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children, anesthesia, anaesthesia

Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Julius Z Wermelt, Richard K Ellerkmann
Emergence Delirium in children after general anesthesia is a common and self limitating event. Although it might be seen as being harmless it can cause other serious complications and might leave both parents and other caregivers with a negative impression behind. Although the cause may still not be clear, potential predictors can be named: preschool age, the use of fast acting volatile anesthestics, higher preoperative anxiety levels and postoperative pain.A child-focused approach to reduce preoperative anxiety focusing on distraction methods rather than pharmacological sedation may be the key as well as sufficient postoperative pain control and the use of total intravenous anesthesia...
July 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
S Khatiwada, B Bhattarai, K Pokharel, A Subedi
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative adverse events are more common in children compared to adult population. Reporting an adverse event proves effective in identifying problems and helps in prevention and early management. Our objective was to identify the types, incidence, and the time of occurrence of perioperative adverse event. We also aimed to find out whether the occurrence of the types of adverse events differ in children below and above five years. METHODS: This was a prospective study in 242, ASA Physical Status I and II children aged day one to 14 years, receiving general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway for various elective surgeries...
April 2015: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
M Boensch, V Schick, O Spelten, J Hinkelbein
BACKGROUND: The correct placement of an endotracheal tube in children is essential as incorrect placement following unilateral ventilation and tube displacement may lead to far-reaching consequences, such as volutrauma and hypoxia, respectively. Different formulae referring to the correct placement of nasotracheal and orotracheal tubes have been published with reference to body weight and age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review article was to identify and compare the published formulae for estimating correct endotracheal tube placement in children with their advantages and disadvantages...
February 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Yang Liu, Dao-Lin Kang, He-Yi Na, Bi-Lian Li, Ying-Yi Xu, Jin Ni, Jun-Zheng Wu
Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study's intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Allyson R Shepherd, Halimah Ali
Dental treatment is the commonest reason for a child to be in hospital in the UK. This is a shocking statistic for a preventable disease. How can we reduce the high numbers of dental general anaesthetics? It is essential that dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is fully justifiable, ensuring that the right patients receive the right treatment. Guidance for general dental practitioners on when to refer a child for a dental GA is discussed. Treatment planning for this dentally high-risk group of children requires a holistic approach...
May 2015: Primary Dental Journal
F Peerbhay, F Titinchi
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is a common condition amongst young children that negatively impacts on their quality of life, It is an added burden on children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) who have an increased risk of developing caries due to the high sugar contents in their medications, regular consumption of cariogenic foods and a poor salivary flow. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to analyse the management of dental caries in CSHCN at a tertiary public hospital in South Africa...
June 2014: SADJ: Journal of the South African Dental Association
Andreas Dahlander, Leif Jansson, Kerstin Carlstedt, Margaret Grindefjord
The effects of immigration on the demographics of the Swedish population have changed the situation for many dental care providers, placing increased demand on cultural competence. The aim of this investigation was to study the choice of sedation method among children with immigrant background, referred to paediatric dentistry specialists, because of behaviour management problems or dental fear in combination with treatment needs. The material consisted of dental records from children referred to two clinics for paediatric dentistry: 117 records from children with an immigrant background and 106 from children with a non-immigrant background...
2015: Swedish Dental Journal
Josefina Sartori, Pilar Espinoza, María Soledad Díaz, Constanza Ferdinand, Héctor J Lacassie, Alejandro González
INTRODUCTION: Parents feel fear and anxiety before surgery is performed on their child, and those feelings could obstruct their preparation for the surgery. Preoperative information could relieve those feelings. OBJECTIVE: To determine the preoperative information needs of parents of children undergoing elective surgery. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A study was conducted on the parents of children who underwent elective surgery. Demographic data of parents were recorded...
November 2015: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
J K Makkar, N Bhatia, I Bala, D Dwivedi, P M Singh
Emergence delirium is a common problem in children recovering from general anaesthesia. We performed a study comparing emergence characteristics in 100 patients who were randomly allocated to receive either 0.3 μ dexmedetomidine, 1 propofol or saline 0.9% and undergoing infra-umbilical surgery. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was used to grade emergence delirium. Emergence delirium occurred in 9.4% of children in the dexmedetomidine group compared with 13.9% in the propofol group and 40...
January 2016: Anaesthesia
Senem Yildirim, Başak Akça, Aysun Ankay Yilbaş, Ayse Heves Karagöz, Özgür Canbay, Nalan Çelebi, Turgay Öcal
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of listening to the mother's heartbeat and womb sounds on the depth of anaesthesia in children. METHODS: The present study included 40 children scheduled for minor surgery under general anaesthesia, with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) status of 1 to 2. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane, and maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in nitrous oxide. Patients were randomly divided into two groups...
June 2015: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
Yu V Bityukov, S V Dereza, I V Kuznetsov, V N Kurochkin, V V Myasnikova, O V Potyadina, S S Fedorenka
Despite low invasiveness, lacrimal passages, intubation in children requires general anaesthesia to prevent traumatic and neurological complications. General anaesthesia with sevoflurane is optimal for technical simplicity, safety and controllability. Methods of face mask inhalation anesthesia with halothan and sevoflurane were compared in 996 patients. The authors have developed their own standart of performing the face mask inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane in children during lacrimal passages intubation...
May 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Mahmoud Mostafa Amer, Ahmed Abdelaal Ahmed Mahmoud, Marwa Khaled Abdelrahman Mohammed, Ahmed Mostafa Elsharawy, Doaa Abo-Elkasem Ahmed, Ehab Mohamed Farag
BACKGROUND: Magnesium was reported to reduce both the anesthetic requirements and the period needed to reach a bi-spectral index value of 60 when used intra-operatively (Br J Anaesth 83:302-20, 1999; Anesth Analg 20:1273-5, 1988; Br J Anaesth 89:594-8, 2002; Anesth Analg 87:206-10, 1998; Br J Anaesth 89:594-8, 2002; Br J Anaesth 94:438-41, 2005) and to minimize the emergence agitation (Anaesthesia 61:1058-63, 2006). Previous studies examined the influence of magnesium on the anesthetic requirements while the bi-spectral Index values were kept within a constant range...
2015: BMC Anesthesiology
Vinay Marulasiddappa, B S Raghavavendra
Children with uncorrected cyanotic congenital heart diseases can present for non cardiac surgeries. They pose several challenges to the Anaesthesiologist, especially when they are posted for emergency surgery, due to the complex haemodynamic changes secondary to the heart disease. Pentalogy of Fallot (POF) is a rare form of congenital heart disease characterized by the association of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with an atrial septal defect (ASD). TOF is the leading cause of intracardiac right to left shunt and is the commonest type of cyanotic congenital heart disease to cause a brain abscess...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
L de Bruin, W Pasma, D B M van der Werff, T A N J Schouten, F Haas, D C van der Zee, L van Wolfswinkel, J C de Graaff
BACKGROUND: Research in postoperative mortality is scarce. Insight into mortality and cause of death might improve and innovate perioperative care. The objective for this study was to report the 24-hour and 30-day overall, and surgery and anaesthesia-related, in-hospital mortality at a tertiary paediatric hospital. METHODS: All patients <18 yr old who underwent anaesthesia with or without surgery between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, at the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands, were included in this retrospective cohort study...
October 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Michael R J Sury, Renuka Arumainathan, Alla M Belhaj, James H MacG Palmer, Tim M Cook, Jaideep J Pandit
This secondary analysis of the 2013 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Anaesthesia Activity Survey of the Fifth National Audit Project (of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland) shows pediatric anesthesia activity in detail. A local coordinator (LC) in every NHS hospital collected data on patients undergoing any procedure managed by an anesthetist. Questionnaires had 30 question categories. Each LC was randomized to a 2-day period. The pediatric age groups were infants, (<1 year), preschool age (1-5 year), and school age children (6-15 year)...
November 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
M T Alam, E B Akber, Q S Alam, M S Reza, A H Mahboob, S I Salam, M S Islam, I Ara
Congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV) is a common complex congenital anomaly affecting approximately 1 per 900 live births in Bangladesh. Current trends in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot have shifted from extensive surgical release to more conservative techniques. The Ponseti method that includes manipulation, serial casting, percutaneous tenotomy and bracing has recently become very popular for the management of CTEV with reported excellent outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of Percutaneous Tenotomy in the treatment of equinus deformity of idiopathic clubfoot...
July 2015: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Khlood Baghlaf, Najlaa Alamoudi, Eman Elashiry, Najat Farsi, Douaa A El Derwi, Abeer M Abdullah
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare the pain-related behavior and the pain perception associated with three anesthetic techniques in pulpotomies of primary mandibular second molars: traditional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), IANB with computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD), and intraligamental anesthesia with CCLAD. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The sample comprised 91 randomly selected healthy children aged 5 to 9 years, who were scheduled for pulpotomy in the mandibular second molar...
October 2015: Quintessence International
E Widström, J Linden, H Tiira, T T Seppälä, M Ekqvist
OBJECTIVES: To analyse treatment measures provided in the Public Dental Service (PDS) and to discuss the therapy given against treatment needs as expressed in the national clinical epidemiological studies. METHODS: In 2009, the Chief Dentists of the PDS units collected data from their local registers on patients and treatment provided. Data were obtained from 166 PDS units (86%). Treatment patterns were compared between age groups, provider groups and geographical areas using chi-square tests...
March 2015: Community Dental Health
Giorgio Ivani, Santhanam Suresh, Claude Ecoffey, Adrian Bosenberg, Per-Anne Lonnqvist, Elliot Krane, Francis Veyckemans, David M Polaner, Marc Van de Velde, Joseph M Neal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some topics in the clinical management of regional anesthesia in children remain controversial. To evaluate and come to a consensus regarding some of these topics, The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) developed a joint committee practice advisory on pediatric regional anesthesia (PRA). METHODS: Representatives from both ASRA and ESRA comprised the joint committee practice advisory on PRA...
September 2015: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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