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body odor

Patrick Millet, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K Beauchamp, Bruce A Kimball
Several studies demonstrate that inflammation affects body odor. Volatile signals associated with inflammation induced by pyrogens like LPS are detectable both by conspecifics and chemical analyses. However, little is known about the mechanisms which translate detection of a foreign molecule or pathogen into a unique body odor, or even how unique that odor may be. Here, we utilized C57BL/6J trained mice to identify the odor of LPS-treated conspecifics to investigate potential pathways between LPS-induced inflammation and changes in body odor, as represented by changes in urine odor...
December 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Z-W Kang, F-H Liu, R-P Pang, W-B Yu, X-L Tan, Z-Q Zheng, H-G Tian, T-X Liu
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Kenichi Azuma, Koichi Ikeda, Naoki Kagi, U Yanagi, Haruki Osawa
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial and environmental factors at the workplace play a significant role in building-related symptoms (BRSs). Environmental factors change during summer cooling and winter heating using air-conditioning systems. Thus, significant risk factors in each season need to be clarified. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted during summer in Japan and seasonal differences between summer and winter were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 489 offices...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Nataša Stritih, Alenka Žunič Kosi
In animal contests, communicating aggressive motivation is most often mediated by visual or acoustic signals, while chemical signals are not expected to serve such a function since they are less able to be modulated by the sender during the changing behavioral context. We describe a rare example of ephemeral olfactory signals in terrestrial animals, signals that are emitted via protrusive scent glands in male cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) to reflect the state of the signaler's aggression...
2017: PloS One
Nicole H Martin, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann
Fluid milk quality in the United States has improved steadily over the last 2 decades, in large part due to the reduction in post-pasteurization contamination (PPC). Despite these improvements, some studies suggest that almost 50% of fluid milk still shows evidence of PPC with organisms that are able to grow at 6°C, even though PPC may be much less frequent in some facilities. Several gram-negative bacteria, when introduced as PPC, can grow rapidly at refrigeration temperatures around 6°C and can lead to bacterial levels above 20,000 cfu/mL (the regulatory limit for bacterial numbers in fluid milk in the United States) and spoilage that can be detected sensorially within 7 to 10 d of processing...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Lucie Desmedt, David Baracchi, Jean-Marc Devaud, Martin Giurfa, Patrizia d'Ettorre
Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nurul Syahirah Shamsol Anuar, Aeyshah Abang Kassim, Motoo Utsumi, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Kazuya Shimizu, Nor'azizi Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Norio Sugiura, Hirofumi Hara
Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) outbreaks in tropical water bodies, such as Southeast Asia, by actinomycetes have not yet been elucidated in detail. Six Streptomyces isolates from lowland environments in Malaysia were selected and evaluated for their odor production under different temperatures. The gene responsible for the production of geosmin, geoA, was detected in all isolates, while only two isolates harbored tpc, which is responsible for 2-MIB production. This result suggested that geosmin and 2-MIB synthesis pathway genes already existed in the environment in the Tropics of Southeast Asia...
October 31, 2017: Microbes and Environments
Mantas Žurauskas, Oliver Barnstedt, Maria Frade-Rodriguez, Scott Waddell, Martin J Booth
The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Nishchal K Sharma, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu, Robert A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS)...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Xiyan Ji, Weizhen Zhang, Mengqi Jiang, Jian He, Zheng Zheng
The black-odor mechanism of Yitong River was analyzed based on survey and monitoring results. We found that organic matter is the main pollution source of Yitong River and its tributaries. A black-odor evaluation model that can describe the pollution of the Yitong River water system was developed, and this model has the parameters I = 0.21 [CODCr] + 0.18 [DO] - 0.36[NH3-N] + 0.91. The model performance was satisfactory with a black-odor defining accuracy of 69%. Moreover, we found that CODCr, NH3-N, and DO are the influential factors of the Yitong River black-odor water body and that their threshold values when the water body transitioned to black odor were 109...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Xia Wang, Amei Amei, J Steven de Belle, Stephen P Roberts
Brain development and behavior are sensitive to a variety of environmental influences including social interactions and physicochemical stressors. Sensory input in situ is a mosaic of both enrichment and stress, yet little is known about how multiple environmental factors interact to affect brain anatomical structures, circuits, and cognitive function. In this study, we address these issues by testing the individual and combined effects of sub-adulthood thermal stress, larval density, and early-adulthood living spatial enrichment on brain anatomy and olfactory associative learning in adult Drosophila melanogaster In response to heat stress, the mushroom bodies (MBs) were the most volumetrically impaired among all of the brain structures, an effect highly correlated with reduced odor learning performance...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Peter Mekhail, Akbar Ashrafi, Mario Mekhail, David Hatcher, Monish Aron
INTRODUCTION: Parastomal hernia is a common and vexing problem after ileal conduit urinary diversion that can cause pain, bowel symptoms, and problems with the stoma appliance, resulting in leakage, odor, and impairment of quality of life. Historically, these hernias have been managed open surgically, which requires considerable dissection of the abdominal wall for mesh placement, and may also require relocating the stoma to the contralateral side. Further, open parastomal hernia repair can be a morbid procedure with recurrence rates of approximately 30%...
September 7, 2017: Urology
Guadalupe Calderón-Leyva, Cesar A Meza-Herrera, Rafael Rodriguez-Martinez, Oscar Angel-García, Raymundo Rivas-Muñoz, Juan V Delgado-Bermejo, Francisco G Véliz-Deras
The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate and (or) testosterone to male rams during the season of reproductive arrest is able to re-activate male sexual behavior and, later on, to promote through the male effect, both sexual and reproductive competence of anovulatory nulliparous ewes. Therefore, an experiment was performed under long-day photoperiods (spring; photo-reproductive arrest, 26°N). Dorper rams were randomly divided into four homogeneous experimental groups (n = 5 males each) regarding live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and odor intensity (OI)...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
Fabrizio Lombardo, Marco Salvemini, Carmine Fiorillo, Tony Nolan, Laurence J Zwiebel, José M Ribeiro, Bruno Arcà
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. Compared to other mosquito species, Ae. albopictus females exhibit a generalist host seeking as well as a very aggressive biting behaviour that are responsible for its high degree of nuisance. Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Biagio D'Aniello, Gün Refik Semin, Alessandra Alterisio, Massimo Aria, Anna Scandurra
We report a study examining interspecies emotion transfer via body odors (chemosignals). Do human body odors (chemosignals) produced under emotional conditions of happiness and fear provide information that is detectable by pet dogs (Labrador and Golden retrievers)? The odor samples were collected from the axilla of male donors not involved in the main experiment. The experimental setup involved the co-presence of the dog's owner, a stranger and the odor dispenser in a space where the dogs could move freely...
October 7, 2017: Animal Cognition
Jasper H B de Groot, Monique A M Smeets
Alarm pheromones are widely used in the animal kingdom. Notably, there are 26 published studies (N = 1652) highlighting a human capacity to communicate fear, stress, and anxiety via body odor from one person (66% males) to another (69% females). The question is whether the findings of this literature reflect a true effect, and what the average effect size is. These questions were answered by combining traditional meta-analysis with novel meta-analytical tools, p-curve analysis and p-uniform-techniques that could indicate whether findings are likely to reflect a true effect based on the distribution of P-values...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
X Zhang, T Pengsakul, M Tukayo, L Yu, W Fang, D Luo
The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Sohail Bampoe, Peter M Odor, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Suzie Cro, Tong J Gan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael Fm James, Michael G Mythen, Catherine Mn O'Malley, Anthony M Roche, Kathy Rowan, Edward Burdett
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ilona Croy, Tomasz Frackowiak, Thomas Hummel, Agnieszka Sorokowska
INTRODUCTION: Infant body odor is subjectively pleasant to parents and activates reward areas in the brain. Hence, body odor perception might contribute to parental bonding. However, it is unknown whether the perceived pleasantness of children's body odor varies over the course of a child's development. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-five parents (M = 36.9 years, SD = 7.3) were asked to assess the personal odor pleasantness of their children (N = 367; M = 9...
2017: Chemosensory Perception
David Alavez-Rosas, Edi A Malo, Miguel A Guzmán, Daniel Sánchez-Guillén, Rogel Villanueva-Gutiérrez, Leopoldo Cruz-López
Stingless bees foraging for food improve recruitment by depositing chemical cues on valuable food sites or pheromone marks on vegetation. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and bioassays, we showed that Melipona solani foragers leave a mixture composed mostly of long chain hydrocarbons from their abdominal cuticle plus methyl oleate from the labial gland as a scent mark on rich food sites. The composition of hydrocarbons was highly variable among individuals and varied in proportions, depending on the body part...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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