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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020917/deciphering-the-olfactory-repertoire-of-the-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus
#1
Fabrizio Lombardo, Marco Salvemini, Carmine Fiorillo, Tony Nolan, Laurence J Zwiebel, José M Ribeiro, Bruno Arcà
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. Compared to other mosquito species, Ae. albopictus females exhibit a generalist host seeking as well as a very aggressive biting behaviour that are responsible for its high degree of nuisance. Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988316/interspecies-transmission-of-emotional-information-via-chemosignals-from-humans-to-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#2
Biagio D'Aniello, Gün Refik Semin, Alessandra Alterisio, Massimo Aria, Anna Scandurra
We report a study examining interspecies emotion transfer via body odors (chemosignals). Do human body odors (chemosignals) produced under emotional conditions of happiness and fear provide information that is detectable by pet dogs (Labrador and Golden retrievers)? The odor samples were collected from the axilla of male donors not involved in the main experiment. The experimental setup involved the co-presence of the dog's owner, a stranger and the odor dispenser in a space where the dogs could move freely...
October 7, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981822/human-fear-chemosignaling-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#3
Jasper H B de Groot, Monique A M Smeets
Alarm pheromones are widely used in the animal kingdom. Notably, there are 26 published studies (N = 1652) highlighting a human capacity to communicate fear, stress, and anxiety via body odor from one person (66% males) to another (69% females). The question is whether the findings of this literature reflect a true effect, and what the average effect size is. These questions were answered by combining traditional meta-analysis with novel meta-analytical tools, p-curve analysis and p-uniform-techniques that could indicate whether findings are likely to reflect a true effect based on the distribution of P-values...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944748/host-location-behavior-of-the-tea-green-leafhopper-empoasca-vitis-g%C3%A3-the-hemiptera-cicadellidae-olfactory-and-visual-effects-on-their-orientation
#4
X Zhang, T Pengsakul, M Tukayo, L Yu, W Fang, D Luo
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933805/perioperative-administration-of-buffered-versus-non-buffered-crystalloid-intravenous-fluid-to-improve-outcomes-following-adult-surgical-procedures
#5
REVIEW
Sohail Bampoe, Peter M Odor, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Suzie Cro, Tong J Gan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael Fm James, Michael G Mythen, Catherine Mn O'Malley, Anthony M Roche, Kathy Rowan, Edward Burdett
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932343/babies-smell-wonderful-to-their-parents-teenagers-do-not-an-exploratory-questionnaire-study-on-children-s-age-and-personal-odor-ratings-in-a-polish-sample
#6
Ilona Croy, Tomasz Frackowiak, Thomas Hummel, Agnieszka Sorokowska
INTRODUCTION: Infant body odor is subjectively pleasant to parents and activates reward areas in the brain. Hence, body odor perception might contribute to parental bonding. However, it is unknown whether the perceived pleasantness of children's body odor varies over the course of a child's development. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-five parents (M = 36.9 years, SD = 7.3) were asked to assess the personal odor pleasantness of their children (N = 367; M = 9...
2017: Chemosensory Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918495/the-stingless-bee-melipona-solani-deposits-a-signature-mixture-and-methyl-oleate-to-mark-valuable-food-sources
#7
David Alavez-Rosas, Edi A Malo, Miguel A Guzmán, Daniel Sánchez-Guillén, Rogel Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Leopoldo Cruz-López
Stingless bees foraging for food improve recruitment by depositing chemical cues on valuable food sites or pheromone marks on vegetation. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and bioassays, we showed that Melipona solani foragers leave a mixture composed mostly of long chain hydrocarbons from their abdominal cuticle plus methyl oleate from the labial gland as a scent mark on rich food sites. The composition of hydrocarbons was highly variable among individuals and varied in proportions, depending on the body part...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911620/composition-of-asarum-heterotropoides-var-mandshuricum-radix-oil-from-different-extraction-methods-and-activities-against-human-body-odor-producing-bacteria
#8
A S M Tanbirul Haque, Jin Nam Moon, P S Saravana, Adane Tilahun, Byung-Soo Chun
In this study, oils from Asarum heterotropoides were extracted by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction methods and their antioxidant activities along with antimicrobial and inhibitory activities against five human body odor-producing bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Corynebacterium xerosis) were evaluated. The oil was found to contain 15 components, among which the most abundant component was methyl eugenol (37...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887482/preliminary-evidence-of-olfactory-signals-of-women-s-fertility-increasing-social-avoidance-behavior-towards-women-in-pair-bonded-men
#9
Chen Oren, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Previous studies suggest that women's body odor is perceived as more attractive during ovulation and that exposure to women's chemical signals of high fertility leads to increased mating motivation. Given that pair-bonded men react differently than single men to unfamiliar women, we investigated whether women's chemical signals of fertility influence approach behavior among pair-bonded and single men. In the first experiment, men performed the Comfortable Interpersonal Distance task while exposed to body odor samples from women who were ovulating and from the same women during their luteal phase...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852588/expression-differences-in-aphidius-ervi-hymenoptera-braconidae-females-reared-on-different-aphid-host-species
#10
Gabriel I Ballesteros, Jürgen Gadau, Fabrice Legeai, Angelica Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Blas Lavandero, Jean-Christophe Simon, Christian C Figueroa
The molecular mechanisms that allow generalist parasitoids to exploit many, often very distinct hosts are practically unknown. The wasp Aphidius ervi, a generalist koinobiont parasitoid of aphids, was introduced from Europe into Chile in the late 1970s to control agriculturally important aphid species. A recent study showed significant differences in host preference and host acceptance (infectivity) depending on the host A. ervi were reared on. In contrast, no genetic differentiation between A. ervi populations parasitizing different aphid species and aphids of the same species reared on different host plants was found in Chile...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842679/olfactory-receptor-10j5-responding-to-%C3%AE-cedrene-regulates-hepatic-steatosis-via-the-camp-pka-pathway
#11
Tao Tong, Sang Eun Ryu, Yeojin Min, Claire A de March, Caroline Bushdid, Jérôme Golebiowski, Cheil Moon, Taesun Park
Ectopic expression and functions of odorant receptors (ORs) in the human body have aroused much interest in the past decade. Mouse olfactory receptor 23 (MOR23, olfr16) and its human orthologue, OR10J5, have been found to be functionally expressed in several non-olfactory systems. Here, using MOR23- and OR10J5-expressing Hana3A cells, we identified α-cedrene, a natural compound that protects against hepatic steatosis in mice fed the high-fat diet, as a novel agonist of these receptors. In human hepatocytes, an RNA interference-mediated knockdown of OR10J5 increased intracellular lipid accumulation, along with upregulation of lipogenic genes and downregulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841690/different-methods-for-volatile-sampling-in-mammals
#12
Marlen Kücklich, Manfred Möller, Andrea Marcillo, Almuth Einspanier, Brigitte M Weiß, Claudia Birkemeyer, Anja Widdig
Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820500/odorous-compounds-from-poultry-manure-induce-dna-damage-nuclear-changes-and-decrease-cell-membrane-integrity-in-chicken-liver-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#13
Adriana Nowak, Tadeusz Bakuła, Katarzyna Matusiak, Remigiusz Gałęcki, Sebastian Borowski, Beata Gutarowska
Animal breeding and management of organic wastes pose a serious problem to the health of livestock and workers, as well as the nearby residents. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of toxicity of selected common odorous compounds from poultry manure, including ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), butyric acid, phenol, and indole. We measured their genotoxic and cytotoxic activity in the model chicken cell line (LMH), in vitro, by comet assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay, respectively...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817540/association-of-olfactory-function-with-the-intensity-of-self-reported-physical-activity-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
Bogusz Falkowski, Maciej Chudziński, Ewa Jakubowska, Anna Duda-Sobczak
INTRODUCTION    Olfactory function is impaired in patients with type 1 diabetes and can be recognized as a form of diabetic neuropathy. Physical activity has various beneficial effects on type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to assess a relation between physical activity and olfactory function in patients with type 1 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS    We enrolled 120 patients with type 1 diabetes referred to an outpatient diabetes clinic. Patients with diabetes duration of less than 5 years, age above 65 years, concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis, and those using drugs affecting nasal mucosa were excluded...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#15
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765001/xad-2-a-useful-alternative-to-tenax-ta-for-analysis-of-biogenic-volatiles-employing-thermal-desorption-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#16
Andrea Marcillo, Viktorija Jakimovska, Anja Widdig, Claudia Birkemeyer
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly collected from gaseous samples by adsorption to materials such as the porous polymer Tenax TA. Adsorbed compounds are subsequently released from these materials by thermal desorption (TD) and separated then by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Tenax TA is known to be particularly suitable for non-polar to semipolar volatiles, however, many volatiles from environmental and biological samples possess a rather polar character...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756946/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-requirements-in-activity-dependent-critical-period-neural-circuit-refinement
#17
Caleb A Doll, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Activity-dependent synaptic remodeling occurs during early-use critical periods, when naive juveniles experience sensory input. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) sculpts synaptic refinement in an activity sensor mechanism based on sensory cues, with FMRP loss causing the most common heritable autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the well-mapped Drosophila olfactory circuitry, projection neurons (PNs) relay peripheral sensory information to the central brain mushroom body (MB) learning/memory center...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#18
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732030/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-microplitis-mediator-as-well-as-functional-characterization-of-chemosensory-protein-3
#19
Yong Peng, Shan-Ning Wang, Ke-Ming Li, Jing-Tao Liu, Yao Zheng, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20) and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3) were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728024/origins-of-cell-type-specific-olfactory-processing-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-circuit
#20
Kengo Inada, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
How cell-type-specific physiological properties shape neuronal functions in a circuit remains poorly understood. We addressed this issue in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a higher olfactory circuit, where neurons belonging to distinct glomeruli in the antennal lobe feed excitation to three types of intrinsic neurons, α/β, α'/β', and γ Kenyon cells (KCs). Two-photon optogenetics and intracellular recording revealed that whereas glomerular inputs add similarly in all KCs, spikes were generated most readily in α'/β' KCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
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