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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820500/odorous-compounds-from-poultry-manure-induce-dna-damage-nuclear-changes-and-decrease-cell-membrane-integrity-in-chicken-liver-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#1
Adriana Nowak, Tadeusz Bakuła, Katarzyna Matusiak, Remigiusz Gałęcki, Sebastian Borowski, Beata Gutarowska
Animal breeding and management of organic wastes pose a serious problem to the health of livestock and workers, as well as the nearby residents. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of toxicity of selected common odorous compounds from poultry manure, including ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), butyric acid, phenol, and indole. We measured their genotoxic and cytotoxic activity in the model chicken cell line (LMH), in vitro, by comet assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay, respectively...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817540/association-of-olfactory-function-with-the-intensity-of-self-reported-physical-activity-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
Bogusz Falkowski, Maciej Chudziński, Ewa Jakubowska, Anna Duda-Sobczak
INTRODUCTION    Olfactory function is impaired in patients with type 1 diabetes and can be recognized as a form of diabetic neuropathy. Physical activity has various beneficial effects on type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to assess a relation between physical activity and olfactory function in patients with type 1 diabetes. PATIENTS AND METHODS    We enrolled 120 patients with type 1 diabetes referred to an outpatient diabetes clinic. Patients with diabetes duration of less than 5 years, age above 65 years, concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis, and those using drugs affecting nasal mucosa were excluded...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#3
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765001/xad-2-a-useful-alternative-to-tenax-ta-for-analysis-of-biogenic-volatiles-employing-thermal-desorption-coupled-with-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
Andrea Marcillo, Viktorija Jakimovska, Anja Widdig, Claudia Birkemeyer
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are commonly collected from gaseous samples by adsorption to materials such as the porous polymer Tenax TA. Adsorbed compounds are subsequently released from these materials by thermal desorption (TD) and separated then by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Tenax TA is known to be particularly suitable for non-polar to semipolar volatiles, however, many volatiles from environmental and biological samples possess a rather polar character...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756946/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-requirements-in-activity-dependent-critical-period-neural-circuit-refinement
#5
Caleb A Doll, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Activity-dependent synaptic remodeling occurs during early-use critical periods, when naive juveniles experience sensory input. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) sculpts synaptic refinement in an activity sensor mechanism based on sensory cues, with FMRP loss causing the most common heritable autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the well-mapped Drosophila olfactory circuitry, projection neurons (PNs) relay peripheral sensory information to the central brain mushroom body (MB) learning/memory center...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#6
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732030/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-microplitis-mediator-as-well-as-functional-characterization-of-chemosensory-protein-3
#7
Yong Peng, Shan-Ning Wang, Ke-Ming Li, Jing-Tao Liu, Yao Zheng, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20) and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3) were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728024/origins-of-cell-type-specific-olfactory-processing-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-circuit
#8
Kengo Inada, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
How cell-type-specific physiological properties shape neuronal functions in a circuit remains poorly understood. We addressed this issue in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a higher olfactory circuit, where neurons belonging to distinct glomeruli in the antennal lobe feed excitation to three types of intrinsic neurons, α/β, α'/β', and γ Kenyon cells (KCs). Two-photon optogenetics and intracellular recording revealed that whereas glomerular inputs add similarly in all KCs, spikes were generated most readily in α'/β' KCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719023/identification-of-odorant-binding-and-chemosensory-protein-genes-and-the-ligand-affinity-of-two-of-the-encoded-proteins-suggest-a-complex-olfactory-perception-system-in-periplaneta-americana
#9
P He, Z-Q Li, Y-F Zhang, L Chen, J Wang, L Xu, Y-N Zhang, M He
The American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is an urban pest with a precise chemosensory system that helps it achieve complex physiological behaviours, including locating food and mating. However, its chemosensory mechanisms have not been well studied. Here, we identified 71 putative odorant carrier protein genes in P. americana, including 57 new odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 chemosensory proteins (CSPs). To identify their physiological functions, we investigated their tissue expression patterns in antennae, mouthparts, legs, and the remainder of the body of both sexes, and determined that most of these genes were expressed in chemosensory organs...
July 18, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713029/successive-odor-matching-and-non-matching-to-sample-in-rats-a-reversal-design
#10
Katherine Bruce, Katherine Dyer, Michael Mathews, Catharine Nealley, Tiffany Phasukkan, Ashley Prichard, Mark Galizio
There is a growing body of research on matching- and non-matching-to-sample (MTS, NMTS) relations with rats using olfactory stimuli; however, the specific characteristics of this relational control are unclear. In the current study we examine MTS and NMTS in rats with an automated olfactometer using a successive (go, no-go) procedure. Ten rats were trained to either match- or non-match-to-sample with common scents (apple, cinnamon, etc.) as olfactory stimuli. After matching or non-matching training with four odorants, rats were tested for transfer twice with four new odorants on each test...
July 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708027/do-valenced-odors-and-trait-body-odor-disgust-affect-evaluation-of-emotion-in-dynamic-faces
#11
Elmeri Syrjänen, Marco Tullio Liuzza, Håkan Fischer, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705102/affective-evaluation-of-one-s-own-and-others-body-odor-the-role-of-disgust-proneness
#12
Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger, Martin Arendasy, Sasa Zorjan, Anne Schienle
Disgust is part of a behavioral immune system that helps to detect pathogens. One important input to this system is the sense of smell. We conducted an experiment on body odor perception with 72 participants (35 men, 37 women; mean age = 24 years), who had been divided according to high versus low disgust proneness. All participants were exposed to six samples of axillary sweat from other individuals and to their own sweat. They were asked to identify their own body odor and to rate their affective experience...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699236/piperonal-attenuates-visceral-adiposity-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-potential-involvement-of-the-adenylate-cyclase-protein-kinase-a-dependent-pathway
#13
Songyi Chu, Vikram P Narayan, Mi-Kyung Sung, Taesun Park
SCOPE: Piperonal is an aromatic compound found in vanilla and has a floral odor resembling vanillin. This study was aimed to test whether piperonal attenuates visceral adiposity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6N mice were fed a normal diet, HFD, or 0.05% piperonal-supplemented HFD (PSD) for 10 weeks. PSD-fed mice showed attenuation of body weight gain, total visceral fat pad weights, and plasma lipid levels compared to HFD-fed mice...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685185/regeneration-of-synapses-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-locusts-after-antennal-deafferentation
#14
Hannah Wasser, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust is capable of fast and precise regeneration on an anatomical level. Following deafferentation of the antenna either of young adult locusts, or of fifth instar nymphs, severed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) reinnervate the antennal lobe (AL) and arborize in AL microglomeruli. In the present study we tested whether these regenerated fibers establish functional synapses again. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons revealed that the first few odor stimulus evoked postsynaptic responses from regenerated ORNs from day 4-7 post crush on...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#15
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675687/disruptive-physiology-olfaction-and-the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis
#16
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang A Kunze, Paul Forsythe
This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems...
July 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669002/embryonic-learning-and-developmental-carry-over-effects-in-an-invasive-anuran
#17
Tiffany S Garcia, Jenny C Urbina, Evan M Bredeweg, Maud C O Ferrari
Carry-over effects influence trait responses in later life stages as a result of early experience with environmental cues. Predation risk is an influential stressor and selection exists for early recognition of threats. In particular, invasive species may benefit from carry-over effects by preemptively recognizing and responding to novel predators via latent developmental changes and embryonic learning. In a factorial experiment, we conditioned invasive American bullfrog embryos (Lithobates catesbeianus) to the odor of a novel fish predator, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) alone or in combination with injured conspecific cues...
July 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666437/olfactory-coding-from-the-periphery-to-higher-brain-centers-in-the-drosophila-brain
#18
Yoichi Seki, Hany K M Dweck, Jürgen Rybak, Dieter Wicher, Silke Sachse, Bill S Hansson
BACKGROUND: Odor information is processed through multiple receptor-glomerular channels in the first order olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), then reformatted into higher brain centers and eventually perceived by the fly. To reveal the logic of olfaction, it is fundamental to map odor representations from the glomerular channels into higher brain centers. RESULTS: We characterize odor response profiles of AL projection neurons (PNs) originating from 31 glomeruli using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Drosophila melanogaster...
June 30, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633463/the-body-odor-disgust-scale-bods-development-and-validation-of-a-novel-olfactory-disgust-assessment
#19
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Torun Lindholm, Caitlin Hawley, Marie Gustafsson Sendén, Ingrid Ekström, Mats J Olsson, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616178/population-differences-in-host-plant-preference-and-the-importance-of-yeast-and-plant-substrate-to-volatile-composition
#20
Priya Date, Amber Crowley-Gall, Aaron F Diefendorf, Stephanie M Rollmann
Divergent selection between environments can result in changes to the behavior of an organism. In many insects, volatile compounds are a primary means by which host plants are recognized and shifts in plant availability can result in changes to host preference. Both the plant substrate and microorganisms can influence this behavior, and host plant choice can have an impact on the performance of the organism. In Drosophila mojavensis, four geographically isolated populations each use different cacti as feeding and oviposition substrates and identify those cacti by the composition of the volatile odorants emitted...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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