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Postural Restoration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501796/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-restores-orthostatic-tolerance-in-young-vasovagal-syncope-patients
#1
Julian M Stewart, Richard Sutton, Mira L Kothari, Amanda M Goetz, Paul Visintainer, Marvin Scott Medow
OBJECTIVE: Syncope is sudden transient loss of consciousness and postural tone with spontaneous recovery; the most common form is vasovagal syncope(VVS). We previously demonstrated impaired post-synaptic adrenergic responsiveness in young VVS patientswas reversed by blocking nitric oxide synthase(NOS). We hypothesised that nitric oxide may account for reduced orthostatic tolerance in young recurrent VVS patients. METHODS: We recorded haemodynamics in supine VVS and healthy volunteers (aged 15-27 years), challenged with graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (-15, -30, -45 mm Hg each for 5 min, then -60 mm Hg for a maximum of 50 min) with and without NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate(L-NMMA)...
May 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415899/specific-muscle-synergies-in-national-elite-female-ice-hockey-players-in-response-to-unexpected-external-perturbation
#2
Minhee Kim, Yushin Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, BumChul Yoon
This study aimed to investigate specific muscle synergies in elite ice hockey players indicating highly developed postural control strategies used to restore balance against unexpected external perturbations. Seven elite athletes (EA) on the women's national ice hockey team and 7 non-athletes (NA) participated in this study. Based on trajectories of centre of mass (COM), analysis periods were divided into an initial phase (a balance disturbance after perturbation onset) and a reversal phase (a balance recovery response), respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387690/the-vestibular-implant-a-probe-in-orbit-around-the-human-balance-system
#3
Angelica Perez Fornos, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Raymond van de Berg, Robert Stokroos, Herman Kingma, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Nils Guinand
The primary goal of the vestibular implant is to restore the vestibular function in patients with a disabling bilateral vestibular loss for whom there is currently no available treatment. The prototype developed by our team is a hybrid system consisting of a modified cochlear implant incorporating additional vestibular electrodes. Therefore, in addition of delivering sound information it is also capable of delivering motion information to the central nervous system using electrical stimulation. To date, thirteen patients have been implanted with such vestibular implant prototypes...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352654/net-silencing-by-let-7i-in-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#4
Abdul Waheed Khan, Mark Ziemann, Susan J Corcoran, Harikrishnan K N, Jun Okabe, Haloom Rafehi, Scott S Maxwell, Murray D Esler, Assam El-Osta
While strongly implicated in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), considerable controversy exists regarding norepinephrine transporter (NET) loss of function. POTS is characterized by the clinical symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and syncope or near syncope with upright posture. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity is typical, of a type which suggests dysfunction of the NET, with evidence that the gene responsible is under tight epigenetic control. Using RNA of isolated chromatin combined with massive parallel sequencing (RICh-seq) we show that let-7i miRNA suppresses NET by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)...
March 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351744/dynamical-analysis-of-balance-in-vestibular-schwannoma-patients
#5
Charles P Hoffmann, Benoît Seigle, Julien Frère, Cécile Parietti-Winkler
The analysis of the complexity of postural fluctuations is a recent method for assessing postural control. Complexity relates to the irregularity of the center of pressure time series and characterizes the ability of postural control to meet a changing environment. In our study, we used the sample entropy (SampEn) parameter to evaluate the complexity of postural sway velocity time series in patients with vestibular schwannoma (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=20), using the sensory organization test. Patients performed postural assessments three days before surgical ablation of the tumor, then three times after surgery, at eight, thirty, and ninety days...
March 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349043/relationship-among-the-variables-of-kinematic-and-tilt-angle-of-whole-body-according-to-the-foot-trip-during-gait
#6
Young-Churl Ko, Che-Cheong Ryew, Seung-Hyun Hyun
The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between incline angle of whole body and kinematic variables at tripping during gait. The participants consisted of healthy adult female (n=6). The three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis of posture restoring after inducing tripping of right foot at supporting phase of left foot was performed. As a result, supporting time elapsed of one stride and one foot at tripping showed longer than that of normal gait. The length of one stride showed longer at tripping than that of normal gait, and velocity of center of gravity (COG) showed faster at tripping than that of normal gait...
February 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303096/what-is-the-contribution-of-ia-afference-for-regulating-motor-output-variability-during-standing
#7
Niklas König, Matteo G Ferraro, Heiner Baur, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements, and describes the system's stability and rigidity during the performance of functional motor tasks such as balancing. In order to ensure successful task execution, the nervous system is thought to be able to flexibly select the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unknown which neurophysiological pathways are utilized for the control of motor output variability. In responding to natural variability (in this example sway), it is plausible that the neuro-physiological response to muscular elongation contributes to restoring a balanced upright posture...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259028/influence-of-foot-posture-on-the-functioning-of-the-windlass-mechanism
#8
Rachel Lucas, Mark Cornwall
The absence of a functioning windlass mechanism may delay re-supination of the foot during locomotion and put excess stress on the mid-tarsal joint and soft tissues of the foot. The purpose of this study was to describe the foot posture of individuals that have an impaired or absent windlass mechanism. Forty-seven individuals (34 females and 13 males) with a mean age of 26 years were recruited to participate in this study. The Foot Posture Index was used to visually assess the posture of both feet. In addition, a digital gauge was used to measure dorsal arch height and midfoot width in bilateral resting standing...
January 17, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254673/cervical-lordosis-the-effect-of-age-and-gender
#9
Ella Been, Sara Shefi, Michalle Soudack
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The cervical lordosis is of great importance to posture and function. Neck pain and disability is often associated with cervical lordosis malalignment. Surgical procedures involving cervical lordosis stabilization or restoration must take into account age and gender differences in cervical lordosis architecture to avoid further complications. PURPOSE: Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in the cervical lordosis between males and females from childhood to adulthood...
February 27, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242026/surgical-approach-for-fecal-incontinence-with-a-patulous-anus-after-transanal-pull-through-for-hirschsprung-disease
#10
Yoshitomo Yasui, Syoichi Nishida, Tsubasa Shironomae, Miwa Satomi, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Miyuki Kohno
BACKGROUND: We have performed transanal pull-through (TAPT) for Hirschsprung disease since 1998. Some of our patients after TAPT showed a patulous anus and suffered from severe true fecal incontinence. We performed anal canal plasty for these patients and evaluated its efficacy in restoring anorectal function. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were ≥5years old were previously operated on for Hirschsprung disease, and seven (22.5%) of these were indicated for this procedure...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228346/functional-range-of-motion-of-the-hand-joints-in-activities-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#11
Verónica Gracia-Ibáñez, Margarita Vergara, Joaquín L Sancho-Bru, Marta C Mora, Catalina Piqueras
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional research design. INTRODUCTION: Active range of motion (AROM) is used as indicator of hand function. However, functional range of motion (FROM) data are limited, and fail to represent activities of daily living (ADL). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To estimate dominant hand FROM in flexion, abduction and palmar arching in people under 50 years of age performing ADL. METHODS: AROMs and hand postures in 24 representative ADL of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) were recorded in 12 men and 12 women...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
April 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210066/effects-of-interactive-metronome-training-on-postural-stability-and-upper-extremity-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#13
Arim Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Chiang-Soon Song
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson's disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson's disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196453/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-gait-disorders-is-it-time-to-begin
#14
REVIEW
Vera Gramigna, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonio Cerasa, Simone Cutini, Roberta Vasta, Giuseppe Olivadese, Iolanda Martino, Aldo Quattrone
Walking is a complex motor behavior with a special relevance in clinical neurology. Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke, are characterized by gait disorders whose neurofunctional correlates are poorly investigated. Indeed, the analysis of real walking with the standard neuroimaging techniques poses strong challenges, and only a few studies on motor imagery or walking observation have been performed so far. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is becoming an important research tool to assess functional activity in neurological populations or for special tasks, such as walking, because it allows investigating brain hemodynamic activity in an ecological setting, without strong immobility constraints...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113610/neural-learning-based-telerobot-control-with-guaranteed-performance
#15
Chenguang Yang, Xinyu Wang, Long Cheng, Hongbin Ma
In this paper, a neural networks (NNs) enhanced telerobot control system is designed and tested on a Baxter robot. Guaranteed performance of the telerobot control system is achieved at both kinematic and dynamic levels. At kinematic level, automatic collision avoidance is achieved by the control design at the kinematic level exploiting the joint space redundancy, thus the human operator would be able to only concentrate on motion of robot's end-effector without concern on possible collision. A posture restoration scheme is also integrated based on a simulated parallel system to enable the manipulator restore back to the natural posture in the absence of obstacles...
June 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111151/control-of-movement-initiation-underlies-the-development-of-balance
#16
David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
Balance arises from the interplay of external forces acting on the body and internally generated movements. Many animal bodies are inherently unstable, necessitating corrective locomotion to maintain stability. Understanding how developing animals come to balance remains a challenge. Here we study the interplay among environment, sensation, and action as balance develops in larval zebrafish. We first model the physical forces that challenge underwater balance and experimentally confirm that larvae are subject to constant destabilization...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090182/supervised-versus-home-exercise-training-programs-on-functional-balance-in-older-subjects
#17
Enas Fawzy Youssef, Alsayed Abd Elhameed Shanb
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a progressive decline in physical capabilities and a disturbance of both postural control and daily living activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised versus home exercise programs on muscle strength, balance and functional activities in older participants. METHODS: Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089390/quantitative-evaluation-of-the-in-vivo-vocal-fold-medial-surface-shape
#18
Andrew M Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Zhaoyan Zhang, Dinesh K Chhetri
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Glottal insufficiency is a common clinical problem in otolaryngology and medialization laryngoplasty (ML) procedures remain the primary treatment modality. Although the goal of ML is to restore physiologic glottal posture and achieve optimal phonation, this posture has not been directly measured. In this study, we assessed glottal medial surface contour changes with selective activation of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs). STUDY DESIGN: Basic science study using an in vivo canine hemilarynx model...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043054/dynamic-plantar-pressure-distribution-strength-capacity-and-postural-control-after-lisfranc-fracture-dislocation
#19
Alexander T Mehlhorn, Markus Walther, Tayfun Yilmaz, Lennart Gunst, Anja Hirschmüller, Norbert P Südkamp, Hagen Schmal
Substantial progress has been made in the operative treatment of Lisfranc fractures, however, the prognosis remains poor. We hypothesized that Lisfranc injuries change the postural control and muscle strength of the lower limb. Both are suggested to correlate with the clinical outcome and quality of life. 17 consecutive patients suffering from a Lisfranc fracture dislocation were registered, underwent open reduction and internal fixation and were followed-up for 50.5±25.7months (Mean±SDM). Biomechanical analysis of muscle strength capacities, postural control and plantar pressure distribution was assessed >6 month postoperatively...
February 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004950/stimulation-of-5-ht2a-receptors-recovers-sensory-responsiveness-in-acute-spinal-neonatal-rats
#20
Hillary E Swann, Sierra D Kauer, Jacob T Allmond, Michele R Brumley
Quipazine is a 5-HT2A-receptor agonist that has been used to induce motor activity and promote recovery of function after spinal cord injury in neonatal and adult rodents. Sensory stimulation also activates sensory and motor circuits and promotes recovery after spinal cord injury. In rats, tail pinching is an effective and robust method of sacrocaudal sensory afferent stimulation that induces motor activity, including alternating stepping. In this study, responsiveness to a tail pinch following treatment with quipazine (or saline vehicle control) was examined in spinal cord transected (at midthoracic level) and intact neonatal rats...
February 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
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