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Bioethics legislation

Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, N Terrier, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To review epidemiologic data's and medical results of deceased donation in renal transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "brain death; cardiac arrest; deceased donation; organ procurement; transplantation". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
November 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Alexander Morgan Capron
The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
F A Rustamova, V G Mammadov, K M Munir
Azerbaijan is a country in which the law is based on democratic principles. The mentioned principles underlie the national health care law. Democratic values, such as respect for human rights and freedoms, human dignity, as well as universal bioethical principles that are widely implemented in the national law, create conditions for the implementation of the patient's rights. The basic law governing the doctor-patient relationship, Law on Protection of Health of Population in Azerbaijan, reflects the basic patients' rights and obligations of doctors and medical institutions...
2016: Bioetika
Omar Fernando Becerra Partida
This research will address loopholes in Mexico about surrogacy and the reluctance of legislators, and therefore being forgotten by Bioethics and Biolaw.
July 2015: Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano, Law and the Human Genome Review
Morten Magelssen, Magne Supphellen, Per Nortvedt, Lars Johan Materstvedt
BACKGROUND: Surveys on attitudes towards assisted dying play an important role in informing public debate, policy and legislation. Unfortunately, surveys are often designed with insufficient attention to framing effects; that is, effects on the respondents' stated attitudes caused by question wording and context. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and measure such framing effects. METHODS: Survey experiment in which an eight-question survey on attitudes towards assisted dying was distributed to Norwegian citizens through a web-based panel...
2016: BMC Medical Ethics
M Vialle, J Perrin, A Amar-Hoffet, P Boyer, B Courbiere
OBJECTIVES: To study the social dimension of age-related female infertility through an analysis of three key themes: the personal life histories of infertile women over 40 years of age; representations of age and the desire to become pregnant after age 40; opinions of French legislations framing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, age limits, egg donation, and egg freezing for non-medical reasons. METHODS: This qualitative sociological study was based on semi-structured interviews with infertile women over age 40 going through fertility treatments...
April 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Na-Kyoung Kim
This article explores the questions regarding PND and PID, especially the concrete legal conditions for the justification of PND and PID. As such, the German law stipulating PND and PID in a very concrete and detailed manner is introduced and explained in comparison with the corresponding South Korean law. The South Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act (BBA) stipulates various types of gene testing and does not demonstrate a delicate sense of each type of gene testing. In contrast to the South Korean regulation, in Germany, there exist specific regulations for genetic counseling...
June 2015: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Patricia Tortevoye, Antoine Gessain
The objective of this article is to describe the difficulties encountered, during the twenty last years, to obey the laws of bioethics in force during epidemiological investigations, carried out in French Guiana and in Cameroon. These research tasks aim to better understanding the transmission of two viruses: the human T lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 and the human herpes virus 8. These investigations, carried out in highly endemic villages, for one or two of these viruses, also aim at searching susceptibility genetic factors for infection in children by these viruses...
October 2015: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
Spyros D Mentzelopoulos, Leo Bossaert, Violetta Raffay, Helen Askitopoulou, Gavin D Perkins, Robert Greif, Kirstie Haywood, Patrick Van de Voorde, Theodoros Xanthos
BACKGROUND: Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries with legal, cultural, religious, and economic differences. A prior study suggested variation in ethical resuscitation/end-of-life practices across Europe. This study aimed to determine whether this variation has evolved, and whether the application of ethical practices is associated with emergency care organisation. METHODS: A questionnaire covering four domains of resuscitation ethics was developed based on consensus: (A) Approaches to end-of-life care and family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (B) Determinants of access to best resuscitation and post-resuscitation care; (C) Diagnosis of death and organ donation (D) Emergency care organisation...
March 2016: Resuscitation
Evridiki Papastavrou, Paraskevi Charitou, Christiana Kouta
BACKGROUND: Maintaining dignity is important for successful aging, but there is lack of validated research instruments in the nursing literature to investigate dignity as perceived by the old people. OBJECTIVE: This is a methodological study aiming to investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale as translated in the Greek language. RESEARCH DESIGN: A methodological approach consisting of translation, adaptation, and cross-cultural validation...
January 12, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Liliana Marcela Rogozea, Daniela Eugenia Diaconescu, Eleonora Antoaneta Dinu, Oana Badea, Daniela Popa, Oana Andreescu, Florin Gabriel Leaşu
PURPOSE: The study aims to present the main ethical dilemmas that research on animals raised for anyone involved in this process, starting from the idea that there are rights of animals to be known and respected. BACKGROUND: The evolution of medicine is inextricably linked to the production of new drugs, the occurrence of surgical techniques; none of these can be possible without the study of experimental animals, in vivo experimentation being part of the process of medical research...
2015: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
E V Ivchenko, V S Ivanov, S B Shustov
The authors identified problematic issues of legal regulation of clinical drug trials for medical use, and proposed possible solutions. It has been established that the conduction of clinical trials, of medicinal products is based on the norms of various branches of law embodied in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the norms of international law, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and federal laws and subordinate legislations regulating health and pharmaceutical activity. According to the authors, the norms of bioethics can be attributed to the sources of legal doctrine...
June 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Gabriela Irrazábal
This paper discusses from a sociological perspective one of Catholicism's fronts of public intervention in the development and enactment of health legislation. In particular we analyze the debate in parliamentary committees on the so-called "death with dignity" law (No. 26742), for which a group of bioethics experts was convened to counsel senators regarding the scope and limits of the law. The majority of the invited experts advocated a personalist bioethics perspective, which is a theological bioethics development of contemporary Catholicism...
September 2015: Salud Colectiva
G Ricci, P Delbon, A Conti, A Sirignano
This article analyzes the current situation of medically assisted reproduction in Italy after the promulgation of Law 40 in 2004. This law is actually completely different from the origin version. The controversial points like reproduction for couples who bear genetic diseases, prohibition of heterologous fertilization, cryoconservation of the embryos, obligation to perform just one and contemporaneous implant of all the embryos produced, are today definitively erased. This new situation is due to the jurisprudence of the Italian Courts but especially to the changes introduced by the European Court of Human Rights and by the questions of constitutionality raised by some Italian Courts...
2015: La Clinica Terapeutica
Mariela Larrandaburu, Ursula Matte, Ana Noble, Zully Olivera, Maria Teresa V Sanseverino, Luis Nacul, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini
Uruguay is a middle-income country and the smallest in South America. Its population is under 3.3 million. The demographic and epidemiological characteristics are similar to those of developed countries, with a high burden associated with congenital anomalies. Infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased from 37/1000 live births, in 1980, to 8.8/1000, in 2013. This is largely explained by medical and social policies. IMR related to congenital anomalies, however, remained unchanged for the last 30 years. Therefore, programmes for prevention of congenital disorders were developed, such as the National Newborn Screening Programme...
July 2015: Journal of Community Genetics
Martin Zieger, Silvia Utz
During the last decade, DNA profiling and the use of DNA databases have become two of the most employed instruments of police investigations. This very rapid establishment of forensic genetics is yet far from being complete. In the last few years novel types of analyses have been presented to describe phenotypically a possible perpetrator. We conducted the present study among German speaking Swiss residents for two main reasons: firstly, we aimed at getting an impression of the public awareness and acceptance of the Swiss DNA database and the perception of a hypothetical DNA database containing all Swiss residents...
July 2015: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Rebecca Dresser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Hastings Center Report
Paweł Poznański, Sławomir Niedźwiecki
Animal-based models used in biomedical sciences allow to perform research that, conducted on humans, would be highly problematic because of bioethical and technical issues. Contemporary researchers race can lead to abuse, hence the need for special law regulations regarding this subject. This necessity reflected both in the EU and Polish legislation, and is rooted in the philosophical and moral achievements of Europe. EU legislation in this case takes the form of directives implemented in the legal systems of the member states...
October 2014: Polimery W Medycynie
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