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Mitochondria DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928993/what-drives-embryo-development-chromosomal-normality-or-mitochondria
#1
A Bayram, I Elkhatib, A Arnanz, A Linan, F Ruiz, B Lawrenz, H M Fatemi
OBJECTIVE: To report the arrest of euploid embryos with high mtDNA content. DESIGN: A report of 2 cases. SETTING: Private fertility clinic. PATIENTS: 2 patients, 45 and 40 years old undergoing IVF treatment. INTERVENTIONS: Mature oocytes were collected and vitrified from two ovarian stimulations. Postthaw, survived mature oocytes underwent fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928268/mild-acidosis-delays-neutrophil-apoptosis-via-multiple-signaling-pathways-and-acts-in-concert-with-inflammatory-mediators
#2
Driss El Kebir, Everton de Oliveira Lima Dos Santos, Soukaina Mansouri, Meriem Sekheri, János G Filep
Accumulating evidence indicates development of local extracellular acidosis in inflamed tissues in response to infection and tissue injury. Activation of infiltrating neutrophils contributes to a transient decrease in pH, which, in turn, triggers innate immunity. In this study, we investigated the impact of extracellular acidosis on neutrophil apoptosis, a critical determinant of the outcome of the inflammatory response and analyzed the underlying signaling pathways. Culture of human isolated neutrophils in mildly acidotic conditions (pH 6...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926603/scavenging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-astaxanthin-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-high-glucose-stimulated-mesothelial-cells
#3
Kazuaki Hara, Chieko Hamada, Keiichi Wakabayashi, Reo Kanda, Kayo Kaneko, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a chlorhexidine-induced PF rat model. This suggests that oxidative stress induction of EMT is a key event during peritoneal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924349/autophagy-promotes-degradation-of-polyethyleneimine-alginate-nanoparticles-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#4
Guo-Dong Wang, Yu-Zhen Tan, Hai-Jie Wang, Pei Zhou
Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-alginate (Alg) nanoparticle (NP) is a safe and effective vector for delivery of siRNA or DNA. Recent studies suggest that autophagy is related to cytotoxicity of PEI NPs. However, contribution of autophagy to degradation of PEI-Alg NPs remains unknown. CD34(+)VEGFR-3(+) endothelial progenitor cells isolated from rat bone marrow were treated with 25 kDa branched PEI modified by Alg. After treatment with the NPs, morphological changes and distribution of the NPs in the cells were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopies...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923495/crispr-cas9-engineering-of-adult-mouse-liver-demonstrates-that-the-dnajb1-prkaca-gene-fusion-is-sufficient-to-induce-tumors-resembling-fibrolamellar-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Lars H Engelholm, Anjum Riaz, Denise Serra, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, Jens V Johansen, Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Steen H Hansen, Francesco Niola, Morten Frödin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis...
September 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923392/mitochondrial-depletion-in-cd4-and-cd19-peripheral-lymphocytes-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Gökhan Terzioğlu, Burcu Örmeci, Özlem Türksoy, Ceyhun Sayman, Nilgün Çınar, Gökçen Akar Öztürk, Gülderen Yanıkkaya Demirel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be associated with mitochondrial defects. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in mitochondrial abundance in peripheral lymphocytes of early and late stage AD patients. We analysed levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the mitochondria-specific antibody 113-1 in CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+) and CD56(+) peripheral lymphocytes of early and late stage AD by quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. In early stage AD, the levels of mtDNA were significantly decreased in CD4(+), CD19(+) and CD56(+) peripheral lymphocytes while the MFI of 113-1 staining was significantly decreased in CD4(+) and CD19(+) cells...
September 15, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922472/mirna-506-promotes-primary-biliary-cholangitis-like-features-in-cholangiocytes-and-immune-activation
#7
Oihane Erice, Patricia Munoz-Garrido, Javier Vaquero, Maria J Perugorria, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Elena Saez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ander Arbelaiz, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Joaquin Fernandez-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaria, Verónica Torrano, Arkaitz Carracedo, Meenakshisundaram Ananthanarayanan, Marco Marzioni, Jesus Prieto, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Nicholas F LaRusso, Luis Bujanda, Jose J G Marin, Jesus M Banales
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena targeting intrahepatic bile duct cells (cholangiocytes). Although PBC etiopathogenesis still remains obscure, development of anti-mitochondrial auto-antibodies against pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) is a common feature. MicroRNA (miR) dysregulation occurs in liver and immune cells of PBC patients, but their functional relevance is largely unknown. We previously reported that miR-506 is overexpressed in PBC cholangiocytes and directly targets both Cl(-) /HCO3(-) anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R3), leading to cholestasis...
September 18, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917665/improving-mitochondrial-function-significantly-reduces-metabolic-visual-motor-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Tobias W Weinrich, Ariathney Coyne, Thomas E Salt, Christopher Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Mitochondria play a major role in aging. Over time, mutations accumulate in mitochondrial DNA leading to reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and increased production of damaging reactive oxygen species. If cells fail to cope, they die. Reduced ATP will result in declining cellular membrane potentials leading to reduced central nervous system function. However, aged mitochondrial function is improved by long wavelength light (670 nm) absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration...
August 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#9
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905505/biallelic-variants-in-wars2-encoding-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthase-in-six-individuals-with-mitochondrial-encephalopathy
#10
Saskia B Wortmann, Sharita Timal, Hanka Venselaar, Liesbeth T Wintjes, Robert Kopajtich, René G Feichtinger, Carla Onnekink, Mareike Mühlmeister, Ulrich Brandt, Jan A Smeitink, Joris A Veltman, Wolfgang Sperl, Dirk Lefeber, Ger Pruijn, Vesna Stojanovic, Peter Freisinger, Francjan V Spronsen, Terry Gj Derks, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Johannes A Mayr, Agnes Rötig, Mark Tarnopolsky, Holger Prokisch, Richard J Rodenburg
Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase (mtTrpRS), a homodimeric class Ic enzyme (mitochondrial tryptophan-tRNA ligase; EC 6.1.1.2). Here, we report six individuals from five families presenting with either severe neonatal onset lactic acidosis, encephalomyopathy and early death or a later onset, more attenuated course of disease with predominating intellectual disability...
September 14, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904321/altered-expression-of-mitochondrial-antioxidants-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Sumita Banerjee, Saikat Mukherjee, Sanjib Mitra, Pallav Singhal
Reactive oxygen species, if produced in excess by oxidative phosphorylation, contributes to mitochondrial DNA damage and progressive respiratory chain dysfunction, leading to various diseases including carcinogenesis. Mitochondria are susceptible to oxidative stress (OS) owing to lack of introns, protective histones, and DNA repair enzymes. However, mitochondria are protected from OS by numerous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase, glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and thioredoxin 2 (TXN2)...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902865/optimization-of-the-expression-purification-and-polymerase-activity-reaction-conditions-of-recombinant-human-primpol
#12
Elizaveta O Boldinova, Gorazd Stojkovič, Rafil Khairullin, Sjoerd Wanrooij, Alena V Makarova
Human PrimPol is a DNA primase/polymerase involved in DNA damage tolerance and prevents nuclear genome instability. PrimPol is also localized to the mitochondria, but its precise function in mitochondrial DNA maintenance has remained elusive. PrimPol works both as a translesion (TLS) polymerase and as the primase that restarts DNA replication after a lesion. However, the observed biochemical activities of PrimPol vary considerably between studies as a result of different reaction conditions used. To reveal the effects of reaction composition on PrimPol DNA polymerase activity, we tested the polymerase activity in the presence of various buffer agents, salt concentrations, pH values and metal cofactors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898446/contradictory-effects-of-mitochondria-and-non-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidants-on-hepatocarcinogenesis-by-altering-dna-repair
#13
Bibo Wang, Jing Fu, Ting Yu, An Xu, Wenhao Qin, Zhishi Yang, Yao Chen, Hongyang Wang
Conflicting effects of antioxidant supplementation on cancer prevention or promotion is of great concern to healthy people and cancer patients. Despite recent studies about antioxidants accelerating the progression of lung cancer and melanoma, it does not fully deny antioxidants for cancer prevention. Both tumor and antioxidants types influence the actual efficacy. However, little is known about the impact of different types of antioxidants on primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including non-mitochondrial- and mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants...
September 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894044/mitochondrial-functionality-in-female-reproduction
#14
Łukasz Gąsior, Regina Daszkiewicz, Mateusz Ogórek, Zbigniew Polański
In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo...
January 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893634/metabolism-and-dna-repair-shape-a-specific-modification-pattern-in-mitochondrial-dna
#15
Tina Pawar, Magnar Bjørås, Arne Klungland, Lars Eide
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resides in the vicinity of energy-rich reactions. Thus, chemical modifications of mtDNA might mirror mitochondrial processes and could serve as biomarkers of metabolic processes in the mitochondria. This hypothesis was tested by assessing modifications at 17 different sites in the mtDNA as a function of cell type, oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity. Two mouse mutants with a metabolic phenotype were compared to wild-type (WT) mice: the ogg1(-/-) mouse that lacks the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and the alkbh7(-/-) mouse missing the ALKBH7 protein that has been implicated in fatty acid oxidation...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890317/mitoneod-a-mitochondria-targeted-superoxide-probe
#16
Maria M Shchepinova, Andrew G Cairns, Tracy A Prime, Angela Logan, Andrew M James, Andrew R Hall, Sara Vidoni, Sabine Arndt, Stuart T Caldwell, Hiran A Prag, Victoria R Pell, Thomas Krieg, John F Mulvey, Pooja Yadav, James N Cobley, Thomas P Bright, Hans M Senn, Robert F Anderson, Michael P Murphy, Richard C Hartley
Mitochondrial superoxide (O2(⋅-)) underlies much oxidative damage and redox signaling. Fluorescent probes can detect O2(⋅-), but are of limited applicability in vivo, while in cells their usefulness is constrained by side reactions and DNA intercalation. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-purpose mitochondrial O2(⋅-) probe, MitoNeoD, which can assess O2(⋅-) changes in vivo by mass spectrometry and in vitro by fluorescence. MitoNeoD comprises a O2(⋅-)-sensitive reduced phenanthridinium moiety modified to prevent DNA intercalation, as well as a carbon-deuterium bond to enhance its selectivity for O2(⋅-) over non-specific oxidation, and a triphenylphosphonium lipophilic cation moiety leading to the rapid accumulation within mitochondria...
August 24, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890118/mitochondrial-dna-content-a-new-biomarker-for-sudden-intrauterine-unexplained-death-syndrome-siuds
#17
D Lattuada, G Alfonsi, L Roncati, T Pusiol, A Bulfoni, S Ferrero, A M Lavezzi
In literature there are no data related to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS). To test the hypothesis that a quantitative defect of mtDNA would play a role in the pathogenesis of SIUDS, mtDNA content was measured in cerebral cortex of 9 SIUDS and in 7 controls. The median (interquartile range) mtDNA in SIUDS and controls was 14,000 (8600-33,500), 3400 (0-8500) copies per nuclear DNA, respectively (p=0.007). Mitochondria are involved in SIUDS and higher mitochondrial DNA content may be a biomarker of this syndrome...
September 7, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883477/the-strong-cell-based-hydrogen-peroxide-generation-triggered-by-cold-atmospheric-plasma
#18
Dayun Yan, Haitao Cui, Wei Zhu, Annie Talbot, Lijie Grace Zhang, Jonathan H Sherman, Michael Keidar
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling molecule in cancer cells. However, the significant secretion of H2O2 by cancer cells have been rarely observed. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a near room temperature ionized gas composed of neutral particles, charged particles, reactive species, and electrons. Here, we first demonstrated that breast cancer cells and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells generated micromolar level H2O2 during just 1 min of direct CAP treatment on these cells. The cell-based H2O2 generation is affected by the medium volume, the cell confluence, as well as the discharge voltage...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883211/cide-family-mediated-unique-lipid-droplet-morphology-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-brown-adipose-tissue-determines-the-adipocyte-energy-metabolism
#19
Yuki Nishimoto, Yoshikazu Tamori
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy as triacylglycerol in preparation for fasting state. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and produces heat in a cold environment. One of the major differences between these two adipose tissues is the morphology of the intracellular lipid droplet (LD), which is large and unilocular in WAT and small and multilocular in BAT. Although the fat-specific protein 27 alpha (FSP27α), belonging to the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A (DFFA)-like effector (Cide) family, was known to be indispensable for large unilocular LD formation in WAT, the mechanism that regulated small multilocular LD formation in BAT remained unknown...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882896/transcriptional-fidelities-of-human-mitochondrial-polrmt-yeast-mitochondrial-rpo41-and-phage-t7-single-subunit-rna-polymerases
#20
Shemaila Sultana, Mihai Solotchi, Aparna Ramachandran, Smita S Patel
Single-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are present in phage T7 and in mitochondria of all eukaryotes. This RNAP class plays important roles in biotechnology and cellular energy production, but we know little about its fidelity and error rates. Herein, we report the error rates of three single-subunit RNAPs measured from the catalytic efficiencies of correct and all possible incorrect nucleotides. The average error rate of T7 RNAP (2×10-6), yeast mitochondrial Rpo41 (6×10-6), and human mitochondrial POLRMT (2×10-5) indicates high accuracy/fidelity of RNA synthesis resembling those of replicative DNA polymerases...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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