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body odor

Huiting Zhao, Yali Du, Pengfei Gao, Shujie Wang, Jianfang Pan, Yusuo Jiang
Chemosensory genes play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behavior. The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, is one of the most important insect species in China in terms of resource production, and providing high-quality products for human consumption, and also serves as an important pollinator. Communication and foraging behavior of worker bees is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing on adult A. c. cerana workers of different ages to identify the major chemosensory gene families and the differentially expressed genes(DEGs), and to investigate their expression profiles...
2016: PloS One
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yan Li, Jie Zhang, Dafeng Chen, Pengcheng Yang, Feng Jiang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Locusts are important agricultural pests worldwide and regarded as study models for entomology. However, the absence of targeted gene manipulation systems for locusts has restricted their applications for research. Herein, we report the successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce a targeted heritable mutagenesis of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The target sequence of gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and examine the roles of the odorant receptor pathway in the locust...
October 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bonnie Janzen, Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Louise Hagel, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the association of individual and contextual exposures with lung function by gender in rural-dwelling Canadians. METHODS: A cross-sectional mail survey obtained completed questionnaires on exposures from 8263 individuals; a sub-sample of 1609 individuals (762 men, 847 women) additionally participated in clinical lung function testing. The three dependent variables were forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Seiji Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Harano, Yudai Nishide, Ryohei Sugahara
Schistocerca gregaria exhibits density-dependent body color polyphenism. Nymphs occurring at low population densities show green-brown polyphenism. They show phase polyphenism and develop black patterns at high population densities. Recent studies suggest a third type of polyphensim, that is, homochromy, a response to background color. Laboratory experiments that considered homochromy suggest that humidity is not directly involved in green-brown polyphenism and that odor from other individuals does not induce black patterns...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Olena Riabinina, Darya Task, Elizabeth Marr, Chun-Chieh Lin, Robert Alford, David A O'Brochta, Christopher J Potter
Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Daniela Freihorst, Melanie Brunsch, Sophia Wirth, Katrin Krause, Olaf Kniemeyer, Jörg Linde, Maritta Kunert, Wilhelm Boland, Erika Kothe
Mushrooms, such as Schizophyllum commune, have a specific odor. Whether this is linked to mating, prerequisite for mushroom formation, or also found in monokaryotic, unmated strains, was investigated with a comprehensive study on the transcriptome and proteome of this model organism. Mating interactions were investigated using a complete, cytosolic proteome map for unmated, monokaryotic, as well as for mated, dikaryotic mycelia. The regulations of the proteome were compared to transcriptional changes upon mating and to changes in smell by volatilome studies...
September 1, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Naomi Takahashi, Ko Katoh, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yuta Nakayama, Masazumi Iwasaki, Makoto Mizunami, Hiroshi Nishino
Global inhibition is a fundamental physiological mechanism that has been proposed to shape odor representation in higher-order olfactory centers. A pair of mushroom bodies (MBs) in insect brains, an analogue of the mammalian olfactory cortex, are implicated in multisensory integration and associative memory formation. With the use of single/multiple intracellular recording and staining in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we succeeded in unambiguous identification of four tightly bundled GABA-immunoreactive giant interneurons that are presumably involved in global inhibitory control of the MB...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Wen-Chao Liu, In-Ho Kim
This experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary xylanase supplementation in broilers wheat-based diets on performance and functional digestive parameters including ileal digesta viscosity, apparent ileal digestibility, intestinal morphology and microflora, digestive enzyme activities, and excreta odor content. A total of 600 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers with an initial average BW of 45 ± 0.6 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 10 replicate pens per treatment and 15 broilers in each pen for 35 d...
August 26, 2016: Poultry Science
Jianing Wei, Wenbo Shao, Xianhui Wang, Jin Ge, Xiangyong Chen, Dan Yu, Le Kang
Chemical communication plays an important role in density-dependent phase change in locusts. However, the volatile components and emission patterns of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the chemical compositions and emission dynamics of locust volatiles from the body and feces and associated them with developmental stages, sexes and phase changes. The migratory locust shares a number of volatile components with the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria), but the emission dynamics of the two locust species are significantly different...
August 24, 2016: Insect Science
Judith K Daniels, Eric Vermetten
It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite major advances in our understanding of the function of olfactory system, the study of the relation of olfaction and emotional memory is still relatively scarce. Odor memory is long thought to be different than other types of memories such as verbal or visual memories, being more strongly engraved and more closely related to strong emotions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurology
Bernd Traupe, Heike Fölster, Heiner Max, Jens Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, individuals apply deodorants to combat malodor formation originating from the axillary vault. Considering the globally increasing demand for efficacious, safe deodorants, we investigated the antimicrobial effectiveness of a polymeric quaternary ammonium (PQ-16) compound as a new active in a roll-on formulation against microbial growth and axillary malodor. METHODS: We utilized an in vivo microbiological assessment to determine antimicrobial effects of the PQ-16-containing deodorant formulation (DEO1) i) in comparison to a commercially available deodorant roll-on claiming a 24 h protection against body odor (DEO2) and ii) in comparison to a roll-on containing the same formulation as DEO1 but comprising aluminum chlorohydrate instead of PQ-16 (DEO3) 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 h after treatment...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Genné-Bacon, Joseph R Trinko, Ralph J DiLeone
Regulation of body weight is an important strategy for small prey animals to avoid capture. Field and laboratory studies have shown that prey animals reduce body size when subjected to long-term predator stimuli. However, the causes of predator-induced weight regulation are highly variable and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Understanding this phenomenon is important for gaining a better understanding of how animals regulate body weight under ethologically relevant conditions and has implications for obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
C M Willis, L E Britton, M A Swindells, E M Jones, A E Kemp, N L Muirhead, A Gul, R N Matin, L Knutsson, M Ali
BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are continuously released by the body during normal metabolic processes, but their profiles change in the presence of cancer, offering an objective, non-invasive approach to diagnosis. Robust evidence that invasive melanoma in-vivo emits a characteristic VOC signature is currently lacking. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a canine olfactory, proof of principle study, to investigate whether VOCs captured from the surface of invasive melanoma are distinguishable from those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), benign naevi and healthy skin in-vivo...
July 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M Rubin
Associative learning is thought to involve parallel and distributed mechanisms of memory formation and storage. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative odor memory formation. Previously we described the anatomy of the adult MB and defined 20 types of dopaminergic neurons (DANs) that each innervate distinct MB compartments (Aso et al., 2014a, 2014b). Here we compare the properties of memories formed by optogenetic activation of individual DAN cell types. We found extensive differences in training requirements for memory formation, decay dynamics, storage capacity and flexibility to learn new associations...
2016: ELife
M Soltani, D Sahingil, Y Gokce, A A Hayaloglu
The effect of using various combinations of Rhizomucor miehei protease and camel chymosin (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100, respectively) on volatile composition and sensory scores in Iranian ultrafiltered white cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. A solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method was used for determining the volatile compounds of the cheeses. Forty compounds including esters (12), acids (6), ketones (9), alcohols (3), and miscellaneous compounds (10) were identified...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
J J McGlone, G Thompson, S Devaraj
A novel approach to potentially improve pig growth and welfare is to supplement environments with biologically meaningful odors that are deficient. The post-weaning environment lacks maternal odors that may contribute to the often-observed post-weaning lag in growth and health challenges. A recently reported rabbit maternal pheromone (2-methyl-2-butenal (2M2B)) may act as an interomone in the pig. The objective of this study was to determine if providing a maternal pheromone/interomone during transport and the post-weaning environment may enhance pig performance...
July 13, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Keita Kimura, Yoshika Sekine, Shota Furukawa, Minami Takahashi, Daisuke Oikawa
It is commonly said elderly persons have a characteristic body odor, and, at present, two chemical compounds have been found to vary with age in male Japanese: 2-nonenal and diacetyl. To investigate dermal emission flux of the ageing odor related compounds, we have developed a non-invasive sampling device based on a concept of passive flux sampler (PFS). The sampler was placed on the skin surface to create a headspace, and the gases emanating from skin moved toward a disk-type adsorbent. The trapped gases were then extracted with dichloromethane and determined by GCMS...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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