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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913428/migration-pathways-of-thalamic-neurons-and-development-of-thalamocortical-connections-in-humans-revealed-by-diffusion-mr-tractography
#1
Molly Wilkinson, Tara Kane, Rongpin Wang, Emi Takahashi
The thalamus plays an important role in signal relays in the brain, with thalamocortical (TC) neuronal pathways linked to various sensory/cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to see fetal and postnatal development of the thalamus including neuronal migration to the thalamus and the emergence/maturation of the TC pathways. Pathways from/to the thalami of human postmortem fetuses and in vivo subjects ranging from newborns to adults with no neurological histories were studied using high angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography...
December 2, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#2
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899082/interventions-to-improve-gross-motor-performance-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#3
Barbara R Lucas, Elizabeth J Elliott, Sarah Coggan, Rafael Z Pinto, Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND: Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#4
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887658/parameter-set-for-computer-assisted-texture-analysis-of-fetal-brain
#5
Hugues Gentillon, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Michał Strzelecki, Maria Respondek-Liberska
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance data were collected from a diverse population of gravid women to objectively compare the quality of 1.5-tesla (1.5 T) versus 3-T magnetic resonance imaging of the developing human brain. MaZda and B11 computational-visual cognition tools were used to process 2D images. We proposed a wavelet-based parameter and two novel histogram-based parameters for Fisher texture analysis in three-dimensional space. RESULTS: Wavenhl, focus index, and dispersion index revealed better quality for 3 T...
November 25, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886392/deregulated-expression-of-ezh2-in-congenital-brainstem-disconnection
#6
P G Barth, E Aronica, S Fox, K Fluiter, M A J Weterman, A Poretti, D C Miller, E Boltshauser, B Harding, M Santi, F Baas
Congenital brainstem disconnection (CBSD) is an enigmatic embryo-fetal defect presenting as (sub)total absence of a segment between mesencephalon and lower brainstem. Rostro-caudal limits of the defect vary while the basal pons is always involved and the cerebellum is globally hypoplastic. A recent update and review[1] lists 14 cases, including 3 brain autopsy studies[1-3]. Necrosis and glial- or inflammatory reactions were absent. Inferior olivary nuclei were small or absent, pontine nuclei depleted, and the cerebellar dentate nuclei dysplastic...
November 25, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886132/the-future-is-the-past-methylation-qtls-in-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Anke Hoffmann, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have remarkably advanced insight into the genetic basis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Still, most of the functional variance in disease risk remains unexplained. Hence, there is a growing need to map genetic variability-to-genes-to-functions for understanding the pathophysiology of SCZ and the development of better treatments. Genetic variation can regulate various cellular functions including DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark with important roles in transcription and the mediation of environmental influences...
November 24, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885428/normative-biometry-of-the-fetal-brain-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Vanessa Kyriakopoulou, Deniz Vatansever, Alice Davidson, Prachi Patkee, Samia Elkommos, Andrew Chew, Miriam Martinez-Biarge, Bibbi Hagberg, Mellisa Damodaram, Joanna Allsop, Matt Fox, Joseph V Hajnal, Mary A Rutherford
The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study...
November 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884404/exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-thyroid-function-in-pregnant-women-and-children-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiologic-studies
#9
REVIEW
Virginia Ballesteros, Olga Costa, Carmen Iñiguez, Tony Fletcher, Ferran Ballester, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones (THs) are especially important for brain maturation and development during the fetal period and childhood. Several epidemiological studies have assessed the possible association between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and thyroid outcomes during the early stages of life. We aimed to review this evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in compliance with the PRISMA Statement (search conducted in PubMed and Embase, as well as in the citations of the selected articles)...
November 21, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881927/appearance-of-fetal-pain-could-be-associated-with-maturation-of-the-mesodiencephalic-structures
#10
REVIEW
Slobodan Sekulic, Ksenija Gebauer-Bukurov, Milan Cvijanovic, Aleksandar Kopitovic, Djordje Ilic, Djordje Petrovic, Ivan Capo, Ivana Pericin-Starcevic, Oliver Christ, Anastasia Topalidou
Fetal pain remains a controversial subject both in terms of recognizing its existence and the time-frame within which it appears. This article investigates the hypothesis that pain perception during development is not related to any determined structures of the central nervous system (CNS), on the contrary, the process of perception could be made with any structure satisfying conditions that the perception of pain is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876396/anatomical-animal-and-cellular-evidence-for-zika-induced-pathogenesis-of-fetal-microcephaly
#11
REVIEW
Jing-Zhang Wang, Xin-Hua Guo, Dian-Guo Xu
Several recent articles published by Brain and Development in 2016 demonstrated some rare, but innovative, genetic mechanisms for microcephaly. This concise mini-review presented another novel pathogenic mechanism for microcephaly, which has actually been a worldwide medical challenge since the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) as an International Public Health Emergency on 1 Feb, 2016. As a recent noteworthy clinical phenomenon, the ZIKV outbreak was accompanied by a dramatically increased number of microcephalus fetuses...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875671/immune-mediated-brain-pathology-from-autoantibodies-to-microglia
#12
Jacquelyn Nestor, Adriana Gata-Garcia, Yoshiyuki Arinuma, Yuichiro Fujieda, Czeslawa Kowal, Betty Diamond
Cells and molecules of the immune system contribute to brain pathology as well as to brain homeostasis. We suggest that there are numerous anti-brain antibodies that can cause acute neuronal dysfunction if they penetrate brain parenchyma. Many of these acute immune-mediated insults may alter the homeostatic mechanisms in the brain and initiate pathologic events that no longer depend on the presence of the inciting antibody, but rather on microglial cell activation. This paradigm, if correct, suggests that there may be two potential moments of therapeutic intervention...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863079/prevalence-and-pattern-of-executive-dysfunction-in-school-age-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#13
Jacqueline H Sanz, Madison M Berl, Anna C Armour, Jichuan Wang, Yao I Cheng, Mary T Donofrio
OBJECTIVE: Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. DESIGN: Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire...
November 11, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862605/neonatal-neural-networks-predict-children-behavioral-profiles-later-in-life
#14
Chong-Yaw Wee, Ta Anh Tuan, Birit F P Broekman, Min Yee Ong, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Lynette Shek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
This study aimed to examine heterogeneity of neonatal brain network and its prediction to child behaviors at 24 and 48 months of age. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was employed to construct brain anatomical network for 120 neonates. Clustering coefficients of individual structures were computed and used to classify neonates with similar brain anatomical networks into one group. Internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were assessed using maternal reports of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 24 and 48 months of age...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862351/p2y12-receptor-is-expressed-on-human-microglia-under-physiological-conditions-throughout-development-and-is-sensitive-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#15
Alexander Mildner, Hao Huang, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Josef Priller
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y12 in human brain tissue. Compared to classical markers used to identify microglia such as Iba1, CD68 or MHCII, we found that P2Y12 is expressed on parenchymal microglia but is absent from perivascular or meningeal macrophages...
November 12, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862146/maternal-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-is-inversely-correlated-with-fetal-serotonin
#16
Padma Murthi, Miranda Davies-Tuck, Martha Lappas, Harmeet Singh, Joanne Mockler, Rahana Rahman, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw, James Doery, Euan M Wallace, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVE: Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to impaired neurocognitive development in childhood. The mechanism by which vitamin D affects childhood neurocognition is unclear but may be via interactions with serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in fetal brain development. In this study we aimed to explore associations between maternal and fetal vitamin D concentrations, and fetal serotonin concentrations at term. STUDY DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25-hydroxyitamin D (25(OH)D, nmol/L) and serotonin (5-HT, nmol/L) concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from mother-infant pairs (n=64)...
November 12, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#17
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 11, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856275/rnaseq-profiling-of-primary-microglia-and-astrocyte-cultures-in-near-term-ovine-fetus-a-glial-in-vivo-in-vitro-multi-hit-paradigm-in-large-mammalian-brain
#18
M Cortes, M Cao, H L Liu, P Burns, C Moore, G Fecteau, A Desrochers, L B Barreiro, J P Antel, M G Frasch
BACKGROUND: The chronically instrumented fetal sheep is a widely used animal model to study fetal brain development in health and disease, but no methods exist yet to interrogate dedicated brain cell populations to identify their molecular and genomic phenotype. For example, the molecular mechanisms whereby microglia or astrocytes contribute to inflammation in the brain remain incompletely understood. NEW METHOD: Here we present a protocol to derive primary pure microglial or astrocyte cultures from near-term fetal sheep brain, after the animals have been chronically instrumented and studied in vivo...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830782/evolution-of-osteocrin-as-an-activity-regulated-factor-in-the-primate-brain
#19
Bulent Ataman, Gabriella L Boulting, David A Harmin, Marty G Yang, Mollie Baker-Salisbury, Ee-Lynn Yap, Athar N Malik, Kevin Mei, Alex A Rubin, Ivo Spiegel, Ershela Durresi, Nikhil Sharma, Linda S Hu, Mihovil Pletikos, Eric C Griffith, Jennifer N Partlow, Christine R Stevens, Mazhar Adli, Maria Chahrour, Nenad Sestan, Christopher A Walsh, Vladimir K Berezovskii, Margaret S Livingstone, Michael E Greenberg
Sensory stimuli drive the maturation and function of the mammalian nervous system in part through the activation of gene expression networks that regulate synapse development and plasticity. These networks have primarily been studied in mice, and it is not known whether there are species- or clade-specific activity-regulated genes that control features of brain development and function. Here we use transcriptional profiling of human fetal brain cultures to identify an activity-dependent secreted factor, Osteocrin (OSTN), that is induced by membrane depolarization of human but not mouse neurons...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829499/botallo-s-error-or-the-quandaries-of-the-universality-assumption
#20
REVIEW
Paolo Bartolomeo, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Stefania de Vito
One of the founding principles of human cognitive neuroscience is the so-called universality assumption, the postulate that neurocognitive mechanisms do not show major differences among individuals. Without negating the importance of the universality assumption for the development of cognitive neuroscience, or the importance of single-case studies, here we aim at stressing the potential dangers of interpreting the pattern of performance of single patients as conclusive evidence concerning the architecture of the intact neurocognitive system...
October 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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