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acute and chronic inflamation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#1
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterised by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defence, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860493/cxcr3-plays-a-critical-role-for-host-protection-against-salmonellosis
#2
Belal Chami, Amanda Yeung, Michael Buckland, Hongjun Liu, Genevieve M Fong, Kun Tao, Shisan Bao
CXCR3 and its ligands are heavily associated with inflammation and have been implicated in numerous inflammatory diseases. CXCR3 plays an important role in recruiting pro-inflammatory cells, specifically neutrophils, in a model of sterile colitis whereby CXCR3(-/-) mice showed an attenuated course of colitis with markedly reduced host-tissue damage in the inflamed caecum. The role of CXCR3 during infectious colitis, however, is unclear and therefore in this study, we investigated the role of CXCR3 in the regulation of the immune response during acute and chronic gastrointestinal infection, using a murine model of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857501/potential-roles-of-neutrophils-in-regulating-intestinal-mucosal-inflammation-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
Guang Xi Zhou, Zhanju Liu
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprising of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by chronically relapsing mucosal inflammation. Neutrophils, as the effector cells of acute inflammation, have long been reported to play a role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of IBD. At the early stage of mucosal inflammation in patients with IBD, neutrophils flood into intestinal mucosa, phagocytose pathogenic microbes, and promote mucosal healing and resolution of inflammation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832199/acute-calcific-tendinitis-of-the-index-finger-in-a-child
#4
Frances M Walocko, Ian C Sando, Steven C Haase, Jeffrey H Kozlow
BACKGROUND: Calcific tendinitis is characterized by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within tendons and is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in adults. Its clinical manifestations may be acute, chronic, or asymptomatic. Acute calcific tendinitis is self-resolving condition that is rarely reported in the pediatric population and may be overlooked for more common processes, leading to unnecessary treatment. METHODS: A chart reivew was performed of a single case of acute calcific tendonitis of the index finger in a child...
September 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710476/inflammatory-pain-control-by-blocking-oxidized-phospholipid-mediated-trp-channel-activation
#5
Beatrice Oehler, Katrin Kistner, Corinna Martin, Jürgen Schiller, Rafaela Mayer, Milad Mohammadi, Reine-Solange Sauer, Milos R Filipovic, Francisco R Nieto, Jan Kloka, Diana Pflücke, Kerstin Hill, Michael Schaefer, Marzia Malcangio, Peter W Reeh, Alexander Brack, Robert Blum, Heike L Rittner
Phospholipids occurring in cell membranes and lipoproteins are converted into oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) by oxidative stress promoting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Here, OxPL were characterized as novel targets in acute and chronic inflammatory pain. Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) and its derivatives were identified in inflamed tissue by mass spectrometry and binding assays. They elicited calcium influx, hyperalgesia and induced pro-nociceptive peptide release...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594885/effect-of-a-new-formulation-of-micronized-and-ultramicronized-n-palmitoylethanolamine-in-a-tibia-fracture-mouse-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#6
Roberta Fusco, Enrico Gugliandolo, Michela Campolo, Maurizio Evangelista, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I) is a disabling and frequently chronic condition. It involves the extremities and is a frequent consequence of distal tibia and radius fractures. The inflamed appearance of the affected CRPS-I limb suggests that local production of inflammatory mediators may be implicated in the ensuing etiology. A rodent tibia fracture model, characterized by inflammation, chronic unilateral hindlimb warmth, edema, protein extravasation, allodynia and hyperalgesia resembles the clinical features of patients with acute CRPS-I...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584245/immune-signatures-of-pathogenesis-in-the-peritoneal-compartment-during-early-infection-of-sheep-with-fasciola-hepatica
#7
Maria Teresa Ruiz-Campillo, Veronica Molina Hernandez, Alejandro Escamilla, Michael Stevenson, Jose Perez, Alvaro Martinez-Moreno, Sheila Donnelly, John P Dalton, Krystyna Cwiklinski
Immune signatures of sheep acutely-infected with Fasciola hepatica, an important pathogen of livestock and humans were analysed within the peritoneal compartment to investigate early infection. Within the peritoneum, F. hepatica antibodies coincided with an intense innate and adaptive cellular immune response, with infiltrating leukocytes and a marked eosinophilia (49%). However, while cytokine qPCR analysis revealed IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-23 and TGFβ were elevated, these were not statistically different at 18 days post-infection compared to uninfected animals indicating that the immune response is muted and not yet skewed to a Th2 type response that is associated with chronic disease...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509283/in-vivo-molecular-mri-of-icam-1-expression-on-endothelium-and-leukocytes-from-subacute-to-chronic-stages-after-experimental-stroke
#8
Lisette H Deddens, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Kajo van der Marel, Hedi Hunt, Annette van der Toorn, Max A Viergever, Helga E de Vries, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Molecular MRI allows in vivo detection of vascular cell adhesion molecules expressed on inflamed endothelium, which enables detection of specific targets for anti-neuroinflammatory treatment. We explored to what extent MR contrast agent targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) could detect endothelial- and leukocyte-associated ICAM-1 expression at different stages after experimental stroke. Furthermore, we assessed potential interfering effects of ICAM-1-targeted contrast agent on post-stroke lesion growth...
May 16, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363903/ifn-regulatory-factor-3-potentiates-emphysematous-aggravation-by-lipopolysaccharide
#9
Takashi Ishii, Keisuke Hosoki, Yuichi Nikura, Naohide Yamashita, Takahide Nagase, Naomi Yamashita
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often induced by infection and often has a poor prognosis. Bacterial LPS activates innate immune receptor TLR4 followed by activation of a transcriptional factor IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) as well as NF-κB, resulting in upregulation of various inflammatory mediators. To clarify the role of IRF3 in the pathogenesis of LPS-triggered COPD exacerbation, porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) followed by LPS was administered intranasally to wild-type (WT) or IRF3(-/-) male mice...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#10
REVIEW
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287106/neutrophils-as-protagonists-and-targets-in-chronic-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Oliver Soehnlein, Sabine Steffens, Andrés Hidalgo, Christian Weber
Traditionally, neutrophils have been acknowledged to be the first immune cells that are recruited to an inflamed tissue and have mainly been considered in the context of acute inflammation. By contrast, their importance during chronic inflammation has been studied in less depth. This Review aims to summarize our current understanding of the roles of neutrophils in chronic inflammation, with a focus on how they communicate with other immune and non-immune cells within tissues. We also scrutinize the roles of neutrophils in wound healing and the resolution of inflammation, and finally, we outline emerging therapeutic strategies that target neutrophils...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222444/inflammation-a-double-edged-sword-in-the-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#12
Christina K Lin, Barbara I Kazmierczak
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploits failures of barrier defense and innate immunity to cause acute infections at a range of anatomic sites. We review the defense mechanisms that normally protect against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection, as well as the bacterial products and activities that trigger their activation. Innate immune recognition of P. aeruginosa is critical for pathogen clearance; nonetheless, inflammation is also associated with pathogen persistence and poor host outcomes...
2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210458/osseous-oral-hyaline-ring-granuloma-mimicking-a-mandible-tumor-in-a-child-with-congenital-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum
#13
Rodrigo Neves-Silva, Camilla-Borges Ferreira-Gomes, Natalia Palmier, Marcelo Brum-Corrêa, Oslei Paes-Almeida, Marcio Ajudarte-Lopes, Pablo Agustin-Vargas, Alan-Roger Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: Hyaline ring granuloma (HRG) of the oral cavity is an uncommon disorder considered to be a foreign-body reaction resulting from implantation of food vegetable particles. Microscopically, it is characterized by the presence of structures of hyaline rings in an inflamed fibrous tissue background, which contains multinucleated giant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case of a 4-year-old boy diagnosed with a mandible osseous HRG, which showed clinical and tomographic aspects suggestive of an aggressive bone tumor...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158929/the-analgesic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-salvinorin-a-analogue-%C3%AE-tetrahydropyran-salvinorin-b-in-mice
#14
K F Paton, N Kumar, R S Crowley, J L Harper, T E Prisinzano, B M Kivell
BACKGROUND: Drugs activating the mu opioid receptor are routinely used to treat severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, side effects including nausea, constipation, respiratory depression, addiction and tolerance can limit clinical utility. In contrast, kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists, such as Salvinorin A (SalA), have analgesic properties with little potential for abuse. METHODS: We evaluated SalA and the novel analogue β-tetrahydropyran Salvinorin B (β-THP SalB) for the ability to modulate pain and inflammation in vivo...
July 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145512/tdag8-involved-in-initiating-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-and-establishing-hyperalgesic-priming-in-mice
#15
Shih-Ping Dai, Ya-Han Huang, Chung-Jen Chang, Yu-Fen Huang, Wei-Shan Hsieh, Yasuhiko Tabata, Satoshii Ishii, Wei-Hsin Sun
Chronic pain, resulting from injury, arthritis, and cancer, is often accompanied by inflammation. High concentrations of protons found in inflamed tissues results in tissue acidosis, a major cause of pain and hyperalgesia. Acidosis signals may mediate a transition from acute to chronic hyperalgesia (hyperalgesic priming) via proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The expression of T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing GPCR, is increased during inflammatory hyperalgesia. Attenuating TDAG8 expression in the spinal cord inhibits bone cancer pain, but whether TDAG8 is involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia or hyperalgesic priming remains unclear...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125562/o-014-bacterial-sensor-nod2-deletion-causes-th2-inflammatory-bowel-disease-improvement-without-inducing-acute-metatranscriptomic-dysbiosis-in-mice
#16
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Daniele Corridoni, Gabriella Di Stefano, Luca Di Martino, D A Antonopoulos, Eugene Chang, T T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli
BACKGROUND: Although single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) gene have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), little is known about the role of nonpolymorphic wild-type (WT) NOD2 genes in the gut. To date, most animal studies addressing the role of WT NOD2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains, and have attributed a modulating effect to the gut microbiome, partly based on 16S rRNA sequencing...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966195/beyond-bronchitis-a-review-of-the-congenital-and-acquired-abnormalities-of-the-bronchus
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Marini, Susan K Hobbs, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Kathrine Kaproth-Joslin
Anomalies of the bronchus can be both congenital and acquired. Several different congenital aberrations of the bronchial anatomy are commonly encountered including tracheal bronchus, accessory cardiac bronchus, and bronchial agenesis/aplasia/hypoplasia. In addition, Williams-Campbell syndrome and cystic fibrosis are two other congenital conditions that result in bronchial pathology. Acquired pathology affecting the bronchi can typically be divided into three broad categories of bronchial disease: bronchial wall thickening, dilatation/bronchiectasis, and obstruction/stenosis...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884085/the-roles-of-myeloperoxidase-in-coronary-artery-disease-and-its-potential-implication-in-plaque-rupture
#18
REVIEW
Nathaniel Teng, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jihan Talib, Imran Rashid, Antony K Lau, Roland Stocker
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque...
March 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843953/considerations-for-defining-cytokine-dose-duration-and-milieu-that-are-appropriate-for-modeling-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Craig S Nunemaker
Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). T1D is an autoimmune disease involving the adaptive immune system responding to pancreatic beta-cells as antigen-presenting cells. This attracts immune cells that surround pancreatic islets (insulitis) and secrete cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, in close proximity to pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, there is little evidence for such a focused autoimmune response in T2D...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812120/oxidized-phospholipid-oxpapc-activates-trpa1-and-contributes-to-chronic-inflammatory-pain-in-mice
#20
Boyi Liu, Yan Tai, Ana I Caceres, Satyanarayana Achanta, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Xiaomei Shao, Junfan Fang, Sven-Eric Jordt
Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown whether OxPAPC also contributes to inflammatory pain and peripheral neuronal excitability in these conditions. Here, we observed that OxPAPC dose-dependently and selectively activated human TRPA1 nociceptive ion channels expressed in HEK293 cells in vitro, without any effect on other TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPM8...
2016: PloS One
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