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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674194/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-born-from-gestations-complicated-by-preeclampsia-a-pilot-study-cohort
#1
Lauren E Mak, B Anne Croy, Vanessa Kay, James N Reynolds, Matthew T Rätsep, Nils D Forkert, Graeme N Smith, Angelina Paolozza, Patrick W Stroman, Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho
BACKGROUND: Individuals (PE-F1s) born from preeclampsia (PE)-complicated pregnancies have elevated risks for cognitive impairment. Intervals of disturbed maternal plasma angiokines precede clinical signs of PE. We hypothesized pan-blastocyst dysregulation of angiokines underlies altered PE-F1 brain vascular and neurological development. This could alter brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns at rest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI datasets of ten, matched child pairs (5 boys and 5 girls aged 7-10 years of age) from PE or control pregnancies were available for study...
February 7, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#2
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666582/a-novel-approach-to-primary-cell-culture-for-octopus-vulgaris-neurons
#3
Valeria Maselli, Fenglian Xu, Naweed I Syed, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Octopus vulgaris is a unique model system for studying complex behaviors in animals. It has a large and centralized nervous system made up of lobes that are involved in controlling various sophisticated behaviors. As such, it may be considered as a model organism for untangling the neuronal mechanisms underlying behaviors-including learning and memory. However, despite considerable efforts, Octopus lags behind its other counterparts vis-à-vis its utility in deciphering the cellular, molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying various behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665469/total-mercury-exposure-in-early-pregnancy-has-no-adverse-association-with-scholastic-ability-of-the-offspring-particularly-if-the-mother-eats-fish
#4
Joseph Hibbeln, Steven Gregory, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Caroline M Taylor, Alan Emond, Jean Golding
There is a public perception that relatively low doses of mercury found in seafood are harmful to the fetal brain but little consistent evidence to support this. In earlier publications we have shown no adverse associations between maternal total blood mercury levels and child behaviour, early development or cognitive function as measured by IQ. However, for IQ the lack of adverse association was conditional upon the mother being a fish eater. In this paper we analyse further data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), this time examining whether prenatal exposure to total mercury is associated with the child's scholastic abilities in reading, spelling, phoneme awareness, mathematics and science; the number of participants with prenatal mercury and relevant test results varied from 1500 to 2200...
April 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660440/the-long-term-effect-of-maternal-dietary-protein-restriction-on-5-ht-1a-receptor-function-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress-in-adulthood
#5
Wenrui Ye, Michael Duffy Pitlock, Martin A Javors, Brent Thompson, James D Lechleiter, Julie G Hensler
Maternal nutrition impacts fetal development, and may play a role in determining resilience to stress and vulnerability to stress-precipitated psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of a reduction in maternal dietary protein during pregnancy on the brain neurochemistry and behavior of offspring. We focused specifically on the serotonin system, the 5-HT1A receptor and the responsivity of offspring as adults to stress. Dams were fed either a low protein diet (10% protein by weight) or isocaloric control diet (20% protein by weight)...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643159/role-of-iodine-containing-multivitamins-during-pregnancy-for-children-s-brain-function-protocol-of-an-ongoing-randomised-controlled-trial-the-swiddich-study
#7
Sofia Manousou, Birgitta Johansson, Anna Chmielewska, Janna Eriksson, Kerstin Gutefeldt, Carl-Johan Tornhage, Robert Eggertsen, Helge Malmgren, Lena Hulthen, Magnus Domellöf, Helena Nystrom Filipsson
INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for normal brain development. Moderate and severe fetal iodine deficiency results in substantial to serious developmental delay in children. Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, but evidence from randomised trials is lacking. The aim of the Swedish Iodine in Pregnancy and Development in Children study is to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 150 µg iodine during pregnancy on the offspring's neuropsychological development up to 14 years of age...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625208/development-of-the-human-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-a-morphometric-and-computerized-3d-reconstruction-study
#8
Katsuyuki Yamaguchi
INTRODUCTION: The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the major relay center of the visual pathway in humans. There are few quantitative data on the morphology of LGN in prenatal infants. In this study, using serial brain sections, the author investigated the morphology of this nucleus during the second half of fetal period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human brains were obtained at routine autopsy from preterm infants aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks. After fixation, the brain was embedded en bloc in celloidin and cut serially at 30 μm in the horizontal plane...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623043/developmental-ethanol-exposure-causes-reduced-feeding-and-reveals-a-critical-role-for-neuropeptide-f-in-survival
#9
Amanda Guevara, Hillary Gates, Brianna Urbina, Rachael French
Food intake is necessary for survival, and natural reward circuitry has evolved to help ensure that animals ingest sufficient food to maintain development, growth, and survival. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, co-opt the natural reward circuitry in the brain, and this is a major factor in the reinforcement of drug behaviors leading to addiction. At the junction of these two aspects of reward are alterations in feeding behavior due to alcohol consumption. In particular, developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) results in a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disorders collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621826/cognitive-functions-of-the-fetus
#10
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621184/the-flavonoid-isoquercitrin-precludes-initiation-of-zika-virus-infection-in-human-cells
#11
Arnaud Gaudry, Sandra Bos, Wildriss Viranaicken, Marjolaine Roche, Pascale Krejbich-Trotot, Gilles Gadea, Philippe Desprès, Chaker El-Kalamouni
The medical importance of Zika virus (ZIKV) was fully highlighted during the recent epidemics in South Pacific islands and Americas due to ZIKV association with severe damage to fetal brain development and neurological complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective compounds to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. Fruits and vegetables may be sources of compounds with medicinal properties. Flavonoids are one class of plant compounds that emerge as promising antiviral molecules against ZIKV...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618965/peptide-sharing-between-viruses-and-dlx-proteins-a-potential-cross-reactivity-pathway-to-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#12
Guglielmo Lucchese, Benjamin Stahl
The present study seeks to determine potential associations between viral infections and neuropsychiatric diseases. To address this issue, we investigated the peptide commonalities between viruses that have been related to psychiatric and neurological disorders-such as rubella, human immunodeficiency virus, and herpesviruses-and human distal-less homeobox (DLX) proteins expressed in developing brain-namely, DLX1, DLX2, DLX5, and DLX6. Peptide matching analyses revealed a high degree of pentapeptide sharing...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#13
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608426/identification-of-hub-genes-and-pathways-in-zika-virus-infection-using-rna-seq-data-a-network-based-computational-approach
#14
Rahul Brahma, Sanathoi Gurumayum, Leimarembi Devi Naorem, Mathavan Muthaiyan, Jeyakodi Gopal, Amouda Venkatesan
Zika virus (ZIKV), a single-strand RNA flavivirus, is transmitted primarily through Aedes aegypti. The recent outbreaks in America and unexpected association between ZIKV infection and birth defects have triggered the global attention. This vouches to understand the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection to develop effective drug therapy. A systems-level understanding of biological process affected by ZIKV infection in fetal brain sample led us to identify the candidate genes for pharmaceutical intervention and potential biomarkers for diagnosis...
April 2, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606355/fetal-neuropathology-in-zika-virus-infected-pregnant-female-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Amanda J Martinot, Peter Abbink, Onur Afacan, Anna K Prohl, Roderick Bronson, Jonathan L Hecht, Erica N Borducchi, Rafael A Larocca, Rebecca L Peterson, William Rinaldi, Melissa Ferguson, Peter J Didier, Deborah Weiss, Mark G Lewis, Rafael A De La Barrera, Edward Yang, Simon K Warfield, Dan H Barouch
The development of interventions to prevent congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) has been limited by the lack of an established nonhuman primate model. Here we show that infection of female rhesus monkeys early in pregnancy with Zika virus (ZIKV) recapitulates many features of CZS in humans. We infected 9 pregnant monkeys with ZIKV, 6 early in pregnancy (weeks 6-7 of gestation) and 3 later in pregnancy (weeks 12-14 of gestation), and compared findings with uninfected controls. 100% (6 of 6) of monkeys infected early in pregnancy exhibited prolonged maternal viremia and fetal neuropathology, including fetal loss, smaller brain size, and histopathologic brain lesions, including microcalcifications, hemorrhage, necrosis, vasculitis, gliosis, and apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
March 28, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606022/associations-between-neural-injury-markers-of-intrauterine-growth-restricted-infants-and-neurodevelopment-at-2-years-of-age
#16
E Mazarico, E Llurba, L Cabero, O Sánchez, A Valls, A Martin-Ancel, D Cardenas, M D Gómez Roig
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between brain injury biomarkers in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants (S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)) and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. METHODS: This prospective case-control study was a cooperative effort among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals. At inclusion, biometry for estimated fetal weight and feto-placental Doppler variables were measured for each infant...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601953/sulcal-pits-and-patterns-in-developing-human-brains
#17
REVIEW
Kiho Im, P Ellen Grant
Spatial distribution and specific geometric and topological patterning of early sulcal folds have been hypothesized to be under stronger genetic control and are more associated with optimal organization of cortical functional areas and their white matter connections, compared to later developing sulci. Several previous studies of sulcal pit (putative first sulcal fold) distribution and sulcal pattern analyses using graph structures have provided evidence of the importance of sulcal pits and patterns as remarkable anatomical features closely related to human brain function, suggesting additional insights concerning the anatomical and functional development of the human brain...
March 27, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594116/prevalence-of-igg-autoantibodies-against-gd3-ganglioside-in-acute-zika-virus-infection
#18
Dirlei Nico, Luciana Conde, Juan L Rivera-Correa, Andréia Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, Louise Mesentier-Louro, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Mônica Barcellos Arruda, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima, Orlando da Costa Ferreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Andrea Araújo Zin, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Rosalia Mendez Otero, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik-de-Sousa, Amilcar Tanuri, Adriane Regina Todeschini, Wilson Savino, Ana Rodriguez, Alexandre Morrot
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a global health emergency with devastating effects on public health. Recent evidences implicate the virus as an emergent neuropathological agent promoting serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that include destructive and malformation consequences such as development of ocular and fetal brain lesions, microcephaly in neonates, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. These neurological disorders of both central and peripheral nervous systems are thought to be associated to the neurotropic properties of the virus that has ability to infect neural stem cells as well as peripheral neurons, a hallmark of its pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593256/microencephaly-in-fetal-piglets-following-in-utero-inoculation-of-zika-virus
#19
P J Wichgers Schreur, L van Keulen, D Anjema, J Kant, J Kortekaas
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that became associated with microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults after its emergence in the Pacific and the Americas in 2015. Newly developed rodent and nonhuman primate models have already revealed important insights into ZIKV-induced neuropathology. Nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closely related to humans and are therefore preferred human surrogates in ZIKV research. However, the use of nonhuman primates, particularly during gestation, raises ethical issues...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593226/caffeine-augments-anesthesia-neurotoxicity-in-the-fetal-macaque-brain
#20
Kevin K Noguchi, Stephen A Johnson, Francesca M Manzella, Kobe L Masuoka, Sasha L Williams, Lauren D Martin, Gregory A Dissen, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Katie J Schenning, John W Olney, Ansgar M Brambrink
Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in premature infants. It is the respiratory stimulant of choice for apnea associated with prematurity and has been called the silver bullet in neonatology because of many proven benefits and few known risks. Research has revealed that sedative/anesthetic drugs trigger apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in developing mammalian brains. Here we evaluated the influence of caffeine on the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in developing nonhuman primate brains...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
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