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body odor

N Yoshioka, K Kurata, T Takahashi, M Ariizumi, T Mori, H Fujisawa, N Kameyama, Y Okuyama
Body odor is mainly caused by secreted sweat. Although sweat is almost odorless immediately after secretion, decomposition or denaturation of components contained in sweat by bacteria on the skin surface contributes to unpleasant body odor. Body odor is due to various substances and aldehydes are primarily detected in body odor [1-4]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Florence Courtens, Jean-Louis Demangeat, Mourad Benabdallah
Homeopathic remedies (HRs) contain odorant molecules such as flavonoids or terpenes and can lose their efficiency in presence of some competitive odors. Such similarities, along with extreme sensitivity of the olfactory system, widespread presence of olfactory receptors over all organic tissues (where they have metabolic roles besides perception of odors), and potential direct access to the brain through olfactory nerves (ONs) and trigeminal nerves, may suggest the olfactory system as target for HRs. Recent works highlighted that HRs exist in a dual form, that is, a still molecular form at low dilution and a nanoparticulate form at high dilution, and that remnants of source remedy persist in extremely high dilutions...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Michele Dibattista, Johannes Reisert
The first step to perceive molecules in the air as odors is their detection by the olfactory receptors (ORs) present in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the nasal cavity. The binding of the odorant molecule to the OR triggers a series of biochemical events that lead to the opening of ion channels, creating at first a generator potential that, if the latter reaches threshold, leads to action potential firing. New insights into olfactory transduction introduced new key players and highlighted the necessity to study OSN physiology in an OR-dependent fashion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alja Lüdke, Georg Raiser, Johannes Nehrkorn, Andreas V M Herz, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals can form associations between temporally separated stimuli. To do so, the nervous system has to retain a neural representation of the first stimulus until the second stimulus appears. The neural substrate of such sensory stimulus memories is unknown. Here, we search for a sensory odor memory in the insect olfactory system and characterize odorant-evoked Ca2+ activity at three consecutive layers of the olfactory system in Drosophila : in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, and in Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yang Dai, Meng-Fei Wang, Shou-Lin Jiang, Yi-Fei Zhang, Megha N Parajulee, Fa-Jun Chen
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels can markedly affect the growth, development, reproduction and behavior of herbivorous insects, mainly by changing the primary and secondary metabolites of their host plants. However, little is known about the host-selection behavior and the respective intrinsic mechanism of sap-sucking insects in response to elevated CO2 . In this experiment, the host-selection behavior, as well as the physiological mechanism based on the analysis of growth, development and energy substances, and the expression of the olfactory-related genes of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, were studied under ambient (407...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Amir Banner, Simone Shamay-Tsoory
Increasing evidence suggests that humans can communicate both trait-dominance and state-dominance via body odor. Androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one), a chemosignal found in human sweat, seems to be a likely candidate for signaling dominance in humans. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of androstadienone on the perception of social dominance. Moreover, we examined whether high levels of social anxiety, a psychopathology involving concerns that specifically pertain to social dominance, are associated with increased sensitivity to androstadienone as a chemical cue of dominance...
May 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ana Lívia de Oliveira, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira, Michele Pereira Netto, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite
Little is known about the nutritional status and dietary habits of persons with an intestinal stoma, and no specific dietary guidelines have been established. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients of a Stoma Patient Health Care Service in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, to compare the nutritional status of persons with an ileostomy or colostomy and to evaluate which foods are avoided most frequently and why. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, arm circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness) and body fat were assessed...
May 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
Wei Song, Lirong Zhao, Yiting Tao, Xia Guo, Jia Jia, Lei He, Yang Huang, Yan Zhu, Peng Chen, Hongtao Qin
Nociceptive stimulus involuntarily interrupts concurrent activities. This interruptive effect is related to the protective function of nociception that is believed to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. To determine whether such interruptive effect is conserved in invertebrate and potentially uncover underlying neural circuits, we examined Drosophila melanogaster. Electric shock (ES) is a commonly used nociceptive stimulus for nociception related research in Drosophila. Here we showed that background noxious ES dramatically interrupted odor response behaviors in a T-maze, which is termed blocking odor-response by electric-shock (BOBE)...
May 28, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Wataru Takayama, Kaho Yamasaki, Akira Endo, Yasuhiro Otomo
Impalement brain injury is rare, and the initial management of this condition is not well-established. We present a case of a well-managed brain injury caused by impalement with a metal bar. A 29-year-old man whose head had been impaled by a metal bar was transferred to our hospital. Upon arrival, he was agitated, with an unsteady gait and prominent odor of alcohol on his breath. He exhibited normal vital signs and neurological findings, except for his level of consciousness. To address the risk of secondary brain injury caused by movement of the foreign body, we immediately administered a sedative agent and muscle relaxant after the initial neurological evaluation...
2018: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Roza G Kamiloglu, Monique Smeets, Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin
In a double-blind experiment, participants were exposed to facial images of anger, disgust, fear and neutral expressions under two body odor conditions: fear and neutral sweat. They had to indicate the valence of the gradually emerging facial image. Two alternative hypotheses were tested, namely a general negative evaluative state hypothesis and a discrete emotion hypothesis. These hypotheses suggest two distinctive data patterns for muscle activation and classification speed of facial expressions. The pattern of results that would support a discrete emotions perspective would be expected to reveal significantly increased activity in the medial frontalis (eyebrow raiser) and corrugator supercilii (frown) muscles associated with significantly decreased reaction times to only fear faces in the fear odor condition...
May 22, 2018: Chemical Senses
Preet Bano Singh, Alix Young, Synnøve Lind, Marie Cathinka Leegaard, Alessandra Capuozzo, Valentina Parma
Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone...
May 15, 2018: Chemical Senses
Trias Thireou, Georgia Kythreoti, Katerina E Tsitsanou, Konstantinos Koussis, Christina E Drakou, Julie Kinnersley, Thomas Kröber, Patrick M Guerin, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Kostas Iatrou, Elias Eliopoulos, Spyros E Zographos
In this work we report a fast and efficient virtual screening protocol for discovery of novel bioinspired synthetic mosquito repellents with lower volatility and, in all likelihood, increased protection time as compared with their plant-derived parental compounds. Our screening protocol comprises two filtering steps. The first filter is based on the shape and chemical similarity to known plant-derived repellents, whereas the second filter is based on the predicted similarity of the ligand's binding mode to the Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein (AgamOBP1) relative to that of DEET and Icaridin to the same OBP...
July 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xin Huang, Zhifeng Huang, Xue-Ping Chen, Dong Zhang, Jizhi Zhou, Xianyun Wang, Naiyun Gao
With the increasing occurrence of water eutrophication and blooms, earthy-musty odor problems caused by cyanobacteria have been more and more apparent. These problems have a serious impact on aquatic ecosystems and drinking water safety and become one of the priorities of the water environment researches and managements. In the present study, genes associated with 2-MIB synthesis in cyanobacteria were studied by systematic investigation on molecular characterization and quantity of 2-MIB-producing cyanobacteria in China...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Johanna Bendas, Thomas Hummel, Ilona Croy
The olfactory system contributes significantly to human social behavior and especially to mate choice and empathic functioning. In this context, previous research examining individuals with impaired olfactory function indicated an influence of the sense of smell on different aspects of sexuality. However, the applied samples, methods, and results are diverse and an involvement of confounding factors, such as breathing problems, depression or social insecurity cannot be ruled out. The present study examined the potential correlation between odor threshold in healthy participants and their sexual desire, sexual experience, and sexual performance...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Yifeng Xue, Linglong Cheng, Xi Chen, Xiaoman Zhai, Wei Wang, Wenjie Zhang, Yan Bai, Hezhong Tian, Lei Nie, Shihao Zhang, Tong Wei
The process of corpse cremation generates numerous harmful air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. These pollutants could have severe effects on the surrounding environment and human health. Currently, the awareness of the emission levels of harmful air pollutants from cremators and their emission characteristics is insufficient. In this study, we obtained the emission characteristics of flue gas from cremators in Beijing and determined the localized emission factors and emission levels of harmful air pollutants based on actual monitoring data from nine typical cremators...
2018: PloS One
Lukas N Groschner, Laura Chan Wah Hak, Rafal Bogacz, Shamik DasGupta, Gero Miesenböck
Perceptual decisions require the accumulation of sensory information to a response criterion. Most accounts of how the brain performs this process of temporal integration have focused on evolving patterns of spiking activity. We report that subthreshold changes in membrane voltage can represent accumulating evidence before a choice. αβ core Kenyon cells (αβc KCs) in the mushroom bodies of fruit flies integrate odor-evoked synaptic inputs to action potential threshold at timescales matching the speed of olfactory discrimination...
May 3, 2018: Cell
Michael Wink
Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qian Shen, Li Zhu, Hong Ye Cao
Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guowei Chen, Hongguang Pan, Lan Li, Jumei Wang, Delun Zhang, Zebin Wu
Young children with olfactory disturbance are sometimes encountered in ENT clinics. We investigated the clinical applicability of olfactory testing to the pediatric population in China.One hundred and ninety-three healthy children aged 6 to 17 years were enrolled. All participants were asked for demographic information (age, sex, body mass index [BMI], and rating of olfactory function) in a structured questionnaire and underwent olfactory testing including T&T Olfactometer (T&T), odor discrimination (OD), and odor identification (OI) tests of Sniffin' Sticks...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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