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Postural Restoration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645673/supra-acetabular-line-is-better-than-supra-iliac-line-for-coronal-balance-referencing-a-study-of-perioperative-whole-spine-x-rays-in-degenerative-lumbar-scoliosis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients
#1
Hwee Weng Dennis Hey, Cheung-Kue Kim, Won-Gyu Lee, Hyung-Suk Juh, Ki-Tack Kim
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The aim of spinal deformity correction is to restore the spine's functional alignment by balancing it in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Regardless of posture, the ideal coronal profile is straight, and therefore readily assessable. PURPOSE: This study compares two radiological methods to determine which better predicts postoperative standing coronal balance. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: We conducted a single-centre, radiographic comparative study between 2011 and 2015...
June 20, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615080/locomotor-circumvention-strategies-are-altered-by-stroke-ii-postural-coordination
#2
Anuja Darekar, Anouk Lamontagne, Joyce Fung
BACKGROUND: Locomotor strategies for obstacle circumvention require appropriate postural coordination that depends on sensorimotor integration within the central nervous system. It is not known how these strategies are affected by a stroke. The objective of this study was to contrast postural coordination strategies used for obstacle circumvention between post-stroke participants (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). METHODS: Participants walked towards a target in a virtual environment (11 × 8 m room) with cylindrical obstacles that were stationary or approaching from head-on, or diagonally 30° left/right...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556505/restoring-maximum-vertical-browsing-reach-in-sauropod-dinosaurs
#3
Gregory S Paul
The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals...
May 26, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549560/sensorimotor-adaptation-of-whole-body-postural-control
#4
Douglas M Shiller, Louis-Nicolas Veilleux, Mikaël Marois, Laurent Ballaz, Martin Lemay
The aim of the present study was to examine the modification of postural symmetry during quiet standing using a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm. A group of neurologically typical adult participants performed a visually guided mediolateral (left-right) weight shifting task requiring precise adjustments in body orientation. During one phase of the task, the visual feedback of center of pressure (COP) was systematically biased toward the left or the right, requiring an adjustment in posture to compensate. COP during quiet standing without visual feedback was examined prior to and immediately following the sensorimotor adaptation procedure, in order to observe whether compensatory adjustments in postural control resulting from the visual-feedback manipulation would transfer to the control of whole-body COP during quiet standing...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501796/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-restores-orthostatic-tolerance-in-young-vasovagal-syncope-patients
#5
Julian M Stewart, Richard Sutton, Mira L Kothari, Amanda M Goetz, Paul Visintainer, Marvin Scott Medow
OBJECTIVE: Syncope is sudden transient loss of consciousness and postural tone with spontaneous recovery; the most common form is vasovagal syncope(VVS). We previously demonstrated impaired post-synaptic adrenergic responsiveness in young VVS patientswas reversed by blocking nitric oxide synthase(NOS). We hypothesised that nitric oxide may account for reduced orthostatic tolerance in young recurrent VVS patients. METHODS: We recorded haemodynamics in supine VVS and healthy volunteers (aged 15-27 years), challenged with graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (-15, -30, -45 mm Hg each for 5 min, then -60 mm Hg for a maximum of 50 min) with and without NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate(L-NMMA)...
May 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415899/specific-muscle-synergies-in-national-elite-female-ice-hockey-players-in-response-to-unexpected-external-perturbation
#6
Minhee Kim, Yushin Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, BumChul Yoon
This study aimed to investigate specific muscle synergies in elite ice hockey players indicating highly developed postural control strategies used to restore balance against unexpected external perturbations. Seven elite athletes (EA) on the women's national ice hockey team and 7 non-athletes (NA) participated in this study. Based on trajectories of centre of mass (COM), analysis periods were divided into an initial phase (a balance disturbance after perturbation onset) and a reversal phase (a balance recovery response), respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387690/the-vestibular-implant-a-probe-in-orbit-around-the-human-balance-system
#7
Angelica Perez Fornos, Samuel Cavuscens, Maurizio Ranieri, Raymond van de Berg, Robert Stokroos, Herman Kingma, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Nils Guinand
The primary goal of the vestibular implant is to restore the vestibular function in patients with a disabling bilateral vestibular loss for whom there is currently no available treatment. The prototype developed by our team is a hybrid system consisting of a modified cochlear implant incorporating additional vestibular electrodes. Therefore, in addition of delivering sound information it is also capable of delivering motion information to the central nervous system using electrical stimulation. To date, thirteen patients have been implanted with such vestibular implant prototypes...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352654/net-silencing-by-let-7i-in-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#8
Abdul Waheed Khan, Mark Ziemann, Susan J Corcoran, Harikrishnan K N, Jun Okabe, Haloom Rafehi, Scott S Maxwell, Murray D Esler, Assam El-Osta
While strongly implicated in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), considerable controversy exists regarding norepinephrine transporter (NET) loss of function. POTS is characterized by the clinical symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and syncope or near syncope with upright posture. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity is typical, of a type which suggests dysfunction of the NET, with evidence that the gene responsible is under tight epigenetic control. Using RNA of isolated chromatin combined with massive parallel sequencing (RICh-seq) we show that let-7i miRNA suppresses NET by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)...
March 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351744/dynamical-analysis-of-balance-in-vestibular-schwannoma-patients
#9
Charles P Hoffmann, Benoît Seigle, Julien Frère, Cécile Parietti-Winkler
The analysis of the complexity of postural fluctuations is a recent method for assessing postural control. Complexity relates to the irregularity of the center of pressure time series and characterizes the ability of postural control to meet a changing environment. In our study, we used the sample entropy (SampEn) parameter to evaluate the complexity of postural sway velocity time series in patients with vestibular schwannoma (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=20), using the sensory organization test. Patients performed postural assessments three days before surgical ablation of the tumor, then three times after surgery, at eight, thirty, and ninety days...
March 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349043/relationship-among-the-variables-of-kinematic-and-tilt-angle-of-whole-body-according-to-the-foot-trip-during-gait
#10
Young-Churl Ko, Che-Cheong Ryew, Seung-Hyun Hyun
The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between incline angle of whole body and kinematic variables at tripping during gait. The participants consisted of healthy adult female (n=6). The three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis of posture restoring after inducing tripping of right foot at supporting phase of left foot was performed. As a result, supporting time elapsed of one stride and one foot at tripping showed longer than that of normal gait. The length of one stride showed longer at tripping than that of normal gait, and velocity of center of gravity (COG) showed faster at tripping than that of normal gait...
February 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303096/what-is-the-contribution-of-ia-afference-for-regulating-motor-output-variability-during-standing
#11
Niklas König, Matteo G Ferraro, Heiner Baur, William R Taylor, Navrag B Singh
Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements, and describes the system's stability and rigidity during the performance of functional motor tasks such as balancing. In order to ensure successful task execution, the nervous system is thought to be able to flexibly select the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unknown which neurophysiological pathways are utilized for the control of motor output variability. In responding to natural variability (in this example sway), it is plausible that the neuro-physiological response to muscular elongation contributes to restoring a balanced upright posture...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259028/influence-of-foot-posture-on-the-functioning-of-the-windlass-mechanism
#12
Rachel Lucas, Mark Cornwall
The absence of a functioning windlass mechanism may delay re-supination of the foot during locomotion and put excess stress on the mid-tarsal joint and soft tissues of the foot. The purpose of this study was to describe the foot posture of individuals that have an impaired or absent windlass mechanism. Forty-seven individuals (34 females and 13 males) with a mean age of 26 years were recruited to participate in this study. The Foot Posture Index was used to visually assess the posture of both feet. In addition, a digital gauge was used to measure dorsal arch height and midfoot width in bilateral resting standing...
January 17, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254673/cervical-lordosis-the-effect-of-age-and-gender
#13
Ella Been, Sara Shefi, Michalle Soudack
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The cervical lordosis is of great importance to posture and function. Neck pain and disability is often associated with cervical lordosis malalignment. Surgical procedures involving cervical lordosis stabilization or restoration must take into account age and gender differences in cervical lordosis architecture to avoid further complications. PURPOSE: Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in the cervical lordosis between males and females from childhood to adulthood...
February 27, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242026/surgical-approach-for-fecal-incontinence-with-a-patulous-anus-after-transanal-pull-through-for-hirschsprung-disease
#14
Yoshitomo Yasui, Syoichi Nishida, Tsubasa Shironomae, Miwa Satomi, Tsuyoshi Kuwahara, Miyuki Kohno
BACKGROUND: We have performed transanal pull-through (TAPT) for Hirschsprung disease since 1998. Some of our patients after TAPT showed a patulous anus and suffered from severe true fecal incontinence. We performed anal canal plasty for these patients and evaluated its efficacy in restoring anorectal function. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were ≥5years old were previously operated on for Hirschsprung disease, and seven (22.5%) of these were indicated for this procedure...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228346/functional-range-of-motion-of-the-hand-joints-in-activities-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#15
Verónica Gracia-Ibáñez, Margarita Vergara, Joaquín L Sancho-Bru, Marta C Mora, Catalina Piqueras
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional research design. INTRODUCTION: Active range of motion (AROM) is used as indicator of hand function. However, functional range of motion (FROM) data are limited, and fail to represent activities of daily living (ADL). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To estimate dominant hand FROM in flexion, abduction and palmar arching in people under 50 years of age performing ADL. METHODS: AROMs and hand postures in 24 representative ADL of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) were recorded in 12 men and 12 women...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
April 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210066/effects-of-interactive-metronome-training-on-postural-stability-and-upper-extremity-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#17
Arim Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Chiang-Soon Song
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of interactive metronome training on the postural stability and upper extremity function of an individual with Parkinson's disease. [Subject and Methods] The participant of this case study was a 75-year-old female with Parkinson's disease diagnosed 7 years prior. This study was a single-subject research with an A-B-A design. She received IM training during the treatment phase (B phase) for 40 minutes per session. She was assessed pretest and posttest using the Berg balance scale and Wolf motor function test, and at baseline and the treatment phase using the measured box-and-block test and a Tetrax system...
January 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196453/near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-gait-disorders-is-it-time-to-begin
#18
REVIEW
Vera Gramigna, Giovanni Pellegrino, Antonio Cerasa, Simone Cutini, Roberta Vasta, Giuseppe Olivadese, Iolanda Martino, Aldo Quattrone
Walking is a complex motor behavior with a special relevance in clinical neurology. Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke, are characterized by gait disorders whose neurofunctional correlates are poorly investigated. Indeed, the analysis of real walking with the standard neuroimaging techniques poses strong challenges, and only a few studies on motor imagery or walking observation have been performed so far. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is becoming an important research tool to assess functional activity in neurological populations or for special tasks, such as walking, because it allows investigating brain hemodynamic activity in an ecological setting, without strong immobility constraints...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113610/neural-learning-based-telerobot-control-with-guaranteed-performance
#19
Chenguang Yang, Xinyu Wang, Long Cheng, Hongbin Ma
In this paper, a neural networks (NNs) enhanced telerobot control system is designed and tested on a Baxter robot. Guaranteed performance of the telerobot control system is achieved at both kinematic and dynamic levels. At kinematic level, automatic collision avoidance is achieved by the control design at the kinematic level exploiting the joint space redundancy, thus the human operator would be able to only concentrate on motion of robot's end-effector without concern on possible collision. A posture restoration scheme is also integrated based on a simulated parallel system to enable the manipulator restore back to the natural posture in the absence of obstacles...
June 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111151/control-of-movement-initiation-underlies-the-development-of-balance
#20
David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
Balance arises from the interplay of external forces acting on the body and internally generated movements. Many animal bodies are inherently unstable, necessitating corrective locomotion to maintain stability. Understanding how developing animals come to balance remains a challenge. Here we study the interplay among environment, sensation, and action as balance develops in larval zebrafish. We first model the physical forces that challenge underwater balance and experimentally confirm that larvae are subject to constant destabilization...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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