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fetal development

Marta Florio, Michael Heide, Anneline Pinson, Holger Brandl, Mareike Albert, Sylke Winkler, Pauline Wimberger, Wieland B Huttner, Michael Hiller
Understanding the molecular basis that underlies the expansion of the neocortex during primate, and notably human, evolution requires the identification of genes that are particularly active in the neural stem and progenitor cells of the developing neocortex. Here, we have used existing transcriptome datasets to carry out a comprehensive screen for protein-coding genes preferentially expressed in progenitors of fetal human neocortex. We show that fifteen human-specific genes exhibit such expression, and many of them evolved distinct neural progenitor cell-type expression profiles and levels compared to their ancestral paralogs...
March 21, 2018: ELife
Melanie Laura Lawrence, James R Smith, Jamie Andrew Davies
The mesonephros of mammals is a transient renal structure that contributes to various aspects of mammalian fetal development including the male reproductive system, hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells. The mesonephros develops from the intermediate mesoderm and forms tubules that are segmented in a similar way to the nephrons of the permanent kidney (but lacking loops of Henle). Early studies have suggested that the mesonephros in marsupials and some placental mammals may perform an excretory function, but these studies have not directly shown active transport of organic anions and cations...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Joao N A Ferreira, Changyu Zheng, Isabelle M A Lombaert, Corinne M Goldsmith, Ana P Cotrim, Jennifer M Symonds, Vaishali N Patel, Matthew P Hoffman
Head and neck cancer patients treated with irradiation often present irreversible salivary gland hypofunction for which no conventional treatment exists. We recently showed that recombinant neurturin, a neurotrophic factor, improves epithelial regeneration of mouse salivary glands in ex vivo culture after irradiation by reducing apoptosis of parasympathetic neurons. Parasympathetic innervation is essential to maintain progenitor cells during gland development and for regeneration of adult glands. Here, we investigated whether a neurturin-expressing adenovirus could be used for gene therapy in vivo to protect parasympathetic neurons and prevent gland hypofunction after irradiation...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
M Vázquez-Gómez, C García-Contreras, L Torres-Rovira, S Astiz, C Óvilo, A González-Bulnes, B Isabel
Background: The aim of this study was to determine how maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and offspring birth-weight can affect the postnatal development of offspring under farm conditions, which may lead to consequences in its meat and carcass quality. The current study involved a total of 80 litters from Iberian sows fed a diet fulfilling daily requirements ( n  = 47; control) or providing 70% daily requirements ( n  = 33; underfed) from d 38 to d 90 of gestation when fetal tissue development begins...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Robert F Pass, Ravit Arav-Boger
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is a major cause of central nervous system and sensory impairments that affect cognition, motor function, hearing, language development, vestibular function, and vision. Although the importance of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is readily evident, the vast majority of maternal and fetal infections are not identified, even in developed countries. Multiple studies of prenatal cytomegalovirus infections have produced a body of knowledge that can inform the clinical approach to suspected or proven maternal and fetal infection...
2018: F1000Research
Robin Cloarec, Sylvian Bauer, Natacha Teissier, Fabienne Schaller, Hervé Luche, Sandra Courtens, Manal Salmi, Vanessa Pauly, Emilie Bois, Emilie Pallesi-Pocachard, Emmanuelle Buhler, François J Michel, Pierre Gressens, Marie Malissen, Thomas Stamminger, Daniel N Streblow, Nadine Bruneau, Pierre Szepetowski
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections represent one leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently, we reported on a rat model of CMV infection of the developing brain in utero , characterized by early and prominent infection and alteration of microglia-the brain-resident mononuclear phagocytes. Besides their canonical function against pathogens, microglia are also pivotal to brain development. Here we show that CMV infection of the rat fetal brain recapitulated key postnatal phenotypes of human congenital CMV including increased mortality, sensorimotor impairment reminiscent of cerebral palsy, hearing defects, and epileptic seizures...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Katarzyna Kosinska-Kaczynska, Michal Lipa, Iwona Szymusik, Dorota Bomba-Opon, Robert Brawura-Biskupski-Samaha, Szymon Kozlowski, Lisanne S A Tollenaar, Dick Oepkes, Miroslaw Wielgos, Enrico Lopriore
We present the first case of a monochorionic twin pregnancy in which sudden hematologic changes occurred as a complication of the amnioreduction procedure for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). At 33 weeks of gestation, 4 days after the amnioreduction, the recipient developed severe anemia while the donor developed severe polycythemia. Postnatal placental examination revealed several arteriovenous and venoarterial anastomoses, a pale placental mass of the recipient and a congested and plethoric placental mass of the donor...
March 20, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
An Eerdekens, Lies Langouche, Fabian Güiza, Johan Verhaeghe, Gunnar Naulaers, Christine Vanhole, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, maternal thyroid hormone supply is crucial for fetal development. Preterm infants often present with hypothyroxinemia. Preterm birth, either spontaneous or medically indicated, is always the result of a complicated pregnancy. We hypothesized that in preterm birth, the maternal transplacental thyroid hormone supply is influenced by the pregnancy complication and we questioned whether maternal and placental compensatory mechanisms are activated to increase thyroid hormone transfer...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Zeyan Liew, Houman Goudarzi, Youssef Oulhote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and summarized the epidemiological evidence for the influence that pre- and postnatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may have on health outcomes in offspring, with a particular focus on birth outcomes and postnatal growth, immunomodulatory effects and neurodevelopment. RECENT FINDINGS: PFASs are persistent organic pollutants that have been widely produced and used in a range of commercial products since the 1950s. Human exposures to PFASs are nearly ubiquitous globally, but studies that addressed potential health effects of PFASs have only begun to accumulate in recent years...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Magalie S Leduc, Marianne Mcguire, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Damara Ortiz, Susan Hayflick, Kory Keller, Christine M Eng, Yaping Yang, Weimin Bi
PRR12 encodes a proline-rich protein nuclear factor suspected to be involved in neural development. Its nuclear expression in fetal brains and in the vision system supports its role in brain and eye development more specifically. However, its function and potential role in human disease has not been determined. Recently, a de novo t(10;19) (q22.3;q13.33) translocation disrupting the PRR12 gene was detected in a girl with intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric alterations. Here we report on three unrelated patients with heterozygous de novo apparent loss-of-function mutations in PRR12 detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c...
March 19, 2018: Human Genetics
Liping Luo, Wanxiang Jiang, Hui Liu, Jicheng Bu, Ping Tang, Chongyangzi Du, Zhipeng Xu, Hairong Luo, Bilian Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu
The growth receptor binding protein Grb10 is an imprinted gene product and a key negative regulator of the insulin, IGF1 and mTORC1 signaling pathways. Grb10 is highly expressed in mouse fetal liver but almost completely silenced in adult mice, suggesting a potential detrimental role of this protein in adult liver function. Here we show that the grb10 gene could be reactivated in adult mouse liver by acute endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) such as tunicamycin or a short-term high fat diet (HFD) challenge, concurrently with increased unfolded protein response (UPR) and hepatosteatosis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Christina M Ferrer, Marielle Alders, Alex V Postma, Seonmi Park, Mark A Klein, Murat Cetinbas, Eva Pajkrt, Astrid Glas, Silvana van Koningsbruggen, Vincent M Christoffels, Marcel M A M Mannens, Lia Knegt, Jean-Pierre Etchegaray, Ruslan I Sadreyev, John M Denu, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Merel C van Maarle, Raul Mostoslavsky
It has been well established that histone and DNA modifications are critical to maintaining the equilibrium between pluripotency and differentiation during early embryogenesis. Mutations in key regulators of DNA methylation have shown that the balance between gene regulation and function is critical during neural development in early years of life. However, there have been no identified cases linking epigenetic regulators to aberrant human development and fetal demise. Here, we demonstrate that a homozygous inactivating mutation in the histone deacetylase SIRT6 results in severe congenital anomalies and perinatal lethality in four affected fetuses...
March 19, 2018: Genes & Development
Ming Hu, Zhenhui Zhang, Bin Liu, Shuangwei Zhang, Renjie Chai, Xiaohua Chen, Tianyu Kong, Fangcheng Zhang, Jingzhi Zhang, Shiming Liu, Ningning Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major outcome and compensatory response of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic and additional stress responses that ultimately lead to heart failure. Auranofin (Aur) has been used for treating rheumatic arthritis for several decades. Aur is a 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase inhibitor, and inhibition of the proteasome is speculated to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of the deubiquitinases, especially 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, in the regulation of cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Juliana Miron Vani, Maria Tereza Ferreira Duenhas Monreal, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Eduardo José de Arruda, Alessandra Ramos Lima, Cicera Maria da Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Dênis Pires de Lima, Adilson Beatriz, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice...
2018: PloS One
Chitra Andrew, Teena Koshy, Shivani Gopal, Solomon Franklin Durairaj Paul
This is a retrospective analysis of the patient demographics and cytogenetic results of patients who underwent prenatal invasive testing for genetic analysis at the Foetal Medicine Division of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. The main objective of this study was to characterise the changing trends in indications of pregnant women for foetal karyotyping in a 7-year period. A total of 257 procedures were performed in this period, and there was a significant change in the trend of indications for invasive prenatal diagnosis from an advanced maternal age in 2009 to a positive screen test by 2014...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jeng-Chang Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou, Cheng-Chi Chan, Ming-Ling Kuo, Li-Yun Tseng, Hsueh-Ling Chang
According to actively acquired tolerance, antigen exposure before full immune development in fetal or early neonatal life will cause tolerance to this specific antigen. In this study, we aimed to examine whether allogeneic tolerance could be elicited by in utero exposure to surface MHC antigens of allogenic cells or soluble form of MHC exosomes. Gestational day 14 FVB/N fetuses were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exosomes or highly enriched B-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaoshan Yu, Bin Zhao, Yanhua Su, Yan Zhang, Jianghui Chen, Wenhui Wu, Qijun Cheng, Xiaorong Guo, Zeyu Zhao, Xiayi Ke, Wangmu Danzeng, Benhua Zhao, Qilin Ma
AIMS: To investigate whether intrauterine organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure could lead to epigenetic alterations by DNA methylation with possible important lifetime health consequences for offspring. MAIN METHODS: We used Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip to explore the pattern of genome-wide DNA methylation containing >485,000 gene sites in cord blood of 24 subjects in a 12 mother-newborn pairs birth cohort...
March 15, 2018: Life Sciences
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Margaret B Menzel, Anne K Lawrence, Eva I Rubio, Dorothy I Bulas
Fetal medicine programs within children's hospitals have been developed to ensure access to pediatric specialists across multiple disciplines. The cases that present to these programs are usually complex and require involvement of a multidisciplinary care team. Although some providers on the team limit their focus to their pediatric specialty when counseling patients, the radiologist and genetic counselor have a distinct perspective allowing them to take the larger picture into account in the evaluation of the fetus...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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