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Mitochondria DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777261/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-amd-does-mitophagy-play-a-pivotal-role
#1
REVIEW
Juha M T Hyttinen, Johanna Viiri, Kai Kaarniranta, Janusz Błasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the predominant cause of visual loss in old people in the developed world, whose incidence is increasing. This disease is caused by the decrease in macular function, due to the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The aged retina is characterised by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired autophagy, and DNA damage that are linked to AMD pathogenesis. Mitophagy, a mitochondria-specific type of autophagy, is an essential part of mitochondrial quality control, the collective mechanism responsible for this organelle's homeostasis...
May 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773495/metabolic-changes-in-bladder-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Matthew Ayres, John A Taylor
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is a common solid tumor. Outcomes are poor in advanced disease, with few novel clinical therapeutics introduced over the previous several decades. Otto Warburg's original hypothesis that cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP instead of traditional oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria was a landmark discovery in its time. Recent studies indicate metabolic changes in cancer are far more complex than originally anticipated though...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771689/oncocytic-melanoma-a-study-of-a-rare-entity
#3
Ludvik R Donner, Valdemar Maximo
The authors report the second case of oncocytic melanoma, one of the rarest known melanoma variants. The diagnosis was established by Fontana stain positivity, expression of S100 protein as well as gp100/HMB45, and demonstration of numerous mitochondria by ultrastructure. Because it is known that some oncocytic tumors of the thyroid gland and kidney contain point mutations and common deletions of mitochondrial DNA, the complete mitochondrial DNA of the reported oncocytic melanoma was also studied. It was normal except for 2 private separate point mutations, predicted to be not pathogenic, which do not seem to play any role in the tumor phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770661/-genotyping-and-polymorphism-analysis-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-%C3%A2-gene-of-pomacea-canaliculata-from-lincang-city-in-yunnan-province
#4
Zhang Cang-Lin, Peng Jia, Ran Zhen, Zi Jin-Rong, Yang Ya-Ming
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the genetic diversity of Pomacea canaliculata based on the mitochondria DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA COⅠ) gene as a molecular marker in Lincang City of Yunnan Province, so as to provide the scientific data for monitoring Angiostrongylus cantonensis in local areas. METHODS: The genotypes and polymorphisms of 38 specimens of P. canaliculata collected from Mengding Town of Lincang City were analyzed by sequencing COⅠ gene. The phylogenetic tree and genetic distances were produced based on the haplotypes from GenBank and the present study by using the neighbourjoining method with the software MEGA version 6...
March 14, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767695/molybdenum
#5
Janet A Novotny, Catherine A Peterson
Molybdenum, a trace element essential for micro-organisms, plants, and animals, was discovered in 1778 by a Swedish chemist named Karl Scheele. Initially mistaken for lead, molybdenum was named after the Greek work molybdos, meaning lead-like. In the 1930s, it was recognized that ingestion of forage with high amounts of molybdenum by cattle caused a debilitating condition. In the 1950s, the essentiality of molybdenum was established with the discovery of the first molybdenum-containing enzymes. In humans, only 4 enzymes requiring molybdenum have been identified to date: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766157/dual-acting-antitumor-pt-iv-prodrugs-of-kiteplatin-with-dichloroacetate-axial-ligands
#6
Salvatore Savino, Valentina Gandin, James D Hoeschele, Cristina Marzano, Giovanni Natile, Nicola Margiotta
With the aim to obtain dual acting drugs able to target both nuclear DNA and mitochondria, Pt(iv) kiteplatin derivatives having dichloroacetate (DCA) ligands in axial positions have been synthesized. The rather fast hydrolysis (t1/2 of ca. 1 h) and reduction (by ascorbic acid) of these Pt(iv) derivatives did not impede a potent pharmacological effect on tumor cells. Moreover, similarly to kiteplatin, also the Pt(iv)-DCA compounds proved to be capable of overcoming oxaliplatin-resistance, which is particularly important in view of the fact that metastatic colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the second in females...
May 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764251/future-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-editing-technologies
#7
N Verechshagina, N Nikitchina, Y Yamada, Н Harashima, M Tanaka, K Orishchenko, I Mazunin
ATP and other metabolites, which are necessary for the development, maintenance, and functioning of bodily cells are all synthesized in the mitochondria. Multiple copies of the genome, present within the mitochondria, together with its maternal inheritance, determine the clinical manifestation and spreading of mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The main obstacle in the way of thorough understanding of mitochondrial biology and the development of gene therapy methods for mitochondrial diseases is the absence of systems that allow to directly change mtDNA sequence...
May 15, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760069/heterometallic-ru-pt-metallacycle-for-two-photon-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Zhixuan Zhou, Jiangping Liu, Thomas W Rees, Heng Wang, Xiaopeng Li, Hui Chao, Peter J Stang
As an effective and noninvasive treatment of various diseases, photodynamic therapy (PTD) relies on the combination of light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that can damage malignant tissue. Much attention has been paid to covalent modifications of the photosensitizers to improve their photophysical properties and to optimize the pathway of the photosensitizers interacting with cells within the target tissue. Herein we report the design and synthesis of a supramolecular heterometallic Ru-Pt metallacycle via coordination-driven self-assembly...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758315/ameliorative-role-of-ferulic-acid-against-diabetes-associated-oxidative-stress-induced-spleen-damage
#9
Sumit Ghosh, Sayantani Chowdhury, Poulami Sarkar, Parames C Sil
Spleen, a secondary lymphoid organ, is the site of initiation of most of the immune responses. The present study is centered on the ameliorative role of ferulic acid against diabetic complications in the spleen of male wistar rats. Induction of diabetes by STZ (at a dose of 50 mg kg-1 body wt, i.p.) reduced the spleen size, plasma insulin level, enhanced the blood glucose level and disrupted the intracellular antioxidant machineries along with the depletion of splenic white pulp. Induction of oxidative stress mediated inflammation and apoptosis (upregulation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, translocation of NF ĸB in the nucleus, alteration in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and 3, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation) were evidenced from immunoblot analyses, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay...
May 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757967/epigenetics-of-subcellular-structure-functioning-in-the-origin-of-risk-or-resilience-to-comorbidity-of-neuropsychiatric-and-cardiometabolic-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Martín Martínez-Rosas, Verónica Guarner-Lans
Mechanisms controlling mitochondrial function, protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear processes such as telomere length and DNA repair may be subject to epigenetic cues that relate the genomic expression and environmental exposures in early stages of life. They may also be involved in the comorbid appearance of cardiometabolic (CMD) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD) during adulthood. Mitochondrial function and protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum are associated with oxidative stress and elevated intracellular calcium levels and may also underlie the vulnerability for comorbid CMD and NPD...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755410/mitochondrial-chaperones-in-the-brain-safeguarding-brain-health-and-metabolism
#11
José Pedro Castro, Kristina Wardelmann, Tilman Grune, André Kleinridders
The brain orchestrates organ function and regulates whole body metabolism by the concerted action of neurons and glia cells in the central nervous system. To do so, the brain has tremendously high energy consumption and relies mainly on glucose utilization and mitochondrial function in order to exert its function. As a consequence of high rate metabolism, mitochondria in the brain accumulate errors over time, such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, reactive oxygen species, and misfolded and aggregated proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751692/brain-mitochondria-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Mario Rango, Nereo Bresolin
This paper reconsiders the role of mitochondria in aging and in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The most important risk factor for PD is aging. Alterations in mitochondrial activity are typical of aging. Mitochondrial aging is characterized by decreased oxidative phosphorylation, proteasome activity decrease, altered autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Beyond declined oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction consists of a decline of beta-oxidation as well as of the Krebs cycle. Not inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are acquired over time and parallel the decrease in oxidative phosphorylation...
May 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750205/more-than-a-powerplant-the-influence-of-mitochondrial-transfer-on-the-epigenome
#13
Alexander N Patananan, Alexander J Sercel, Michael A Teitell
Each cell in the human body, with the exception of red blood cells, contains multiple copies of mitochondria that house their own genetic material, the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondria are the cell's powerplant due to their massive ATP generation. However, the mitochondrion is also a hub for metabolite production from the TCA cycle, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis. In addition to producing macromolecules for biosynthetic reactions and cell replication, several mitochondrial intermediate metabolites serve as cofactors or substrates for epigenome modifying enzymes that regulate chromatin structure and impact gene expression...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750172/proanthocyanidins-against-oxidative-stress-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-applications
#14
REVIEW
Lingyu Yang, Dehai Xian, Xia Xiong, Rui Lai, Jing Song, Jianqiao Zhong
Proanthocyanidins (PCs) are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds abundant in many vegetables, plant skins (rind/bark), seeds, flowers, fruits, and nuts. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated myriad effects potentially beneficial to human health, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, DNA repair, and antitumor activity. Accumulation of prooxidants such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeding cellular antioxidant capacity results in oxidative stress (OS), which can damage macromolecules (DNA, lipids, and proteins), organelles (membranes and mitochondria), and whole tissues...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749586/porcine-cell-free-system-to-study-mammalian-sperm-mitophagy
#15
Won-Hee Song, Peter Sutovsky
A cell-free system using oocyte extracts is a valuable tool to study early events of animal fertilization and examine protein-protein interactions difficult to observe in whole cells. The process of postfertilization sperm mitophagy assures timely elimination of paternal, sperm-contributed mitochondria carrying potentially corrupted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Cell-free systems would be especially advantageous for studying postfertilization sperm mitophagy as large amounts of oocyte extracts can be incubated with hundreds to thousands of spermatozoa in a single trial, while only one spermatozoon per zygote can be examined by whole-cell approaches...
May 11, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747566/analysis-of-the-canid-y-chromosome-phylogeny-using-short-read-sequencing-data-reveals-the-presence-of-distinct-haplogroups-among-neolithic-european-dogs
#16
Matthew T Oetjens, Axel Martin, Krishna R Veeramah, Jeffrey M Kidd
BACKGROUND: Most genetic analyses of ancient and modern dogs have focused on variation in the autosomes or on the mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is more easily obtained from ancient samples than nuclear DNA and mitochondrial analyses have revealed important insights into the evolutionary history of canids. Utilizing a recently published dog Y-chromosome reference, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequence across a diverse collection of canids and determined the Y haplogroup of three ancient European dogs...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747444/mitochondria-transcription-factor-a-a-putative-target-for-the-effect-of-melatonin-on-u87mg-malignant-glioma-cell-line
#17
Daiane G Franco, Isabele F Moretti, Suely K N Marie
The disruption of mitochondrial activity has been associated with cancer development because it contributes to regulating apoptosis and is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a protein that maintains mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, and alterations in its expression are associated with mitochondrial damage and cancer development. In addition, studies have shown that mitochondria are a known target of melatonin, the pineal gland hormone that plays an important anti-tumorigenic role...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746243/steps-toward-understanding-mitochondrial-fe-s-cluster-biogenesis
#18
Andrew Melber, Dennis R Winge
Iron-sulfur clusters (Fe/S clusters) are essential cofactors required throughout the clades of biology for performing a myriad of unique functions including nitrogen fixation, ribosome assembly, DNA repair, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolite catabolism. Although Fe/S clusters can be synthesized in vitro and transferred to a client protein without enzymatic assistance, biology has evolved intricate mechanisms to assemble and transfer Fe/S clusters within the cellular environment. In eukaryotes, the foundation of all cellular clusters starts within the mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746240/biochemical-reconstitution-and-spectroscopic-analysis-of-iron-sulfur-proteins
#19
Sven-Andreas Freibert, Benjamin D Weiler, Eckhard Bill, Antonio J Pierik, Ulrich Mühlenhoff, Roland Lill
Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins are involved in numerous key biological functions such as respiration, metabolic processes, protein translation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. The simplest types of Fe/S clusters include [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], and [4Fe-4S] forms that sometimes are present in multiple copies. De novo assembly of Fe/S cofactors and their insertion into apoproteins in living cells requires complex proteinaceous machineries that are frequently highly conserved. In eukaryotes such as yeast and mammals, the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery and the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly system consist of more than 30 components that cooperate in the generation of some 50 cellular Fe/S proteins...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743968/altered-redox-homeostasis-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-disorders-organic-acidurias-and-homocystinuria
#20
REVIEW
Eva Richard, Lorena Gallego-Villar, Ana Rivera-Barahona, Alfonso Oyarzábal, Belén Pérez, Pilar Rodríguez-Pombo, Lourdes R Desviat
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a group of monogenic disorders characterized by dysregulation of the metabolic networks that underlie development and homeostasis. Emerging evidence points to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as major contributors to the multiorgan alterations observed in several IEMs. The accumulation of toxic metabolites in organic acidurias, respiratory chain, and fatty acid oxidation disorders inhibits mitochondrial enzymes and processes resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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