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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538189/evaluation-of-methods-to-sample-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-foreshore-sand-and-pore-water-at-freshwater-beaches
#1
Laura J Vogel, Thomas A Edge, Denis M O'Carroll, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Caitlin S E Kushnir, Clare E Robinson
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are known to accumulate in foreshore beach sand and pore water (referred to as foreshore reservoir) where they act as a non-point source for contaminating adjacent surface waters. While guidelines exist for sampling surface waters at recreational beaches, there is no widely-accepted method to collect sand/sediment or pore water samples for FIB enumeration. The effect of different sampling strategies in quantifying the abundance of FIB in the foreshore reservoir is unclear. Sampling was conducted at six freshwater beaches with different sand types to evaluate sampling methods for characterizing the abundance of E...
May 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528642/minimal-resin-embedding-of-multicellular-specimens-for-targeted-fib-sem-imaging
#2
Nicole L Schieber, Pedro Machado, Sebastian M Markert, Christian Stigloher, Yannick Schwab, Anna M Steyer
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524028/-efficacy-of-20-albumin-infusion-on-coagulation-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rabbits-with-ards
#3
Ling Yao, Bo Liu, Feng Shen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of 20% albumin infusion on coagulation and pulmonary fibrosis in rabbits with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by two-hit of intravenous infusion of oleid acid (OA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Forty healthy adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, namely sham group, model group, albumin group (20% albumin), saline group (0.9% sodium chloride injection) and Ringer group (lactate Ringer solution), with 8 rabbits in each group...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514753/impact-of-age-on-the-diagnostic-performances-and-cut-offs-of-apri-and-fib-4-for-significant-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#4
Qiang Li, Chuan Lu, Weixia Li, Yuxian Huang, Liang Chen
AIMS: Assessing the diagnostic performances of APRI and FIB-4 using age as a categorical marker. METHODS: 822 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were included. Using METAVIR scoring system as a reference, the performances of APRI and FIB-4 were compared between patients aged≥30 and patients aged<30 years. RESULTS: The APRI AUROC in patients aged<30 years was lower than that in patients aged≥30 years for significant fibrosis (0.61 vs 0...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504417/laser-preparation-of-geometrically-optimised-samples-for-x-ray-nano-ct
#5
J J Bailey, T M M Heenan, D P Finegan, X Lu, S R Daemi, F Iacoviello, N R Backeberg, O O Taiwo, D J L Brett, A Atkinson, P R Shearing
A robust and versatile sample preparation technique for the fabrication of cylindrical pillars for imaging by X-ray nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is presented. The procedure employs simple, cost-effective laser micro-machining coupled with focused-ion beam (FIB) milling, when required, to yield mechanically robust samples at the micrometre length-scale to match the field-of-view (FOV) for nano-CT imaging. A variety of energy and geological materials are exhibited as case studies, demonstrating the procedure can be applied to a variety of materials to provide geometrically optimised samples whose size and shape are tailored to the attenuation coefficients of the constituent phases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504292/microstructure-degradation-of-ni-cgo-anodes-for-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-after-long-operation-time-using-3d-reconstructions-by-fib-tomography
#6
Atef Zekri, Martin Knipper, Jürgen Parisi, Thorsten Plaggenborg
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices, which essentially consist of two porous electrodes separated by a dense, oxide ion conducting electrolyte. The performance and the durability of SOFCs strongly depend on the electrode microstructure. In this paper, the impact of a relatively long exposure time (up to 20 000 h) under realistic operation terms (temperature (T) = 850 °C, current density (J) = 190-250 mA cm(-2)) in the kinetics of microstructural degradation are investigated for porous nickel (Ni)/ceria gadolinium oxide (CGO) anodes, to understand the microstructural evolution in SOFC cermet anodes...
May 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502670/direct-quantification-of-dual-protein-adsorption-dynamics-in-three-dimensional-systems-in-presence-of-cells
#7
Melika Sarem, Daniel Vonwil, Steffen Lüdeke, V Prasad Shastri
Understanding the composition of the adsorbed protein layer on a biomaterial surface is of an extreme importance as it directs the primary biological response. Direct detection using labeled proteins and indirect detection based on enzymatic assays or changes to mass, refractive index or density of a surface have been so far established. Nevertheless, using current methodologies, detection of multiple proteins simultaneously and particularly in a three-dimensional (3D) substrates is challenging, with the exception of radiolabeling...
May 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499405/a-comparative-molecular-and-3-dimensional-structural-investigation-into-cross-continental-and-novel-avian-trypanosoma-spp-in-australia
#8
Crystal Cooper, R C Andrew Thompson, Adriana Botero, Amanda Kristancic, Christopher Peacock, Yaowanuj Kirilak, Peta L Clode
BACKGROUND: Molecular and structural information on avian Trypanosoma spp. throughout Australia is limited despite their intrinsic value in understanding trypanosomatid evolution, diversity, and structural biology. In Western Australia tissue samples (n = 429) extracted from 93 birds in 25 bird species were screened using generic PCR primers to investigate the diversity of Trypanosoma spp. To investigate avian trypanosome structural biology the first 3-dimensional ultrastructural models of a Trypanosoma spp...
May 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497593/polymorphism-of-receptor-type-tyrosine-protein-phosphatase-delta-gene-in-the-development-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Shunsuke Nakajima, Hiroki Tanaka, Koji Sawada, Hidemi Hayashi, Takumu Hasebe, Masami Abe, Chitomi Hasebe, Mikihiro Fujiya, Toshikatsu Okumura
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). As one of the genetic factors, PNPLA3 rs738409 (I148M) is important to associate with pathogenesis of NAFLD. Since other SNPs remain unclear in Japan, we performed high-throughput sequencing, which targeted more than 1,000 genes to identify a novel genetic variant in Japanese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: The present study in 36 NAFLD patients and 27 healthy volunteers (HVs) was performed...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487005/nitrogen-gas-field-ion-source-gfis-focused-ion-beam-fib-secondary-electron-imaging-a-first-look
#10
Marek E Schmidt, Anto Yasaka, Masashi Akabori, Hiroshi Mizuta
The recent technological advance of the gas field ion source (GFIS) and its successful integration into systems has renewed the interest in the focused ion beam (FIB) technology. Due to the atomically small source size and the use of light ions, the limitations of the liquid metal ion source are solved as device dimensions are pushed further towards the single-digit nanometer size. Helium and neon ions are the most widely used, but a large portfolio of available ion species is desirable, to allow a wide range of applications...
May 10, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485425/antithrombotic-effect-and-mechanism-of-rubus-spp-blackberry
#11
Pingyao Xie, Yong Zhang, Xuebiao Wang, Jinfeng Wei, Wenyi Kang
The compounds of Rubus spp. Blackberry (RSB) were isolated and identified by a bioassay-guided method, and their antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated with the acute blood stasis rat model. The RSB extract was evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) assays in vitro. Results indicated that RSB extract exhibited anticoagulant activity. In addition to compounds 1 and 6, the other compounds also exhibited anticoagulant activity in vitro...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484111/liver-fibrosis-after-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-sexually-infected-hiv-patients-in-eastern-china
#12
Qian Wei, Haijiang Lin, Yingying Ding, Xing Liu, Qionghai Wu, Weiwei Shen, Meiyang Gao, Na He
We assessed the factors that influenced improvement or progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving cART in Taizhou, Zhejiang, China, 2009-2015. Liver fibrosis was assessed by Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score. Improvement of liver fibrosis was defined as having > 30% decrease in FIB-4 from baseline, whereas progression of liver fibrosis was defined as having > 30% increase in FIB-4 score from baseline...
May 6, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482943/teaching-an-old-material-new-tricks-easy-and-inexpensive-focused-ion-beam-fib-sample-protection-using-conductive-polymers
#13
Joshua A Taillon, Valery Ray, Lourdes G Salamanca-Riba
This letter describes an innovative spin-coating system, built from off-the-shelf components, that can easily and inexpensively be integrated into any laboratory environment. Combined with a liquid suspension of conductive polymer, such a "rotary coater" enables simple coating of planar samples to create a physical protective barrier on the sample surface. This barrier aids in charge dissipation during scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and provides wide-scale protection of the sample surface from ion bombardment during FIB imaging and gas-assisted deposition...
May 9, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480856/comparative-study-of-fib-4-index-and-transient-elastography-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-georgia
#14
E Dolmazashvili, M Karchava, A Abutidze, L Sharvadze, T Tsertsvadze
Liver biopsy remains the reference standard for fibrosis staging. However, it has several limitations, which have led to the development of non-invasive methods. We evaluated liver fibrosis severity among HCV infected patients by comparing transient elastography (TE) and FIB-4 index. Retrospective study was conducted. Clinical data for 750 patients were obtained. The mean age of the study population was 51 years; 595 (79.3%) were male and 155 (20.7%) were female. TE and tests on biological samples were performed within one-week timeframe...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474763/three-dimensional-microstructure-characterisation-of-thermoplastic-polyolefin-blends
#15
J-C Lin, Y Huang, J Harris, B Weinlander, M A Jones
The size, shape and distribution of different phases in thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) blends and composites are critical to the properties of the materials, but can be difficult to characterise. Here we report the combination of heavy metal staining and focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to reveal the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an elastomer-modified poly(propylene) and a talc filled elastomer-modified poly(propylene). High-quality, high-resolution serial images were collected and the 3D structures were characterised quantitatively...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469811/factors-associated-with-success-of-telaprevir-and-boceprevir-based-triple-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#16
Kian Bichoupan, Neeta Tandon, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Neal M Patel, David Sachs, Michel Ng, Emily A Schonfeld, Alexis Pappas, James Crismale, Alicia Stivala, Viktoriya Khaitova, Donald Gardenier, Michael Linderman, William Olson, Ponni V Perumalswami, Thomas D Schiano, Joseph A Odin, Lawrence U Liu, Douglas T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch
AIM: To evaluate new therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV), data about real-world outcomes are needed. METHODS: Outcomes of 223 patients with genotype 1 HCV who started telaprevir- or boceprevir-based triple therapy (May 2011-March 2012) at the Mount Sinai Medical Center were analyzed. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and patients who received a liver transplant were excluded. Factors associated with sustained virological response (SVR24) and relapse were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression as well as classification and regression trees...
April 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465644/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-peripheral-blood-may-serve-as-a-biological-marker-to-predict-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#17
Xiao-Qin Ha, Yue-Juan Song, Hong-Bin Zhao, Wei-Wei Ta, Hong-Wei Gao, Qiang-Sheng Feng, Ju-Zi Dong, Zhi-Yun Deng, Hong-Yan Fan, Jun-Hua Peng, Zhi-Hua Yang, Yong Zhao
AIM: To investigate the significance of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in predicting severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: We recruited 71 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and excluded 11 of them; finally, cases of mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) (n = 30) and SAP (n = 30), and healthy volunteers (n = 20) were internalized to investigate levels of EPCs, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), fibrinogen (FIB) and white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood...
April 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464883/late-presentation-of-chronic-viral-hepatitis-for-medical-care-a-consensus-definition
#18
Stefan Mauss, Stanislas Pol, Maria Buti, Erika Duffell, Charles Gore, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Hilje Logtenberg-van der Grient, Jens Lundgren, Antons Mozalevskis, Dorthe Raben, Eberhard Schatz, Stefan Wiktor, Jürgen K Rockstroh
INTRODUCTION: We present two consensus definitions of advanced and late stage liver disease being used as epidemiological tools. These definitions can be applied to assess the morbidity caused by liver diseases in different health care systems. We focus is on hepatitis B and C virus infections, because effective and well tolerated treatments for both of these infections have greatly improved our ability to successfully treat and prevent advanced and late stage disease, especially if diagnosed early...
May 3, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462431/total-staphylococci-as-performance-surrogate-for-greywater-treatment
#19
David C Shoults, Nicholas J Ashbolt
Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci. However, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and E. coli and other FIB may grow within greywater unrelated to pathogens...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462070/ion-beam-profiling-from-the-interaction-with-a-freestanding-2d-layer
#20
Ivan Shorubalko, Kyoungjun Choi, Michael Stiefel, Hyung Gyu Park
Recent years have seen a great potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology for the nanometer-scale patterning of a freestanding two-dimensional (2D) layer. Experimentally determined sputtering yields of the perforation process can be quantitatively explained using the binary collision theory. The main peculiarity of the interaction between the ion beams and the suspended 2D material lies in the absence of collision cascades, featured by no interaction volume. Thus, the patterning resolution is directly set by the beam diameters...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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