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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#1
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637324/the-effects-of-phytosterols-on-the-sexual-behavior-and-reproductive-function-in-the-japanese-quail-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#2
Mohammad Ibrahim Qasimi, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
Phytosterols (PS) are plant origin sterols naturally found in many foods and added as food additives. Since 1950, PS have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to lower serum cholesterol and inhibit cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, recent studies have found that PS act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals in laboratory animals. Therefore, this study was aimed at finding the mechanism(s) for PS effects on the sexual behaviors and reproductive functions in male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637286/structure-seq2-sensitive-and-accurate-genome-wide-profiling-of-rna-structure-in-vivo
#3
Laura E Ritchey, Zhao Su, Yin Tang, David C Tack, Sarah M Assmann, Philip C Bevilacqua
RNA serves many functions in biology such as splicing, temperature sensing, and innate immunity. These functions are often determined by the structure of RNA. There is thus a pressing need to understand RNA structure and how it changes during diverse biological processes both in vivo and genome-wide. Here, we present Structure-seq2, which provides nucleotide-resolution RNA structural information in vivo and genome-wide. This optimized version of our original Structure-seq method increases sensitivity by at least 4-fold and improves data quality by minimizing formation of a deleterious by-product, reducing ligation bias, and improving read coverage...
June 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637270/in-planta-recapitulation-of-isoprene-synthases-evolution-from-ocimene-synthases
#4
Mingai Li, Jia Xu, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Silvia Carlin, Enrico Barbaro, Luca Cappellin, Violeta Velikova, Urska Vrhovsek, Francesco Loreto, Claudio Varotto
Isoprene is the most abundant biogenic volatile hydrocarbon compound naturally emitted by plants and plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry. It has been proposed that isoprene synthases (IspS) may readily evolve from other terpene synthases, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally investigated.We isolated and functionally validated in Arabidopsis the first isoprene synthase gene, AdoIspS, from a monocotyledonous species (Arundo donax L., Poaceae). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that AdoIspS and dicots isoprene synthases most likely originated by parallel evolution from TPS-b monoterpene synthases...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637261/further-simulations-and-analyses-demonstrate-open-problems-of-phylostratigraphy
#5
Bryan A Moyers, Jianzhi Zhang
Phylostratigraphy, originally designed for gene age estimation by BLAST-based protein homology searches of sequenced genomes, has been widely used for studying patterns and inferring mechanisms of gene origination and evolution. We previously showed by computer simulation that phylostratigraphy underestimates gene age for a non-negligible fraction of genes and that the underestimation is severer for genes with certain properties such as fast evolution and short protein sequences. Consequently, many previously reported age distributions of gene properties may have been methodological artifacts rather than biological realities...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637254/phylogeography-of-lionfishes-pterois-indicate-taxonomic-over-splitting-and-hybrid-origin-of-the-invasive-pterois-volitans
#6
Christie L Wilcox, Hiroyuki Motomura, Mizuki Matsunuma, Brian W Bowen
The lionfish is an iconic marine fish, and recently renowned for a disastrous introduction into the West Atlantic. Genetic surveys of the putative invaders (Pterois volitans and P. miles) in their natural Indo-Pacific range can illuminate both topics. Previous research indicated that P. volitans and P. miles are sister species that hybridize in the invasive range, but hybridization in the native range is unknown. Here we apply mtDNA COI and two nuclear introns (S7 RP1 and Gpd2) from 229 lionfish including the two invaders and two closely-related taxa (44 P...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#7
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#8
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637197/pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-pch1-identification-of-slc25a46-mutations-in-the-original-dutch-pch1-family
#9
Tessa van Dijk, Sabine Rudnik-Schöneborn, Jan Senderek, Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Hailiang Mei, Marina Dusl, Eleonora Aronica, Peter Barth, Frank Baas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637153/dutch-version-of-the-fear-of-pain-questionnaire-for-adolescents-with-chronic-pain
#10
Carolien Dekker, Caroline H G Bastiaenen, Janneke E de Vries, Laura E Simons, Mariëlle E J B Goossens, Jeanine A M C F Verbunt
BACKGROUND: Fear of pain is important in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire-Child version has been developed to assess pain related fear in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: Translating the original questionnaire into Dutch, and investigating internal consistency and construct validity to enable use in the Dutch pain rehabilitation setting for treatment and research. METHODS: Cross-sectional validation study: After forward and back translation of the FOPQ-C, adolescents (11-22 years old) with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed an assessment containing the Dutch Fear of Pain Questionnaire, and questionnaires about demographics, pain catastrophizing, functional disability, and pain intensity...
March 3, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637135/cross-cultural-validity-of-the-abiloco-questionnaire-for-individuals-with-stroke-based-on-rasch-analysis
#11
Patrick Roberto Avelino, Lívia Castro Magalhães, Iza Faria-Fortini, Marluce Lopes Basílio, Kênia Kiefer Parreiras Menezes, Luci Fuscaldi Teixeira-Salmela
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Brazilian version of the ABILOCO questionnaire for stroke subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation of the original English version of the ABILOCO to the Brazilian-Portuguese language followed standardized procedures. The adapted version was administered to 136 stroke subjects and its measurement properties were assessed using Rash analysis. Cross-cultural validity was based on cultural invariance analyses...
February 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637096/uncovering-the-decision-making-work-of-transferring-dying-patients-home-from-critical-care-units-an-integrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Yanxia Lin, Michelle Myall, Nikki Jarrett
AIMS: To understand how decisions are made to transfer dying patients home from critical care units. BACKGROUND: Many people prefer a home death, but a high proportion die in critical care units. Transferring dying patients home is recognized to be complex but transfer decision-making itself remains unclear. DESIGN: Integrative review. DATA SOURCES: Seven bibliographic databases (origin - 2015), grey literature and reference lists were searched...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637034/recovery-of-food-intake-after-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-based-on-a-large-scale-gastric-cancer-cohort
#13
Bang Wool Eom, Jeongseon Kim, Deok Hee Kim, Young-Il Kim, Hong Man Yoon, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Chan Gyoo Kim, Il Ju Choi, Young-Woo Kim, Byung-Ho Nam, Keun Won Ryu
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at evaluating the food intake and nutritional status of patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer based on a large-scale gastric cancer cohort. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study for gastric cancer has been conducted since 2010. From the cohort data, we selected the data for patients who completed at least 2 days of 3-day diet diaries and who underwent subtotal gastrectomy (STG) or total gastrectomy (TG)...
June 22, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637003/structural-recognition-of-tubulysin-b-derivatives-by-multidrug-resistance-efflux-transporters-in-human-cancer-cells
#14
Michal Stark, Yehuda G Assaraf
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major hindrance to curative chemotherapy of various human malignancies. Hence, novel chemotherapeutics must be evaluated for their recognition by MDR efflux transporters. Herein we explored the cytotoxic activity of synthetic tubulysin B (Tub-B, EC1009) derivatives (Tub-B-hydrazide/EC0347 and Tub-B bis-ether/EC1820), and their recognition by the MDR efflux transporters P-glycoprotein 1 (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636978/psychiatric-comorbidity-with-hypothalamic-hamartoma-systematic-review-for-predictive-clinical-features
#15
REVIEW
Zachary Killeen, Raymond Bunch, John F Kerrigan
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature to identify clinical features associated with a higher risk of psychiatric symptoms (aggression and rage behaviors) in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) and epilepsy. METHODS: Two publicly-accessible databases (PubMed and Cochrane Library) were searched for Hypothalamic Hamartoma AND Epilepsy. We identified peer-reviewed original research publications (case reports or clinical series; N=19) in which clinical data was provided on an individual basis...
June 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636935/the-sensory-striatum-is-permanently-impaired-by-transient-developmental-deprivation
#16
Todd M Mowery, Kristina B Penikis, Stephen K Young, Christopher E Ferrer, Vibhakar C Kotak, Dan H Sanes
Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636918/actin-filament-strain-promotes-severing-and-cofilin-dissociation
#17
Anthony C Schramm, Glen M Hocky, Gregory A Voth, Laurent Blanchoin, Jean-Louis Martiel, Enrique M De La Cruz
Computational and structural studies have been indispensable in investigating the molecular origins of actin filament mechanical properties and modulation by the regulatory severing protein cofilin. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of cofilactin filament structures determined by electron cryomicroscopy reveal how cofilin enhances the bending and twisting compliance of actin filaments. Continuum mechanics models suggest that buckled cofilactin filaments localize elastic energy at boundaries between bare and cofilin-decorated segments because of their nonuniform elasticity, thereby accelerating filament severing...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636821/insight-into-electronic-and-structural-reorganizations-for-defect-induced-vo2-metal-insulator-transition
#18
Xijun Wang, Zhaowu Wang, Guozhen Zhang, Jun Jiang
Oxygen vacancy defect in monoclinic VO2 has been shown to modulate the metal-insulator transition (MIT) at room temperature. However, as the electronic and structural reorganizations occur simultaneously, the origin of MIT is still unclear. Here we performed first-principles calculations to examine electronic variations separately from structural reorganizations during MIT. It is found that oxygen defect induces electronic reorganization by creating polarized 3d-orbitial electrons, while structure reorganization makes the conduction band edge states available for occupation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636798/a-ccpe-based-xenon-biosensor-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-claudin-expressing-cells
#19
Anna Piontek, Christopher Witte, Honor May Rose, Miriam Eichner, Jonas Protze, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek, Leif Schröder
The majority of malignant tumors originate from epithelial cells, and many of them are characterized by an overexpression of claudins (Cldns) and their mislocalization out of tight junctions. We utilized the C-terminal claudin-binding domain of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (cCPE), with its high affinity to specific members of the claudin family, as the targeting unit for a claudin-sensitive cancer biosensor. To overcome the poor sensitivity of conventional relaxivity-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, we utilized the superior sensitivity of xenon Hyper-CEST biosensors...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#20
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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