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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668620/olfactory-assessment-in-the-chinese-pediatric-population
#1
Guowei Chen, Hongguang Pan, Lan Li, Jumei Wang, Delun Zhang, Zebin Wu
Young children with olfactory disturbance are sometimes encountered in ENT clinics. We investigated the clinical applicability of olfactory testing to the pediatric population in China.One hundred and ninety-three healthy children aged 6 to 17 years were enrolled. All participants were asked for demographic information (age, sex, body mass index [BMI], and rating of olfactory function) in a structured questionnaire and underwent olfactory testing including T&T Olfactometer (T&T), odor discrimination (OD), and odor identification (OI) tests of Sniffin' Sticks...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666581/sex-and-tissue-specific-expression-profiles-of-odorant-binding-protein-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-in-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae
#2
Yunhe Zhao, Jinfeng Ding, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Chenggang Zhou, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga is an agricultural pest insect affecting the production of Chinese chive and other liliaceous vegetables in China, and it is significantly attracted by sex pheromones and the volatiles derived from host plants. Despite verification of this chemosensory behavior, however, it is still unknown how B. odoriphaga recognizes these volatile compounds on the molecular level. Many of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play crucial roles in olfactory perception. Here, we identified 49 OBP and 5 CSP genes from the antennae and body transcriptomes of female and male adults of B...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662070/systemic-and-sex-biased-regulation-of-obp-expression-under-semiochemical-stimuli
#3
Débora Pires Paula, Roberto Coiti Togawa, Marcos Mota do Carmo Costa, Priscila Grynberg, Natália Florêncio Martins, David Alan Andow
Constitutive expression of Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) in antennae and other body parts has been examined mainly to infer their involvement in insect olfaction, while their regulation in response to semiochemical stimuli has remained poorly known. Previous studies of semiochemical response were basically done using electrophysiology, which integrates the response of the set of OBPs present in an antenna or sensillum, without revealing the regulation of OBPs or which ones might be involved. In this study we used boll weevil as a model and mined its OBPs by RNA-Seq to study their simultaneous antennal expression by qPCR under controlled semiochemical stimuli with aggregation pheromone and plant volatiles...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661734/pathology-resident-perspectives-about-early-autopsy-experiences
#4
REVIEW
Richard A Prayson
The performance of autopsies remains an integral part of residency training in Anatomic Pathology. A number of medical schools no longer require an autopsy experience; therefore, a subset of pathology residents has never seen an autopsy performed prior to commencement of residency training. Although much as been written regarding student's perspectives on their medical school anatomy experiences, practically nothing has been written about resident perspectives on the autopsy experience. Surveys were sent to all Pathology resident trainees (n = 27) in a training program exploring resident perspectives on their early autopsy experiences...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617740/emotional-body-odors-as-context-effects-on-cardiac-and-subjective-responses
#5
Jacqueline Ferreira, Valentina Parma, Laura Alho, Carlos F Silva, Sandra C Soares
Many studies have indicated that the chemical cues from body odors (BOs) of donors experiencing negative emotions can influence the psychophysiological and behavioral response of the observers. However, these olfactory cues have been used mainly as contextual information for processing visual stimuli. Here, for the first time, we evaluate how emotional BO affects the emotional tone of a subsequent BO message. Axillary sweat samples were taken from 20 donors in three separate sessions while they watched fear, disgust or neutral videos...
March 30, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616229/investigation-of-the-behavioral-characteristics-of-dogs-purpose-bred-and-prepared-to-perform-vapor-wake-%C3%A2-detection-of-person-borne-explosives
#6
Lucia Lazarowski, Pamela Sue Haney, Jeanne Brock, Terry Fischer, Bart Rogers, Craig Angle, Jeffrey S Katz, L Paul Waggoner
Specialized detector dogs are increasingly being utilized for the detection of modern threats. The Vapor Wake ® (VW) dog was developed to create a dog phenotype ideally suited for detecting hand-carried and body-worn explosives. VW dogs (VWDs) are trained to sample and alert to target odors in the aerodynamic wakes of moving persons, which entrains vapor and small particles from the person. The behavioral characteristics necessary for dogs to be successfully trained and employed for the application of VW are a distinct subset of the desired general characteristics of dogs used for detection tasks due to the dynamic nature of moving targets...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606788/chemical-composition-of-axillary-odorants-reflects-social-and-individual-attributes-in-rhesus-macaques
#7
Brigitte M Weiß, Marlen Kücklich, Ruth Thomsen, Stefanie Henkel, Susann Jänig, Lars Kulik, Claudia Birkemeyer, Anja Widdig
Abstract: Scents play an important role in the life of most terrestrial mammals and may transmit valuable information about conspecifics. Olfaction was long considered of low importance in Old World monkeys due to their relative reduction of olfactory structures and low incidence of scent-marking behavior but has been increasingly recognized for mediating social relationships in recent years. Yet, studies investigating the composition of their chemical cues remain scarce. In the present study, we analyzed the potential information content of chemicals present on the skin of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578463/pectin-honey-hydrogel-characterization-antimicrobial-activity-and-biocompatibility
#8
Gessica Giusto, Giangiacomo Beretta, Cristina Vercelli, Emanuela Valle, Selina Iussich, Roberta Borghi, Patrizio Odetti, Fiammetta Monacelli, Clara Tramuta, Elena Grego, Patrizia Nebbia, Patrizia Robino, Rosangela Odore, Marco Gandini
BACKGROUND: Novel pectin-honey hydrogels have been developed and characterized as medical device. Ideally, a wound dressing should maintain optimal fluid affinity, permit moisture evaporation, protect the wound from microbes, and have shape-conformability, biocompatibility, and antibacterial activity. OBJECTIVE: A novel, simple and fast method to produce pectin-honey wound dressings is described. METHODS: The properties of these pectin-honey hydrogels were investigated, including swelling ability, water vapour transmission rate, hydrogen peroxide production, methylglyoxal content and antibacterial activity...
2018: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576590/characterization-of-the-axillary-microbiota-of-japanese-male-subjects-with-spicy-and-milky-odor-types-by-pyrosequencing
#9
Hiroya Okamoto, Shoko Koizumi, Hironori Shimizu, Otomi Cho, Takashi Sugita
 Malodorants in the human axilla are produced from human biogenic precursors by axillary bacterial enzymes. In the present study, we used pyrosequencing analysis to identify the axillary bacterial microbiota of 13 Japanese male subjects with cumin-like, spicy body odor (C type), and 9 with milky, skin-based body odor (M type). Anaerococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus predominated in both C- and M-type subjects, followed by Moraxella and Peptoniphilus. These genera accounted for 96.2-99.9% of the total bacterial population, except in the microbiota of one C-type subject...
2018: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551489/active-protection-learning-activated-raf-mapk-activity-protects-labile-memory-from-rac1-independent-forgetting
#10
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549237/functional-architecture-of-reward-learning-in-mushroom-body-extrinsic-neurons-of-larval-drosophila
#11
Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#12
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545390/elongator-complex-is-required-for-long-term-olfactory-memory-formation-in-drosophila
#13
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541893/body-odor-and-sex-do-cuticular-hydrocarbons-facilitate-sexual-attraction-in-the-small-hairy-maggot-blowfly
#14
Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540522/olfaction-written-in-bone-cribriform-plate-size-parallels-olfactory-receptor-gene-repertoires-in-mammalia
#15
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528306/the-use-of-vertical-flow-constructed-wetlands-for-the-treatment-of-hyper-eutrophic-water-bodies-with-dense-cyanobacterial-blooms
#16
Fei Zhong, Wei Liu, Mengdan Lv, Zifa Deng, Juan Wu, Hongjiu Ji, Shuiping Cheng
Eutrophication often leads to the periodic proliferation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs), which threaten the sustainability of freshwater ecosystems and lead to serious environmental, health and economic damage. Hence, it is vitally important to take effective measures to manage HCBs and associated problems. In this study, vertical flow constructed wetlands (CWs) were operated under different hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) to treat a hyper-eutrophic water body with HCBs. Six sampling ports (representing different layers) were evenly distributed along the water flow direction to study the purification processes of CWs...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497384/identification-and-expression-patterns-of-anoplophora-chinensis-forster-chemosensory-receptor-genes-from-the-antennal-transcriptome
#17
Long Sun, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jia-Li Qian, Ke Kang, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Jun-Dan Deng, Yan-Ping Tang, Cheng Chen, Laura Hansen, Tian Xu, Qing-He Zhang, Long-Wa Zhang
The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491443/long-term-optical-brain-imaging-in-live-adult-fruit-flies
#18
Cheng Huang, Jessica R Maxey, Supriyo Sinha, Joan Savall, Yiyang Gong, Mark J Schnitzer
Time-lapse in vivo microscopy studies of cellular morphology and physiology are crucial toward understanding brain function but have been infeasible in the fruit fly, a key model species. Here we use laser microsurgery to create a chronic fly preparation for repeated imaging of neural architecture and dynamics for up to 50 days. In fly mushroom body neurons, we track axonal boutons for 10 days and record odor-evoked calcium transients over 7 weeks. Further, by using voltage imaging to resolve individual action potentials, we monitor spiking plasticity in dopamine neurons of flies undergoing mechanical stress...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490271/two-parallel-pathways-assign-opposing-odor-valences-during-drosophila-memory-formation
#19
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490053/learning-influences-host-versus-nonhost-discrimination-and-postalighting-searching-behavior-in-the-tephritid-fruit-fly-parasitoid-diachasmimorpha-kraussii-hymenoptera-braconidae
#20
Ayad Masry, Anthony R Clarke, J Paul Cunningham
Compared with the extensive body of research on the olfactory behavior of parasitoids of leaf-feeding insects, less is known about the fine-tuning of olfactory behavior in parasitoids that use fruit-feeding insects as hosts. We investigated whether a tephritid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), could discriminate between odors of fruits infested by larvae of a host species, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), compared to fruits infested by non-host larvae, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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