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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040792/future-of-days-past-neurodevelopment-and-schizophrenia
#1
Daniel R Weinberger
Since a proposal in 1986 that schizophrenia involved early neurodevelopmental deviations beginning in intrauterine life that showed varying expressivity as relevant neural systems matured, our understanding of the developmental components of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has substantially evolved. This commentary highlights recent genetic and epigenetic evidence that prenatal development is a critical period for the expression of schizophrenia risk. Studies of gene expression have been fairly consistent in showing that genes implicated in schizophrenia show relatively greater expression during fetal than postnatal life...
October 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#2
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031402/associations-between-maternal-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-and-child-cognition-at-7-years-of-age-the-mefab-birth-cohort
#3
E M Brouwer-Brolsma, O van de Rest, R Godschalk, M P A Zeegers, M Gielen, R H M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of the fish fatty acids EPA and DHA are low among Dutch women of reproductive age. As the human brain incorporates high concentrations of these fatty acids in utero, particularly during third trimester of gestation, these low EPA and DHA concentrations may have adverse consequences for fetal brain development and functioning. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using longitudinal observational data of 292 mother-child pairs participating in the MEFAB cohort...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030611/dna-methylation-and-transcriptional-trajectories-during-human-development-and-reprogramming-of-isogenic-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Matthias S Roost, Roderick C Slieker, Monika Bialecka, Liesbeth van Iperen, Maria M Gomes Fernandes, Nannan He, H Eka D Suchiman, Karoly Szuhai, Françoise Carlotti, Eelco J P de Koning, Christine L Mummery, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
Determining cell identity and maturation status of differentiated pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) requires knowledge of the transcriptional and epigenetic trajectory of organs during development. Here, we generate a transcriptional and DNA methylation atlas covering 21 organs during human fetal development. Analysis of multiple isogenic organ sets shows that organ-specific DNA methylation patterns are highly dynamic between week 9 (W9) and W22 of gestation. We investigate the impact of reprogramming on organ-specific DNA methylation by generating human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from six isogenic organs...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030525/neurodevelopment-at-age-10-years-of-children-born-28-weeks-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#5
Steven J Korzeniewski, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, Tim Heeren, Karl C K Kuban, T Michael O'Shea, Alan Leviton
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the relationships between fetal growth restriction (FGR) (both severe and less severe) and assessments of cognitive, academic, and adaptive behavior brain function at age 10 years. METHODS: At age 10 years, the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Cohort Study assessed the cognitive function, academic achievement, social-communicative function, psychiatric symptoms, and overall quality of life of 889 children born before 28 weeks' gestation...
October 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026765/screening-antenatal-anxiety-predicting-its-effect-on-fetal-growth
#6
Kaushik Sarkar, Goutam Das, Ranadip Chowdhury, Bhaskar Shahbabu, Ishita Sarkar, Santu Maiti, Aparajita Dasgupta
CONTEXT: Maternal anxiety has an association with low birth weight. However, studies are scarce to determine any association between maternal anxiety and fetal growth. AIMS: This study aims to determine the effect of maternal anxiety on fetal growth, measured by gestational age-dependent increase in fetal abdominal circumference (AC). The secondary objective is to determine the effect of maternal anxiety on other fetal parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD], head circumference [HC], femur length [FL])...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020643/association-of-methylmercury-intake-from-seafood-consumption-and-blood-mercury-level-among-the-asian-and-non-asian-populations-in-the-united-states
#7
Yangyang Liu, Susan Buchanan, Henry A Anderson, Zhiwen Xiao, Victoria Persky, Mary E Turyk
BACKGROUND: MeHg is a well-established neurotoxicant for fetal brain growth and development and has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in aging populations. In the U.S., Asian populations are of particular concern because of their seafood consumption behaviors. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to calculate the average daily MeHg intake (ADMI) from seafood and to assess the relationship between ADMI with blood methylmercury (BMeHg) concentrations, specifically among women of reproductive age (WORA) and adults ≥ 50 years of age...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020636/self-organized-cerebral-organoids-with-human-specific-features-predict-effective-drugs-to-combat-zika-virus-infection
#8
Momoko Watanabe, Jessie E Buth, Neda Vishlaghi, Luis de la Torre-Ubieta, Jiannis Taxidis, Baljit S Khakh, Giovanni Coppola, Caroline A Pearson, Ken Yamauchi, Danyang Gong, Xinghong Dai, Robert Damoiseaux, Roghiyh Aliyari, Simone Liebscher, Katja Schenke-Layland, Christine Caneda, Eric J Huang, Ye Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Daniel H Geschwind, Peyman Golshani, Ren Sun, Bennett G Novitch
The human cerebral cortex possesses distinct structural and functional features that are not found in the lower species traditionally used to model brain development and disease. Accordingly, considerable attention has been placed on the development of methods to direct pluripotent stem cells to form human brain-like structures termed organoids. However, many organoid differentiation protocols are inefficient and display marked variability in their ability to recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture and course of neurogenesis in the developing human brain...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019762/central-nervous-system-effects-of-intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-review
#9
Bianca Guedes Ribeiro, Heron Werner, Flávia P P L Lopes, L Celso Hygino da Cruz, Tatiana M Fazecas, Pedro A N Daltro, Renata A Nogueira
Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018332/the-beneficial-effects-of-melatonin-administration-following-hypoxia-ischemia-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#10
Tamara Yawno, Mawin Mahen, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous hormone that controls circadian cycle. MLT has additional important properties that make it appealing as a neuroprotective agent-it is a potent anti-oxidant, with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. MLT is safe for administration during pregnancy or to the newborn after birth, and can reduce white matter brain injury under conditions of chronic fetal hypoxia. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined whether an intermediate dose of MLT could restore white matter brain development when administered after an acute hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult in preterm fetal sheep...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017418/maternal-glucose-supplementation-in-a-murine-model-of-chorioamnionitis-alleviates-dysregulation-of-autophagy-in-fetal-brain
#11
Jun Lei, Wenyu Zhong, Ahmad Almalki, Hongxi Zhao, Hattan Arif, Rayyan Rozzah, Ghada Al Yousif, Nader Alhejaily, Dan Wu, Michael McLane, Irina Burd
Fetal brain injury induced by intrauterine inflammation is a major risk factor for adverse neurological outcomes, including cerebral palsy, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral disabilities. There are no adequate therapies for neuronal protection to reduce fetal brain injury, especially new strategies that may apply promptly and conveniently. In this study, we explored the effect of maternal glucose administration in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation at term. Our results demonstrated that maternal glucose supplementation significantly increased survival birth rate and improved the neurobehavioral performance of pups exposed to intrauterine inflammation...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990212/normal-development-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-evolution-of-corpus-callosum-sexual-dimorphism-in-infancy
#12
Chaw-Liang Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Yi-Chen Yang, Che-Sheng Ho, Kun-Long Hung
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the corpus callosum in infancy and to clarify how sexual dimorphism evolves between the fetal stage and infancy. METHODS: Normal sonograms from cerebral ultrasonographic examinations of 1- to 6-month-old healthy full-term infants were selected. The length and thickness of the corpus callosum were determined, and the effect of sex on these values was analyzed. Studies on corpus callosum sexual dimorphism were reviewed...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975925/fkbp5-moderates-the-association-between-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-neonatal-brain-morphology
#13
Changqing Wang, Mojun Shen, Bryan Guillaume, Yap-Seng Chong, Helen Chen, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms influence fetal brain development and increase the risk for depression in offspring. Such vulnerability is often moderated by the offspring's genetic variants. This study aimed to examine whether FKBP5, a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and in utero brain development, using an Asian cohort with 161 mother-offspring dyads. Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the second trimester of pregnancy...
October 3, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973696/neurodevelopment-and-thyroid-hormone-synthesis-inhibition-in-the-rat-quantitative-understanding-within-the-adverse-outcome-pathway-framework
#14
Iman Hassan, Hisham El-Masri, Patricia A Kosian, Jermaine Ford, Sigmund J Degitz, Mary E Gilbert
Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development, deficiencies may lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and animal models. Environmental chemicals have been linked to TH disruption, yet the relationship between developmental exposures and decline in serum TH resulting in neurodevelopmental impairment is poorly understood. The present study developed a quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) where serum thyroxin (T4) reduction following inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland are described and related to deficits in fetal brain TH and the development of a brain malformation, subcortical band heterotopia...
August 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962577/acute-maternal-oxidant-exposure-causes-susceptibility-of-the-fetal-brain-to-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Feroz Akhtar, Christopher A Rouse, Gabriel Catano, Marcus Montalvo, Sarah L Ullevig, Reto Asmis, Kusum Kharbanda, Shivani K Maffi
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to environmental stressors poses a risk to fetal development. Oxidative stress (OS), microglia activation, and inflammation are three tightly linked mechanisms that emerge as a causal factor of neurodevelopmental anomalies associated with prenatal ethanol exposure. Antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and CuZnSOD are perturbed, and their manipulation provides evidence for neuroprotection. However, the cellular and molecular effects of GSH alteration in utero on fetal microglia activation and inflammation remain elusive...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959702/symptomatic-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-with-prenatal-and-postnatal-neuroimaging
#16
Mati Pulver, Kristiina Juhkami, Dagmar Loorits, Pilvi Ilves, Jaanika Kuld, Eve Õiglane-Šlik, Tuuli Metsvaht, Rael Laugesaar
The authors report a girl born at term via planned cesarean delivery. Three days earlier, an antenatal magnetic resonance imaging study, showing no cerebral lesions in the fetus, was performed. Ten minutes after delivery, signs of progressive respiratory failure developed and the infant was transferred to the intensive care unit. On the next day, a computed tomography (CT) scan showed acute ischemic lesions in the areas of the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. The exact mechanism of stroke remained unidentified...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958729/a-deep-learning-solution-for-automatic-fetal-neurosonographic-diagnostic-plane-verification-using-clinical-standard-constraints
#17
Mohammad Yaqub, Brenda Kelly, Aris T Papageorghiou, J Alison Noble
During routine ultrasound assessment of the fetal brain for biometry estimation and detection of fetal abnormalities, accurate imaging planes must be found by sonologists following a well-defined imaging protocol or clinical standard, which can be difficult for non-experts to do well. This assessment helps provide accurate biometry estimation and the detection of possible brain abnormalities. We describe a machine-learning method to assess automatically that transventricular ultrasound images of the fetal brain have been correctly acquired and meet the required clinical standard...
September 25, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952606/relation-between-body-composition-at-birth-and-child-development-at-2-years-of-age-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-ethiopian-children
#18
M Abera, M Tesfaye, T Girma, C Hanlon, G S Andersen, J C Wells, B Admassu, R Wibaek, H Friis, P Kæstel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948973/gestational-diabetes-exacerbates-maternal-immune-activation-effects-in-the-developing-brain
#19
K M Money, T L Barke, A Serezani, M Gannon, K A Garbett, D M Aronoff, K Mirnics
Maternal inflammation and diabetes increase the risk for psychiatric disorders in offspring. We hypothesized that these co-occurring risk factors may potentiate each other. To test this, we maternally exposed developing mice in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and/or maternal immune activation (MIA). Fetal mouse brains were exposed to either vehicle, GDM, MIA or GDM+MIA. At gestational day (GD) 12.5, GDM produced a hyperglycemic, hyperleptinemic maternal state, whereas MIA produced significant increases in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946925/iodine-concentration-of-milk-alternative-drinks-available-in-the-uk-in-comparison-with-cows-milk
#20
Sarah C Bath, Sarah Hill, Heidi Goenaga Infante, Sarah Elghul, Carolina J Nezianya, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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