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acute and chronic inflamation

Raju Vaishya, Ahmad Tariq Azizi, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
N Kappelmann, G Lewis, R Dantzer, P B Jones, G M Khandaker
Inflammatory cytokines are commonly elevated in acute depression and are associated with resistance to monoaminergic treatment. To examine the potential role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of antidepressant activity of anti-cytokine treatment using clinical trials of chronic inflammatory conditions where depressive symptoms were measured as a secondary outcome. Systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases, search of reference lists and conference abstracts, followed by study selection process yielded 20 clinical trials...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Yad R Yadav, Vijay S Parihar, Mina Todorov, Yatin Kher, Ishwar D Chaurasia, Sonjjay Pande, Hemant Namdev
Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). It can be purely obstructive, purely communicating, or due to combinations of obstruction in addition to defective absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as an alternative to shunt procedures is an established treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus in TBM. ETV in TBM hydrocephalus can be technically very difficult, especially in acute stage of disease due to inflamed, thick, and opaque third ventricle floor...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Alexandra Gerstgrasser, Hassan Melhem, Irina Leonardi, Kirstin Atrott, Matthias Schäfer, Sabine Werner, Gerhard Rogler, Isabelle Frey-Wagner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The transcription factor Nrf2 is a major modulator of the cellular antioxidant response. Oxidative burst of infiltrating macrophages leads to a massive production of reactive oxygen species in inflamed tissue of inflammatory bowel disease patients. This oxidative burst contributes to tissue destruction and epithelial permeability, but it is also an essential part of the antibacterial defense. We therefore investigated the impact of the Nrf2 orchestrated antioxidant response in both acute and chronic intestinal inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Fitz-Roy E Curry, Joyce F Clark, Yanyan Jiang, Min-Ho Kim, Roger H Adamson, Scott I Simon
We tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory actions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) result from the modulation of leukocyte adhesion to inflamed endothelium and not solely ANP ligation of endothelial receptors to stabilize endothelial barrier function. We measured vascular permeability to albumin and accumulation of fluorescent neutrophils in a full-thickness skin wound on the flank of LysM-EGFP mice 24 h after formation. Vascular permeability in individually perfused rat mesenteric microvessels was also measured after leukocytes were washed out of the vessel lumen...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Matt S Conover, Ségolène Ruer, Joemar Taganna, Vasilios Kalas, Henri De Greve, Jerome S Pinkner, Karen W Dodson, Han Remaut, Scott J Hultgren
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the dominant cause of urinary tract infections, clinically described as cystitis. UPEC express CUP pili, which are extracellular fibers tipped with adhesins that bind mucosal surfaces of the urinary tract. Here we identify the role of the F9/Yde/Fml pilus for UPEC persistence in the inflamed urothelium. The Fml adhesin FmlH binds galactose β1-3 N-acetylgalactosamine found in core-1 and -2 O-glycans. Deletion of fmlH had no effect on UPEC virulence in an acute mouse model of cystitis...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Zarife Nigâr Özdemir-Kumral, Dilek Özbeyli, Ahmet Faruk Özdemir, M Buğra Karaaslan, Kübra Kaytaz, Mustafa F Kara, Olgu Enis Tok, Feriha Ercan, Berrak Ç Yeğen
INTRODUCTION: Despite its adverse health consequences, tobacco smoking is associated with lower incidence of several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. The present study is aimed to show the effects of nicotine, major tobacco constituent, on five organs targeted by sepsis. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats received tap water with (5 mg/kg) or without nicotine for 14 days. Under ketamine anesthesia, sepsis (n=50) was induced by ligation and punction of the cecum, while sham group (n=8) had only laparotomy...
August 3, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
H M Golder, N Moss, G Rogers, B Jackson, N Gannon, Ptw Wong, I J Lean
CASE HISTORY: A herd of Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein-Jersey cross lactating cattle of mixed ages presented with a sudden drop in milk yield in 94/678 cows on 3 October 2014 (Day 0). The herd was located in Gretna in the Derwent Valley (Tasmania, Australia) and had been grazing dryland pasture. CLINICAL FINDINGS: On Day 0 the cows variably showed recumbency, peracute photosensitisation, inflamed coronary bands, conjunctival erythema, periauricular oedema, distress indicated by kicking at the flank, bruxism, discomfort, weight shifting, vocalisation indicating pain and depression...
October 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Raquel Guerrero-Alba, Eduardo E Valdez Morales, J Nestor Jimenez-Vargas, Cintya Lopez Lopez, Josue Jaramillo Polanco, Takanobu Okamoto, Yasmin Nasser, Nigel W Bunnett, Alan E Lomax, Stephen J Vanner
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychological stress accompanies chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD, and stress hormones can exacerbate pain signalling. In contrast, the endogenous opioid system has an important analgesic action during chronic inflammation. This study examined the interaction of these pathways. METHODS: Mouse nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were incubated with supernatants from segments of inflamed colon collected from patients with chronic UC and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (cDSS)-induced chronic colitis...
September 2, 2016: Gut
Pongsatorn Meesawatsom, James Burston, Gareth Hathway, Andrew Bennett, Victoria Chapman
BACKGROUND: Harnessing the actions of the resolvin pathways has the potential for the treatment of a wide range of conditions associated with overt inflammatory signalling. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) has robust analgesic effects in behavioural models of pain; however, the potential underlying spinal neurophysiological mechanisms contributing to these inhibitory effects in vivo are yet to be determined. This study investigated the acute effects of spinal AT-RvD1 on evoked responses of spinal neurones in vivo in a model of acute inflammatory pain and chronic osteoarthritic (OA) pain and the relevance of alterations in spinal gene expression to these neurophysiological effects...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Homaira Rahimi, Richard Bell, Echoe M Bouta, Ronald W Wood, Lianping Xing, Christopher T Ritchlin, Edward M Schwarz
UNLABELLED: Proliferation of draining lymphatic vessels coupled with dynamic changes in lymph node volume and flow are characteristic features in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Furthermore, impaired lymph egress from inflamed synovium is associated with joint flare in murine models of inflammatory-erosive arthritis. Unfortunately, advances towards a greater understanding of lymphatic changes in RA pathogenesis have been slow due to the absence of outcome measures to quantify lymphatic function in vivo...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Kai Hildner, Elise Punkenburg, Benjamin Abendroth, Markus F Neurath
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) represent a group of chronic immune-mediated disorders that are influenced by a genetic predisposition and additional environmental triggers. Genome-wide association studies strongly implicate that a number of immune system-related genetic variations are critically contributing to the initiation and promotion of intestinal inflammation. Especially the identification of the strong association of a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms including interleukin (IL)-23R, CCR6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and Stat4 with IBD susceptibility point at a critical involvement of T cells and especially of IL-17a-producing Th17 cells in the immune pathogenesis of IBD...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Rodrigo de Magalhães Gomes, Rossana C Soletti, Mônica Soldan, Kalil Madi, F Stuart Foster, João C Machado
The development of high-frequency endoscopic ultrasound for the investigation of models of esophageal disease may offer insights for future translation to human imaging. With respect to small animal models of esophageal diseases, ultrasound imaging instrumentation must employ frequencies scaled up to maintain the compromise between image resolution and inspected region. In this sense, a 40-MHz endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopy (eUBM) system and an endoscope were tested as diagnostic methods of imaging rat esophageal lesions in the acute and chronic phases caused by sodium hydroxide...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Fadi H Mourad, Tamim Hamdi, Kassem A Barada, Nayef E Saadé
Increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in various segments of histologically-intact small intestine in animal models of acute and chronic colitis. Whether these cytokines are produced locally or spread from the inflamed colon is not known. In addition, the role of gut innervation in this upregulation is not fully understood. To examine whether cytokines are produced de novo in the small intestine in two rat models of colitis; and to investigate the role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines...
June 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
Bin Ma, James R Whiteford, Sussan Nourshargh, Abigail Woodfin
Chronically inflamed tissues exhibit altered characteristics that include persistent populations of inflammatory leukocytes and remodelling of the vascular network. As the majority of studies of leukocyte recruitment have been carried out in normal healthy tissues the impact of underlying chronic inflammation on ongoing leukocyte recruitment is largely unknown. Here we investigate the profile and mechanisms of acute inflammatory responses in chronically inflamed and angiogenic tissues, and consider the implications for chronic inflammatory disorders...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Valirie Ndip Agbor, Tsi Njim, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Pyosalpinx as a cause of acute appendicitis is very rare. We report the first case of a right pyosalpinx causing an extrinsic compression of the appendiceal lumen and consequently an acute appendicitis following an obstruction. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32 year old female from the North west region of Cameroon, presented with an acute exacerbation of a mild chronic right iliac fossa pain over a 2 day duration. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and intraoperative findings were a bilateral pyosalpinx, with the right fallopian tube adhering to the caecum and the terminal ileum, and obstructing the lumen of an inflammed appendix...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Lindsay L Wong, Nahyoung Grace Lee, Dhanesh Amarnani, Catherine J Choi, Diane R Bielenberg, Suzanne K Freitag, Patricia A D'Amore, Leo A Kim
PURPOSE: The human orbit is an environment that is vulnerable to inflammation and edema in the setting of autoimmune thyroid disease. Our study investigated the tenet that orbital adipose tissue lacks lymphatic vessels and analyzed the clinicopathologic differences between patients with acute and chronic thyroid eye disease (TED). The underlying molecular mediators of blood and lymphatic vessel formation within the orbital fat also were evaluated. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
September 2016: Ophthalmology
Ulrike Peters, Eleni Solominidou, Yüksel Korkmaz, Stefan Rüttermann, Astrid Klocke, Thomas Frank Flemmig, Thomas Beikler
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and NF-kB pathway associated processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders, for example, periodontal disease. The activation of these pathways is controlled by the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of RCAN1 in periodontal disease. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using specific rabbit polyclonal anti-RCAN1 antibodies...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
K M Hargreaves, S Ruparel
Acute or chronic inflammation comprises a highly prevalent type of orofacial pain and is mediated by the generation of endogenous agonists that activate numerous receptors expressed on terminals of trigeminal (TG) nociceptive afferent neurons. One such studied receptor is transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is a ligand-gated cation channel that is expressed on a major subclass of nociceptors and is found in many orofacial tissues, including dental pulp. Antagonists to TRPV1 reveal an important role for this channel in mediating hypersensitivity in preclinical models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain...
September 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Yujin Guo, Hualin Cai, Lei Chen, Donglou Liang, Ranyao Yang, Ruili Dang, Pei Jiang
Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce the rodents to a depression-like state accompanied with remarkable changes of neurotransmitter systems. In this study, the effect of an intraperitoneal LPS injection (3mg/kg) on the concentrations of neurotransmitters was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in rat hippocampus. To further explore dysregulation pattern of the neurotransmitters following continuous inflammatory process, we then analyzed the neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rats after 2-week LPS exposure (500μg/kg every other day)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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