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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916960/detection-of-volatile-metabolites-derived-from-garlic-allium-sativum-in-human-urine
#1
Laura Scheffler, Yvonne Sauermann, Anja Heinlein, Constanze Sharapa, Andrea Buettner
The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption...
December 1, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#2
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884756/repeated-unpredictable-threats-without-harm-impair-spatial-working-memory-in-the-barnes-maze
#3
Diane J Kim, Nathan St Louis, Ralph A Molaro, Glenn T Hudson, Robert C Chorley, Brenda J Anderson
Psychological stressors elicit the anticipation of homeostatic challenge, whereas physical stressors are direct threats to homeostasis. Many rodent models of stress include both types of stressors, yet deficits, like those reported for working memory, are often attributed to psychological stress. To empirically test whether intermittent psychological stressors, such as repeated threats, are solely sufficient to impair spatial working memory, we developed a novel rodent model of stress that is restricted to the anticipation of threat, and free of direct physical challenge...
November 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871975/the-role-of-the-drosophila-lateral-horn-in-olfactory-information-processing-and-behavioral-response
#4
REVIEW
Janna N Schultzhaus, Sehresh Saleem, Hina Iftikhar, Ginger E Carney
Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859193/the-importance-of-motivation-weapons-and-foul-odors-in-driving-encounter-competition-in-carnivores
#5
Maximilian L Allen, Christopher C Wilmers, L Mark Elbroch, Julie M Golla, Heiko U Wittmer
Encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. Ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (RHP), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. The difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. We studied the outcome of encounter competition contests among mesocarnivores at deer carcasses in California to determine the most important variables for winning these contests...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855167/assessment-of-olfactory-function-in-mapt-associated-neurodegenerative-disease-reveals-odor-identification-irreproducibility-as-a-non-disease-specific-general-characteristic-of-olfactory-dysfunction
#6
Katerina Markopoulou, Bruce A Chase, Piotr Robowski, Audrey Strongosky, Ewa Narożańska, Emilia J Sitek, Mariusz Berdynski, Maria Barcikowska, Matt C Baker, Rosa Rademakers, Jarosław Sławek, Christine Klein, Katja Hückelheim, Meike Kasten, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831646/mechanism-of-feedback-regulation-of-neutrophil-inflammation-in-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#7
J-J Wu, Y-T Zhu, Y-M Hu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of complement-neutrophil feedback regulation of inflammatory response in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) through constructing an animal model of HSP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four SPF grade Japanese large-eared white rabbits were randomly divided into normal group and model group, 12 for each group. HSP model was constructed by challenging rabbits with gastric gavage of a decoction solution containing ginger, Piper longum L...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815144/a-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-in-neurons-of-trichoid-sensilla-in-locust-locusta-migratoria
#8
Yinwei You, Dean P Smith, Mingyue Lv, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. Odorant receptors (ORs) on the membrane of chemosensory neurons are believed to be key molecules in sensing exogenous chemical cues. ORs in different species of insects are diverse and should tune a species to its own specific semiochemicals relevant to their survival. The orthopteran insect, locust (Locusta migratoria), is a model hemimetabolous insect. There is very limited knowledge on the functions of locust ORs although many locust OR genes have been identified in genomic sequencing experiments...
October 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776190/antennal-transcriptome-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-five-chemosensory-gene-families-from-the-asian-honeybee-apis-cerana-cerana
#9
Huiting Zhao, Yali Du, Pengfei Gao, Shujie Wang, Jianfang Pan, Yusuo Jiang
Chemosensory genes play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behavior. The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, is one of the most important insect species in China in terms of resource production, and providing high-quality products for human consumption, and also serves as an important pollinator. Communication and foraging behavior of worker bees is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing on adult A. c. cerana workers of different ages to identify the major chemosensory gene families and the differentially expressed genes(DEGs), and to investigate their expression profiles...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#10
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744049/crispr-cas9-in-locusts-successful-establishment-of-an-olfactory-deficiency-line-by-targeting-the-mutagenesis-of-an-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-orco
#11
Yan Li, Jie Zhang, Dafeng Chen, Pengcheng Yang, Feng Jiang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Locusts are important agricultural pests worldwide and regarded as study models for entomology. However, the absence of targeted gene manipulation systems for locusts has restricted their applications for research. Herein, we report the successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce a targeted heritable mutagenesis of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The target sequence of gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and examine the roles of the odorant receptor pathway in the locust...
October 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738826/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-individual-and-contextual-exposures-with-lung-function-in-a-rural-canadian-population
#12
Bonnie Janzen, Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Louise Hagel, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the association of individual and contextual exposures with lung function by gender in rural-dwelling Canadians. METHODS: A cross-sectional mail survey obtained completed questionnaires on exposures from 8263 individuals; a sub-sample of 1609 individuals (762 men, 847 women) additionally participated in clinical lung function testing. The three dependent variables were forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio...
October 13, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720068/the-mechanism-controlling-phenotypic-plasticity-of-body-color-in-the-desert-locust-some-recent-progress
#13
Seiji Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Harano, Yudai Nishide, Ryohei Sugahara
Schistocerca gregaria exhibits density-dependent body color polyphenism. Nymphs occurring at low population densities show green-brown polyphenism. They show phase polyphenism and develop black patterns at high population densities. Recent studies suggest a third type of polyphensim, that is, homochromy, a response to background color. Laboratory experiments that considered homochromy suggest that humidity is not directly involved in green-brown polyphenism and that odor from other individuals does not induce black patterns...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694947/organization-of-olfactory-centres-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#14
Olena Riabinina, Darya Task, Elizabeth Marr, Chun-Chieh Lin, Robert Alford, David A O'Brochta, Christopher J Potter
Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694145/a-borrelia-afzelii-infection-increases-larval-tick-burden-on-myodes-glareolus-rodentia-cricetidae-and-nymphal-body-weight-of-ixodes-ricinus-acari-ixodidae
#15
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593501/smelling-the-difference-transcriptome-proteome-and-volatilome-changes-after-mating
#16
Daniela Freihorst, Melanie Brunsch, Sophia Wirth, Katrin Krause, Olaf Kniemeyer, Jörg Linde, Maritta Kunert, Wilhelm Boland, Erika Kothe
Mushrooms, such as Schizophyllum commune, have a specific odor. Whether this is linked to mating, prerequisite for mushroom formation, or also found in monokaryotic, unmated strains, was investigated with a comprehensive study on the transcriptome and proteome of this model organism. Mating interactions were investigated using a complete, cytosolic proteome map for unmated, monokaryotic, as well as for mated, dikaryotic mycelia. The regulations of the proteome were compared to transcriptional changes upon mating and to changes in smell by volatilome studies...
September 1, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573362/complete-identification-of-four-giant-interneurons-supplying-mushroom-body-calyces-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#17
Naomi Takahashi, Ko Katoh, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yuta Nakayama, Masazumi Iwasaki, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
Global inhibition is a fundamental physiological mechanism that has been proposed to shape odor representation in higher-order olfactory centers. A pair of mushroom bodies (MBs) in insect brains, an analog of the mammalian olfactory cortex, are implicated in multisensory integration and associative memory formation. With the use of single/multiple intracellular recording and staining in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we succeeded in unambiguous identification of four tightly bundled GABA-immunoreactive giant interneurons that are presumably involved in global inhibitory control of the MB...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566730/effects-of-dietary-xylanase-supplementation-on-performance-and-functional-digestive-parameters-in-broilers-fed-wheat-based-diets
#18
Wen-Chao Liu, In-Ho Kim
This experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary xylanase supplementation in broilers wheat-based diets on performance and functional digestive parameters including ileal digesta viscosity, apparent ileal digestibility, intestinal morphology and microflora, digestive enzyme activities, and excreta odor content. A total of 600 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers with an initial average BW of 45 ± 0.6 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 10 replicate pens per treatment and 15 broilers in each pen for 35 d...
August 26, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554189/composition-and-emission-dynamics-of-migratory-locust-volatiles-in-response-to-changes-in-developmental-stages-and-population-density
#19
Jianing Wei, Wenbo Shao, Xianhui Wang, Jin Ge, Xiangyong Chen, Dan Yu, Le Kang
Chemical communication plays an important role in density-dependent phase change in locusts. However, the volatile components and emission patterns of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the chemical compositions and emission dynamics of locust volatiles from the body and feces and associated them with developmental stages, sexes and phase changes. The migratory locust shares a number of volatile components with the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), but the emission dynamics of the two locust species are significantly different...
August 24, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511295/odor-induced-recall-of-emotional-memories-in-ptsd-review-and-new-paradigm-for-research
#20
Judith K Daniels, Eric Vermetten
It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite major advances in our understanding of the function of olfactory system, the study of the relation of olfaction and emotional memory is still relatively scarce. Odor memory is long thought to be different than other types of memories such as verbal or visual memories, being more strongly engraved and more closely related to strong emotions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurology
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