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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448128/hubs-in-the-human-fetal-brain-network
#1
Marion I van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#2
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437173/human-brain-organoid-on-a-chip-to-model-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#3
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435496/zika-virus-alters-dna-methylation-of-neural-genes-in-an-organoid-model-of-the-developing-human-brain
#4
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421625/microglia-the-missing-link-in-maternal-immune-activation-and-fetal-neurodevelopment-and-a-possible-link-in-preeclampsia-and-disturbed-neurodevelopment
#5
Jelmer R Prins, Sharon Eskandar, Bart J L Eggen, Sicco A Scherjon
Disturbances in fetal neurodevelopment have extensively been related to neurodevelopmental disorders in early and later life. Fetal neurodevelopment is dependent on adequate functioning of the fetal immune system. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged to both tolerate the semi-allogenic fetus and to protect the mother and fetus from microbes. The fetal immune system is influenced by maternal immune disturbances; therefore, perturbations in maternal immunity likely do not only alter pregnancy outcome but also alter fetal neurodevelopment...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416874/optimization-of-commercially-available-zika-virus-antibodies-for-use-in-a-laboratory-developed-immunohistochemical-assay
#6
Brigid C Bollweg, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Pamela Spivey, Gillian L Hale
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause adverse fetal outcomes and severe irreversible congenital birth defects including microcephaly. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting ZIKV antigens in tissues from cases of fetal loss in women infected with ZIKV, and for providing insights into disease pathogenesis. As a result, there is increasing demand for commercially available ZIKV antibodies for use in IHC assays. ZIKV antibodies were selected and obtained from commercial sources to include both mouse and rabbit hosts, and a variety of antigenic targets...
January 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413892/mechanisms-of-cortical-differentiation
#7
Lata Adnani, Sisu Han, Saiqun Li, Pierre Mattar, Carol Schuurmans
During fetal and postnatal development, the human brain generates 160 billion neuronal and glial cells, each with precise cellular phenotypes. To effectively manage such a complicated task, intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors) and extrinsic (environmental signals) cues cooperate to regulate the decision by neural progenitors to continue to proliferate or to differentiate. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in the mouse brain have been instrumental in identifying these cues, leading to a fairly well-developed and well-integrated model of neocortical development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407514/prenatal-stress-and-genetic-risk-how-prenatal-stress-interacts-with-genetics-to-alter-risk-for-psychiatric-illness
#8
REVIEW
Parker W Abbott, Serena B Gumusoglu, Jada Bittle, David Q Beversdorf, Hanna E Stevens
Risk for neuropsychiatric disorders is complex and includes an individual's internal genetic endowment and their environmental experiences and exposures. Embryonic development captures a particularly complex period, in which genetic and environmental factors can interact to contribute to risk. These environmental factors are incorporated differently into the embryonic brain than postnatal one. Here, we comprehensively review the human and animal model literature for studies that assess the interaction between genetic risks and one particular environmental exposure with strong and complex associations with neuropsychiatric outcomes-prenatal maternal stress...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405294/development-of-on-and-off-cholinergic-amacrine-cells-in-the-human-fetal-retina
#9
Chi Zhang, Wan-Qing Yu, Akina Hoshino, Jing Huang, Fred Rieke, Thomas A Reh, Rachel O L Wong
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expressing retinal amacrine cells are present across vertebrates. These interneurons play important roles in the development of retinal projections to the brain and in motion detection, specifically in generating direction-selective responses to moving stimuli. ChAT amacrine cells typically comprise two spatially segregated populations that form circuits in the 'ON' or 'OFF' synaptic layers of the inner retina. This stereotypic arrangement is also found across the adult human retina, with the notable exception that ChAT expression is evident in the ON but not OFF layer of the fovea, a region specialized for high-acuity vision...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404423/host-virus-protein-interaction-network-reveals-the-involvement-of-multiple-host-processes-in-the-life-cycle-of-hepatitis-e-virus
#10
Chandru Subramani, Vidya P Nair, Saumya Anang, Sukhen Das Mandal, Madhu Pareek, Nidhi Kaushik, Akriti Srivastava, Sudipto Saha, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, C T Ranjith-Kumar, Milan Surjit
Comprehensive knowledge of host-pathogen interactions is central to understand the life cycle of a pathogen and devise specific therapeutic strategies. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are key mediators of host-pathogen interactions. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Recent reports also demonstrate its extrahepatic manifestations in the brain. Toward understanding the molecular details of HEV life cycle, we screened human liver and fetal brain cDNA libraries to identify the host interaction partners of proteins encoded by genotype 1 HEV and constructed the virus-host PPI network...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400413/pregnancy-and-delivery-outcomes-from-patients-with-repaired-anomalous-origin-of-the-left-coronary-artery-from-the-pulmonary-artery
#11
Miki Kanoh, Kei Inai, Tokuko Shinohara, Eriko Shimada, Mikiko Shimizu, Hirofumi Tomimatsu, Masaki Ogawa, Toshio Nakanishi
AIM: We investigated the clinical courses before and during pregnancy and after delivery in patients with repaired anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery to determine the impact of the hemodynamic changes and cardiac function on the selection of the appropriate mode of delivery. METHODS: Six patients who underwent coronary artery reimplantation delivered 10 infants. We scrutinized the patients' hemodynamic changes on echocardiographs and the plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels before and during pregnancy and after delivery, the perinatal outcomes and maternal and fetal events...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396929/is-less-noise-light-and-parental-caregiver-stress-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-better-for-neonates
#12
Rohini Venkataraman, Majeeda Kamaluddeen, Harish Amin, Abhay Lodha
In utero sensory stimuli and interaction with the environment strongly influence early phases of fetal and infant development. Extremely premature infants are subjected to noxious procedures and routine monitoring, in addition to exposure to excessive light and noise, which disturb the natural sleep cycle and induce stress. Non-invasive ventilation, measures to prevent sepsis, and human milk feeding improve short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. To preserve brain function, and to improve quality of life and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, the focus now is on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment and its impact on the infant during hospital stay...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394471/folate-receptor-autoantibodies-are-prevalent-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-their-normal-siblings-and-parents
#13
Edward V Quadros, Jeffrey M Sequeira, W Ted Brown, Clifford Mevs, Elaine Marchi, Michael Flory, Edmund C Jenkins, Milen T Velinov, Ira L Cohen
Folate deficiency can affect fetal and neonatal brain development Considering the reported association of Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies (Abs) with autism and developmental disorders, we sought to confirm this in families of 82 children with ASD, 53 unaffected siblings, 65 fathers, and 70 mothers, along with 52 unrelated normal controls. Overall, 76% of the affected children, 75% of the unaffected siblings, 69% of fathers and 59% of mothers were positive for either blocking or binding Ab, whereas the prevalence of this Ab in the normal controls was 29%...
February 2, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386359/zika-virus-related-neurotropic-flaviviruses-infect-human-placental-explants-and-cause-fetal-demise-in-mice
#14
Derek J Platt, Amber M Smith, Nitin Arora, Michael S Diamond, Carolyn B Coyne, Jonathan J Miner
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. We hypothesized that ZIKV is not unique among arboviruses in its ability to cause congenital infection. To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice...
January 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384327/differences-in-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-between-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-normal-and-low-ferritin
#15
Yusrawati, Gustuti Rina, Lipoeto Nur Indrawati, Rizanda Machmud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 term pregnant women with normal ferritin (>=12 ng/mL) and 20 term pregnant women with low ferritin (<12 ng/mL)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383333/embryonic-exposure-to-dexamethasone-affects-nonneuronal-cells-in-the-adult-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#16
Krystle A Frahm, Robert J Handa, Stuart A Tobet
Neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) integrate peripheral signals and coordinate responses that maintain numerous homeostatic functions. An excess of glucocorticoids during fetal development results in long-lasting consequences tied to disrupted PVN development. The PVN contains a distinct neuronal population and a threefold greater vascular density than the surrounding brain regions that prepubertally is reduced in offspring exposed to excess glucocorticoids in utero. This study expands the examination of sex-specific nonneuronal PVN composition by examining astrocytes, astrocytic endfeet, and pericytes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381626/the-measurement-of-various-anatomical-structures-and-assessment-of-morphometric-development-of-fetal-skull-base
#17
Vural Hamzaoglu, Mustafa Aktekin, Onur Ismi, Hakan Ozalp, Dilan Karşiyaka, Fuat Cem Baskan, Yusuf Vayisoglu, Rabia Bozdogan Arpaci, Filiz Cayan, Can Mehmet Eti, Emine Ecem Cakir, Perihan Gocer, Merve Turkegun, Arzu Kanik, Celal Bagdatoglu, Derya Umit Talas
BACKGROUND: As the skull base has a complex anatomy, we underline the importance of anomalies for side asymmetry. It is useful to investigate relationship between anatomical structures for the surgical procedure orientations. Dural adherence, enlarged superior petrosal sinus, influence of neural crest cells, and cranial base ossification are among the factors in morphometric growth on skull base. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five fetuses of an estimated gestational age ranging from 17 to 34 weeks were studied in the Anatomy Laboratory of Mersin University Medical Faculty...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381081/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-the-placenta-related-to-infant-neurodevelopment
#18
Barry M Lester, Carmen J Marsit
As the 'third brain' the placenta links the developing fetal brain and the maternal brain enabling study of epigenetic process in placental genes that affect infant neurodevelopment. We described the characteristics and findings of the 17 studies on epigenetic processes in placental genes and human infant neurobehavior. Studies showed consistent findings in the same cohort of term healthy infants across epigenetic processes (DNA methylation, genome wide, gene and miRNA expression) genomic region (single and multiple genes, imprinted genes and miRNAs) using candidate gene and genome wide approaches and across biobehavioral systems (neurobehavior, cry acoustics and neuroendocrine)...
January 30, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380544/folate-action-in-nervous-system-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Olga A Balashova, Olesya Visina, Laura N Borodinsky
The vitamin folic acid has been recognized as a crucial environmental factor for nervous system development. From the early fetal stages of the formation of the presumptive spinal cord and brain to the maturation and maintenance of the nervous system during infancy and childhood, folate levels and its supplementation have been considered influential in the clinical outcome of infants and children affected by neurological diseases. Despite the vast epidemiological information recorded on folate function and neural tube defects, neural development and neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms of folate action in the developing neural tissue have remained elusive...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377458/maternal-thyroid-hormone-is-required-for-parvalbumin-neuron-development-in-the-anterior-hypothalamic-area
#20
Lisbeth Harder, Susi Dudazy-Gralla, Helge Müller-Fielitz, Jens Hjerling Leffler, Björn Vennström, Heike Heuer, Jens Mittag
Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial for brain development and function. This becomes most evident in untreated congenital hypothyroidism, leading to irreversible mental retardation. Likewise, maternal hypothyroxinemia, a lack of TH during pregnancy, is associated with neurological dysfunction in the offspring such as autism and reduced intellectual capacity. In the brain, TH acts mainly through TH receptor alpha 1 (TRα1). Consequently, mice heterozygous for a dominant-negative mutation in TRα1 display profound neuroanatomical abnormalities including deranged development of parvalbumin neurons...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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