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Mitochondria DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098843/perm-hypothesis-the-fundamental-machinery-able-to-elucidate-the-role-of-xenobiotics-and-hormesis-in-cell-survival-and-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
In this article the Proteasome, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria (PERM) hypothesis is discussed. The complex machinery made by three homeostatic mechanisms involving the proteasome (P), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (M) is addressed in order to elucidate the beneficial role of many xenobiotics, either trace metals or phytochemicals, which are spread in the human environment and in dietary habits, exerting their actions on the mechanisms underlying cell survival (apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and turnover, autophagy) and stress response...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098432/a-multi-mitochondrial-anticancer-agent-that-selectively-kills-cancer-cells-and-overcomes-drug-resistance
#2
Yong Bo Peng, Zi Long Zhao, Teng Liu, Guo Jian Xie, Cheng Jin, Tang Gang Deng, Yang Sun, Xiong Li, Xiao Xiao Hu, Xiao Bing Zhang, Mao Ye, Wei Hong Tan
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles involved mainly in supplying cellular energy, but also play roles in signaling, cell differentiation, and cell death. Mitochondria are implicated in carcinogenesis, and therefore dozens of lethal signal transduction pathways converge on these organelles. Accordingly, mitochondria provide an alternative target for cancer management. In this study, F16, a drug that targets mitochondria, and chlorambucil (CBL), which is indicated for the treatment of selected human neoplastic diseases, were covalently linked, resulting in the synthesis of a multi-mitochondrial anticancer agent, FCBL...
January 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094808/butterfly-eyespot-organiser-in-vivo-imaging-of-the-prospective-focal-cells-in-pupal-wing-tissues
#3
Mayo Iwasaki, Yoshikazu Ohno, Joji M Otaki
Butterfly wing eyespot patterns are determined in pupal tissues by organisers located at the centre of the prospective eyespots. Nevertheless, organiser cells have not been examined cytochemically in vivo, partly due to technical difficulties. Here, we directly observed organiser cells in pupal forewing epithelium via an in vivo confocal fluorescent imaging technique, using 1-h post-pupation pupae of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. The prospective eyespot centre was indented from the plane of the ventral tissue surface...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088446/identification-and-characterization-of-cell-bound-membrane-vesicles
#4
Qisheng Tang, Xiaojun Zhang, Wendiao Zhang, Siyuan Zhao, Yong Chen
In contrast to the released/circulating membrane vesicles (extracellular vesicles), cell-bound membrane vesicles are poorly identified and characterized. In this study, cell-bound membrane vesicles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatoma HepG-2 cells were investigated. We identified that cell-bound membrane vesicles are not co-localized with the major markers for extracellular vesicles (e.g. phosphatidylserine, CD63, CD107α, CD31, and DNA fragments for the three well-known types of extracellular vesicles) and for intracellular organelles with similar sizes (e...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086864/direct-detection-of-falciparum-and-non-falciparum-malaria-dna-from-a-drop-of-blood-with-high-sensitivity-by-the-dried-lamp-system
#5
Kyoko Hayashida, Kiichi Kajino, Humphrey Simukoko, Martin Simuunza, Joseph Ndebe, Amos Chota, Boniface Namangala, Chihiro Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Because of the low sensitivity of conventional rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria infections, the actual prevalence of the diseases, especially those caused by non-Plasmodium falciparum (non-Pf) species, in asymptomatic populations remain less defined in countries lacking in well-equipped facilities for accurate diagnoses. Our direct blood dry LAMP system (CZC-LAMP) was applied to the diagnosis of malaria as simple, rapid and highly sensitive method as an alternative for conventional RDTs in malaria endemic areas where laboratory resources are limited...
January 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081193/environmental-factors-can-influence-mitochondrial-inheritance-in-the-saccharomyces-yeast-hybrids
#6
Yu-Yi Hsu, Jui-Yu Chou
Mitochondria play a critical role in the generation of metabolic energy and are crucial for eukaryotic cell survival and proliferation. In most sexual eukaryotes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited from only one parent in non-Mendelian inheritance in contrast to the inheritance of nuclear DNA. The model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used to study mitochondrial biology. It has two mating types: MATa and MATα. Previous studies have suggested that the mtDNA inheritance patterns in hybrid diploid cells depend on the genetic background of parental strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077389/enhanced-oxidative-capacity-of-ground-squirrel-brain-mitochondria-during-hibernation
#7
Mallory A Ballinger, Christine Schwartz, Matthew T Andrews
During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA).  Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor, but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation.  We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared to spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation.  To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070494/pure-myopathy-with-enlarged-mitochondria-associated-to-a-new-mutation-in-mtnd2-gene
#8
Alice Zanolini, Ana Potic, Franco Carrara, Eleonora Lamantea, Daria Diodato, Flavia Blasevich, Silvia Marchet, Marina Mora, Francesco Pallotti, Lucia Morandi, Massimo Zeviani, Costanza Lamperti
To date, only few mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded ND2 subunit of Complex I have been reported, usually presenting a severe phenotype characterized by early onset encephalomyopathy and early death. In this report, we describe a new mutation in the MTND2 gene in a 21-year-old man with a mild myopathic phenotype characterized by exercise intolerance and increased plasma lactate at rest. Electromyography and brain NMR were normal, and no cardiac involvement was present. Muscle biopsy showed a massive presence of ragged red - COX-positive fibres, with enlarged mitochondria containing osmiophilic inclusions...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066797/mitochondrial-dysfunction-activates-the-ampk-signaling-and-autophagy-to-promote-cell-survival
#9
Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang, Joy Joseph, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Benoit Viollet, Yu-Ying He
Autophagy is a cellular self-eating process essential for stress response and maintaining tissue homeostasis by lysosomal degradation of unwanted or damaged proteins and organelles. Here, we show that cells with defective mitochondria induce autophagy to promote cell survival through activating the AMPK pathway. Loss of mitochondrial complex III protein cytochrome b activates the AMPK signaling and induced autophagy. Inhibiting mitochondria energetics by mitochondria-targeted agents activates the AMPK signaling and induced autophagy...
March 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063379/oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-abnormalities-and-antioxidant-defense-in-ataxia-telangiectasia-bloom-syndrome-and-nijmegen-breakage-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Mateusz Maciejczyk, Bozena Mikoluc, Barbara Pietrucha, Edyta Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Malgorzata Pac, Radosław Motkowski, Halina Car
Rare pleiotropic genetic disorders, Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), Bloom syndrome (BS) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) are characterised by immunodeficiency, extreme radiosensitivity, higher cancer susceptibility, premature aging, neurodegeneration and insulin resistance. Some of these functional abnormalities can be explained by aberrant DNA damage response and chromosomal instability. It has been suggested that one possible common denominator of these conditions could be chronic oxidative stress caused by endogenous ROS overproduction and impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057297/fly-models-of-human-diseases-drosophila-as-a-model-for-understanding-human-mitochondrial-mutations-and-disease
#11
A Sen, R T Cox
Mitochondrial diseases are a prevalent, heterogeneous class of diseases caused by defects in oxidative phosphorylation, whose severity depends upon particular genetic mutations. These diseases can be difficult to diagnose, and current therapeutics have limited efficacy, primarily treating only symptoms. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions, especially ATP production, their diminished activity has dramatic physiological consequences. While this in and of itself makes treating mitochondrial disease complex, these organelles contain their own DNA, mtDNA, whose products are required for ATP production, in addition to the hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053624/alkyl-cinnamates-induce-protein-kinase-c-translocation-and-anticancer-activity-against-breast-cancer-cells-through-induction-of-the-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptosis
#12
Suman Jyoti Deka, Narsimha Mamdi, Debasis Manna, Vishal Trivedi
PURPOSE: The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases plays an important role in cancer cell progression. Thus, molecules that target PKC have potential as anticancer agents. The current study aims to understand the treatment of breast cancer cells with alkyl cinnamates. We have also explored the mechanistic details of their anticancer action and the underlying molecular signaling. METHODS: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to measure the viability of MDAMB-231 breast cancer cells to assess the anticancer activity of these compounds...
December 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050792/alpha-synuclein-alters-differently-gene-expression-of-sirts-parps-and-other-stress-response-proteins-implications-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#13
J Motyl, P L Wencel, M Cieślik, R P Strosznajder, J B Strosznajder
Alpha-synuclein (ASN) is a presynaptic protein that can easily change its conformation under different types of stress. It's assumed that ASN plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, the molecular mechanism of ASN toxicity has not been elucidated. This study focused on the role of extracellular ASN (eASN) in regulation of transcription of sirtuins (Sirts) and DNA-bound poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) - proteins crucial for cells' survival/death. Our results indicate that eASN enhanced the free radicals level, decreased mitochondria membrane potential, cells viability and activated cells' death...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050401/large-scale-7436-bp-deletions-in-human-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-with-spermatozoa-dysfunction-and-male-infertility
#14
Prafulla S Ambulkar, Jwalant E Waghmare, Ajay R Chaudhari, Vandana R Wankhede, Aaditya M Tarnekar, Moreshwar R Shende, Asoke K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. AIM: To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049043/perfluoroalkyl-acids-induced-liver-steatosis-effects-on-genes-controlling-lipid-homeostasis
#15
Kaberi P Das, Carmen R Wood, Mimi J Lin, Anatoly A Starkov, Christopher Lau, Kendall B Wallace, J Christopher Corton, Barbara D Abbott
Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to their extensive use in industrial and consumer products, and their slow decay. Biochemical tests in rodent demonstrated that these chemicals are potent modifiers of lipid metabolism and cause hepatocellular steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism of PFAAs interference with lipid metabolism remains to be elucidated. Currently, two major hypotheses are that PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and/or they affect the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in liver...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045465/methylomic-profiling-of-cortex-samples-from-completed-suicide-cases-implicates-a-role-for-psors1c3-in-major-depression-and-suicide
#16
T M Murphy, B Crawford, E L Dempster, E Hannon, J Burrage, G Turecki, Z Kaminsky, J Mill
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a major social and economic health issue and constitutes a major risk factor for suicide. The molecular pathology of suicidal depression remains poorly understood, although it has been hypothesised that regulatory genomic processes are involved in the pathology of both MDD and suicidality. In this study, genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in depressed suicide completers (n=20) and compared with non-psychiatric, sudden-death controls (n=20) using tissue from two cortical brain regions (Brodmann Area 11 (BA11) and Brodmann Area 25 (BA25))...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034298/effective-agents-targeting-the-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-to-protect-the-heart
#17
Eltyeb Abdelwahid, Aurimas Stulpinas, Audrone Kalvelyte
A wide variety of agents have been traditionally used in cardiovascular medicine worldwide and their precise mechanisms of action have been demonstrated to be largely related to the cardiomyocyte mitochondria and apoptosis. Abnormalities in the structure and function of the mitochondria and mutations in mitochondrial DNA can decrease energy production, alter the redox system, impair calcium homeostasis, and induce the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), causing cell death. All of these data provide evidence of mitochondrial signaling pathways as targets to downregulate cardiac cell apoptosis and thus to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030582/therapeutic-targeting-of-the-mitochondria-initiates-excessive-superoxide-production-and-mitochondrial-depolarization-causing-decreased-mtdna-integrity
#18
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Thomas G Biel, Dmitry Kryndushkin, V Ashutosh Rao
Mitochondrial dysregulation is closely associated with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Altered redox homeostasis has been implicated in the onset of several diseases including cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and proteins are particularly sensitive to ROS as they are in close proximity to the respiratory chain (RC). Mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondria-targeted redox agent, selectively damages breast cancer cells possibly through damage induced via enhanced ROS production. However, the effects of MitoQ and other triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) conjugated agents on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis remain unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029518/a-new-view-into-the-regulation-of-purine-metabolism-the-purinosome
#19
REVIEW
Anthony M Pedley, Stephen J Benkovic
Other than serving as building blocks for DNA and RNA, purine metabolites provide a cell with the necessary energy and cofactors to promote cell survival and proliferation. A renewed interest in how purine metabolism may fuel cancer progression has uncovered a new perspective into how a cell regulates purine need. Under cellular conditions of high purine demand, the de novo purine biosynthetic enzymes cluster near mitochondria and microtubules to form dynamic multienzyme complexes referred to as 'purinosomes'...
October 28, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027966/sequence-motifs-associated-with-paternal-transmission-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-the-horse-mussel-modiolus-modiolus-bivalvia-mytilidae
#20
Brent M Robicheau, Sophie Breton, Donald T Stewart
In the majority of metazoans paternal mitochondria represent evolutionary dead-ends. In many bivalves, however, this paradigm does not hold true; both maternal and paternal mitochondria are inherited. Herein, we characterize maternal and paternal mitochondrial control regions of the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). The maternal control region is 808bp long, while the paternal control region is longer at 2.3kb. We hypothesize that the size difference is due to a combination of repeated duplications within the control region of the paternal mtDNA genome, as well as an evolutionarily ancient recombination event between two sex-associated mtDNA genomes that led to the insertion of a second control region sequence in the genome that is now transmitted via males...
December 24, 2016: Gene
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