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Bioethics legislation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184457/evaluation-of-eu-legislation-on-blood-a-bioethical-point-of-view
#1
EDITORIAL
Carlo Petrini
A review of the European Union (EU) regulations concerning blood, tissues, and cells of human origin is under way in the EU. From the ethical point of view, the non-remuneration of donations and the ban on deriving gain from human biological materials are of particular significance. While the basic ethical principles involved in the procurement, preservation, and use of these materials are the same, their practical application should be adapted to the specific context of each material. In the case of donation and use of blood, in particular, the issue of legitimate reimbursements to donors and for transfusion centers has to be managed in accordance with the principle of non-commercialization...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157253/the-no-correlation-argument-can-the-morality-of-conscientious-objection-be-empirically-supported-the-italian-case
#2
Marco Bo, Carla Maria Zotti, Lorena Charrier
BACKGROUND: The legitimacy of conscientious objection to abortion continues to fuel heated debate in Italy. In two recent decisions, the European Committee for Social Rights underlined that conscientious objection places safe, legal, and accessible care and services out of reach for most Italian women and that the measures that Italy has adopted to guarantee free access to abortion services are inadequate. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Health states that current Italian legislation, if appropriately applied, accommodates both the right to conscientious objection and the right to voluntary abortion...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067599/legislative-enforcement-of-nonconsensual-determination-of-neurological-brain-death-in-muslim-patients-a-violation-of-religious-rights
#3
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
Death is defined in the Quran with a single criterion of irreversible separation of the ruh (soul) from the body. The Quran is a revelation from God to man, and the primary source of Islamic knowledge. The secular concept of death by neurological criteria, or brain death, is at odds with the Quranic definition of death. The validity of this secular concept has been contested scientifically and philosophically. To legitimize brain death for the purpose of organ donation and transplantation in Muslim communities, Chamsi-Pasha and Albar (concurring with the US President's Council on Bioethics) have argued that irreversible loss of capacity for consciousness and breathing (apneic coma) in brain death defines true death in accordance with Islamic sources...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954475/analysis-of-the-concept-of-informed-consent-concerning-the-use-of-genetic-material-according-to-the-european-convention-on-bioethics-and-in-other-solutionsm-propositions-for-broad-consent-for-future-genetic-research-from-the-point-of-view-of-the-activity-of
#4
Rafał Patryn, Jarosław Sak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is a critical presentation of the typology of consents included in the European Convention on Bioethics and in other formal solutions concerning the gathering of genetic material in institutions called Biobanks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Existing types of Acts of Consent are inaccurate in their scope and possess insufficient information regarding the gathering of genetic material (application, usage, processing) and their final (future and diverse) use...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724000/differences-and-inequalities-in-relation-to-access-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-the-brics-countries
#5
Fábio Humberto Ribeiro Paes Ferraz, Cibele Isaac Saad Rodrigues, Giuseppe Cesare Gatto, Natan Monsores de Sá
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries due to the high level of economic resources needed to maintain patients in the different programs that make up renal replacement therapy (RRT). To analyze the differences and inequalities involved in access to RRT in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa). This is an applied, descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study, with documentary analysis and a literature review...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#6
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514883/bioethical-analysis-to-the-therapeutic-use-of-cannabis-integrative-review
#7
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes Moreira, Analine de Souza Bandeira Correia, Ana Luisa Antunes Gonçalves Guerra, Adrielle Rodrigues Dos Santos, Iracema da Silva Frazão
INTRODUCTION: Despite being considered as a contravention under some countries' legislation, the therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa has been growing in Brazil, due to the promising results observed in many pathologies. Such a scenario has fostered the need to deepen discussions on the subject and possibly revise legislation governing the substance use and access. OBJECTIVES: Identify the types of stigma related to the therapeutic use of Cannabis and describe the strategies people use to overcome stigma...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462397/an-overview-on-ethical-considerations-in-stem-cell-research-in-iran-and-ethical-recommendations-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Tahmineh Farajkhoda
Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs) research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran...
February 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342433/-evaluation-of-the-degree-of-patient-information-to-be-included-in-the-home-based-palliative-care-program
#9
Ana María Tordable Ramírez
The fact of communicating to a patient his or her diagnosis when it is unfavourable, this becomes a really human issue. The bioethics and the legislation protect this right of information. The aim of this study is to evaluate the degree of information of patients when they are included in the home palliative care program. This is a quantitative, descriptive, retrospective and transversal study. The year of the study is 2012 in patients diagnosed with advanced terminal illnesses processes valued by the Team of Home Palliative Attention Support, of the North Welfare Direction of the Community of Madrid...
January 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#10
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845480/bioethics-and-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-historical-highlights
#11
A A Conti
Though the term "bioethics" was coined in 1970-1, it was immediately after World War II that there emerged the idea that the voluntary consent of human beings was absolutely mandatory for medical interventions to be ethically acceptable. The 1964 Declaration of Helsinki asserted that only an explicit consent could morally and ethically justify research on human beings. In the 1978 "Encyclopedia of Bioethics", the US author Warren T. Reich defined bioethics as the systematic study of human behaviour in the fields of health care and life sciences, and carefully differentiated the epistemological profile of bioethics from that of traditional medical ethics deriving from the Hippocratic Oath...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727092/-deceased-donation-in-renal-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, N Terrier, M O Timsit
OBJECTIVES: To review epidemiologic data's and medical results of deceased donation in renal transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) database using the following keywords, alone or in association, "brain death; cardiac arrest; deceased donation; organ procurement; transplantation". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
November 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499485/henry-knowles-beecher-jay-katz-and-the-transformation-of-research-with-human-beings
#13
Alexander Morgan Capron
The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434222/realization-of-informed-consent-as-one-of-patient-s-rights-current-situation-in-azerbaijan
#14
F A Rustamova, V G Mammadov, K M Munir
Azerbaijan is a country in which the law is based on democratic principles. The mentioned principles underlie the national health care law. Democratic values, such as respect for human rights and freedoms, human dignity, as well as universal bioethical principles that are widely implemented in the national law, create conditions for the implementation of the patient's rights. The basic law governing the doctor-patient relationship, Law on Protection of Health of Population in Azerbaijan, reflects the basic patients' rights and obligations of doctors and medical institutions...
2016: Bioetika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311156/-not-available
#15
Omar Fernando Becerra Partida
This research will address loopholes in Mexico about surrogacy and the reluctance of legislators, and therefore being forgotten by Bioethics and Biolaw.
July 2015: Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano, Law and the Human Genome Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121374/attitudes-towards-assisted-dying-are-influenced-by-question-wording-and-order-a-survey-experiment
#16
Morten Magelssen, Magne Supphellen, Per Nortvedt, Lars Johan Materstvedt
BACKGROUND: Surveys on attitudes towards assisted dying play an important role in informing public debate, policy and legislation. Unfortunately, surveys are often designed with insufficient attention to framing effects; that is, effects on the respondents' stated attitudes caused by question wording and context. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and measure such framing effects. METHODS: Survey experiment in which an eight-question survey on attitudes towards assisted dying was distributed to Norwegian citizens through a web-based panel...
April 27, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053038/-female-age%C3%A2-%C3%A2-related-fertility-decline-far-from-the-myth-of-the-selfish-working-girl-and-the-right-to-have-a-child
#17
M Vialle, J Perrin, A Amar-Hoffet, P Boyer, B Courbiere
OBJECTIVES: To study the social dimension of age-related female infertility through an analysis of three key themes: the personal life histories of infertile women over 40 years of age; representations of age and the desire to become pregnant after age 40; opinions of French legislations framing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, age limits, egg donation, and egg freezing for non-medical reasons. METHODS: This qualitative sociological study was based on semi-structured interviews with infertile women over age 40 going through fertility treatments...
April 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004267/legislation-on-genetic-diagnosis-comparison-of-south-korea-and-germany-with-focus-on-the-application-and-communication-structure
#18
Na-Kyoung Kim
This article explores the questions regarding PND and PID, especially the concrete legal conditions for the justification of PND and PID. As such, the German law stipulating PND and PID in a very concrete and detailed manner is introduced and explained in comparison with the corresponding South Korean law. The South Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act (BBA) stipulates various types of gene testing and does not demonstrate a delicate sense of each type of gene testing. In contrast to the South Korean regulation, in Germany, there exist specific regulations for genetic counseling...
June 2015: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911084/-bioethics-laws-and-reality-on-the-ground-during-epidemiological-studies-in-french-guinea-and-cameroon
#19
Patricia Tortevoye, Antoine Gessain
The objective of this article is to describe the difficulties encountered, during the twenty last years, to obey the laws of bioethics in force during epidemiological investigations, carried out in French Guiana and in Cameroon. These research tasks aim to better understanding the transmission of two viruses: the human T lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 and the human herpes virus 8. These investigations, carried out in highly endemic villages, for one or two of these viruses, also aim at searching susceptibility genetic factors for infection in children by these viruses...
October 2015: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26776899/a-survey-of-key-opinion-leaders-on-ethical-resuscitation-practices-in-31-european-countries
#20
Spyros D Mentzelopoulos, Leo Bossaert, Violetta Raffay, Helen Askitopoulou, Gavin D Perkins, Robert Greif, Kirstie Haywood, Patrick Van de Voorde, Theodoros Xanthos
BACKGROUND: Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries with legal, cultural, religious, and economic differences. A prior study suggested variation in ethical resuscitation/end-of-life practices across Europe. This study aimed to determine whether this variation has evolved, and whether the application of ethical practices is associated with emergency care organisation. METHODS: A questionnaire covering four domains of resuscitation ethics was developed based on consensus: (A) Approaches to end-of-life care and family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (B) Determinants of access to best resuscitation and post-resuscitation care; (C) Diagnosis of death and organ donation (D) Emergency care organisation...
March 2016: Resuscitation
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