bipolar disorder manifests dysregulation of the behavioral activation system that increases goal-directed reward behavior. Importantly, strong evidence does not exist to suggest significant differences in anhedonia severity between depressed unipolar and bipolar patients, suggesting that there are more nuanced fluctuations in reward processing deficits in bipolar patients depending on their state...
March 8, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Margaret J Briggs-Gowan, Ryne Estabrook, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Lauren S Wakschlag
OBJECTIVE: Advances in developmentally sensitive measurement have enabled differentiation of normative versus clinically salient irritability in early childhood. However, clinical application of these measures is still nascent. The authors developed an optimized model of clinically salient irritable behaviors at preschool age. Based on this model, the authors derived an empirically based cutoff in relation to concurrent DSM-5 irritability-related disorders (i.e., oppositional defiant disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, other depressive disorders) and used longitudinal models to test the predictive validity of the cutoff for impairment and irritability trajectories and later DSM disorders...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Ruei-An Chen, Tiao-Lai Huang, Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Yung Hung
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been shown to be associated with inflammation and the dysregulation of innate immune responses. Previously, we showed an inverse correlation between the severity of depression and level of TNFAIP3 mRNA expression. The present study further evaluated the association between TNFAIP3 mRNA expression level and symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in 91 patients (20 men and 71 women). METHODS: The relationships between subscores on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and TNFAIP3 mRNA levels were assessed by multiple linear regression...
February 27, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
R J R Blair
Empathy and anger are two social emotions that modulate an individual's risk for aggression. Empathy is an emotional reaction to another individual's emotional state. Anger is an emotional reaction to threat, frustration or social provocation. Reduced empathy, seen in psychopathy, increases the risk for goal-directed aggression. Atypically increased anger (i.e. irritability), seen in conditions like disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and borderline personality disorder, increases the risk for reactive aggression...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Dóra Antal-Uram, László Harsányi, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and colitis ulcerosa) is a chronic, long-term condition that causes chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, and shows an increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Changes in disease activity over time affect psychological distress which increases the risk of exacerbations. Beside somatic symptoms (such as abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss), psychiatric comorbidity (in particular major depression, anxiety, social phobia) is common in patients with Crohn's disease...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Lawson R Wulsin, Thomas J Blom, Michelle Durling, Jeffrey A Welge, Melissa P DelBello, Caleb M Adler, Robert K McNamara, Stephen M Strakowski
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to characterize cardiometabolic risk factors in a cohort of bipolar disorder patients with limited exposure to psychotropic medications, and to evaluate their associations with mood symptoms and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) blood levels. METHODS: Cardiometabolic risk assessments were compared in individuals with bipolar I disorder experiencing a first manic or mixed episode or an early depressive episode (n=117) and healthy subjects (n=56)...
February 26, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd, Punitha Subramaniam, Marie R Ehrler, Melissa P Lopez-Larson
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BP) is characterized by abnormal shifts in mood between episodes of mania and severe depression, both of which have been linked with psychomotor disturbances. This study compares brain activation patterns in motor networks between euthymic youths with BP and healthy controls (HC) during the completion of a simple motor task. METHODS: Thirty-five youths with BP and 35 HC (aged 10-19) completed a self-paced sequential bilateral finger-tapping task, consisting of a 4-minute scan block with alternating 20-second periods of either the tapping task (six blocks) or rest (six blocks), while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Thomaz Oliveira, Victor Marinho, Valécia Carvalho, Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Carla Ayres, Silmar Teixeira, Monara Nunes, Victor Hugo Bastos, Giovanny R Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to present a broad view of how genetic polymorphisms in genes that control the rhythmicity and function of circadian rhythm may influence the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed to identify and select papers reporting studies on variations in circadian genes and BD. A search of Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to review the literature...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Alan R Prossin, Matthew Chandler, Kelly A Ryan, Erika F Saunders, Masoud Kamali, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Sebastian Zöllner, Robert Dantzer, Melvin G McInnis
INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial stress contributes to onset/exacerbation of mood episodes and alcohol use, suggesting dysregulated diurnal cortisol rhythms underlie episodic exacerbations in Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, mechanisms underlying dysregulated HPA rhythms in BD and alcohol use disorders (AUD) are understudied. Knowledge of associated variance factors have great clinical translational potential by facilitating development of strategies to reduce stress-related relapse in BD and AUD...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mehmet Emin Ceylan, Bariş Önen Ünsalver, Alper Evrensel
Bipolar affective disorder (BD) diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment are often delayed, and this is associated with poorer outcomes, such as rapid cycling or cognitive decline. Therefore, identifying certain warning signs of a probable successive episode during the inter-episode phase is important for early intervention. We present the retrospective data of three cases of BD. Our first case had a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), where he drank in a dipsomaniac manner, and the other two cases had dipsomaniac alcohol use before their manic attacks, and none of them had any AUD after the mood episode was over...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Peter Joe, Mara Getz, Samantha Redman, Matthew Petrilli, Thorsten Manfred Kranz, Samoon Ahmad, Dolores Malaspina
Zinc dysregulation is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders and a beneficial response to zinc supplementation has been demonstrated for depression. In this case series, we examined serum zinc levels with respect to clinical factors among 20 acutely ill psychiatric cases admitted to a large urban public hospital. The results showed frank clinical zinc insufficiency in a quarter of the subjects. Group-wise analyses showed a significant association between reduced serum zinc and diagnosis of depression, and reduced serum zinc in those with aggressive, assaultive, or violent behaviors...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
Yoshikazu Takaesu, Yuichi Inoue, Kotaro Ono, Akiko Murakoshi, Kunihiro Futenma, Yoko Komada, Takeshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: Circadian rhythm dysfunction has been considered to be common in bipolar disorder (BD) and plays an important role in mood dysregulation in this disorder. However, no study has investigated whether circadian rhythm dysfunction would affect the clinical course of BD. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that circadian rhythm dysfunction could be a predictor of relapse in euthymic BD patients. METHODS: One hundred four euthymic outpatients with BD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), participated in this prospective follow-up study from August 2014 to April 2015...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kazuyoshi Ogasawara, Yukako Nakamura, Hiroyuki Kimura, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki
The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry...
February 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Gadi Zerach
OBJECTIVES: Certain coping strategies, characterized by emotional coping or disengagement/ avoidance, have been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS). However, the role of primary trauma victims' coping strategies in the intergenerational transmission of PTSS is still lacking. This prospective study assessed the mediating role of former prisoners of war's (ex-POWs) coping strategies in the associations between ex-POWs' PTSS and their adult offspring's secondary PTSS in relation to their fathers' captivity and psychiatric symptomatology...
December 19, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Xinshuo Wang, Zijian Fang, Anlin Wang, Cheng Luo, Xiaodong Cheng, Meiling Lu
Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the hallmarks of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Lithium, a clinical mood stabilizer for the treatment of mental disorders, is known to suppress tumorigenic potential of PDA cells by targeting the Hh/Gli signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of lithium induced down-regulation of Hh/Gli1. Our data show that lithium promotes the poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of Gli1 through activating E3 ligase ITCH...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Benjamin Hing, Leela Sathyaputri, James B Potash
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD...
March 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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