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children, anesthesia, anaesthesia

Carolyne Pehora, Annabel Me Pearson, Alka Kaushal, Mark W Crawford, Bradley Johnston
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve block (infiltration of local anaesthetic around a nerve) is used for anaesthesia or analgesia. A limitation to its use for postoperative analgesia is that the analgesic effect lasts only a few hours, after which moderate to severe pain at the surgical site may result in the need for alternative analgesic therapy. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the analgesic duration of peripheral nerve block, including perineural or intravenous dexamethasone. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of perineural dexamethasone versus placebo, intravenous dexamethasone versus placebo, and perineural dexamethasone versus intravenous dexamethasone when added to peripheral nerve block for postoperative pain control in people undergoing surgery...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marc Leroy Guifo, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Blondel Nana Oumarou, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Aristide Guy Bang, Aurelien Ndoumbe, Bonaventure Jemea, Maurice Aurelien Sosso
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric fractures are often of good prognosis due to auto-correction of insufficient fracture reduction by bone remodeling. In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional healers are renowned for managing fractures and there is a neglect for specialized pediatric fracture care. We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment patterns and outcomes of paediatric fractures in a tertiary health care centre in Yaoundé. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between January 2011 and June 2015 at the University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Tobias C Everett, Ralph MacKinnon, David de Beer, Matthew Taylor, Matthew Dylan Bould
2016 marked the 10-year anniversary of the inception of the Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia (MEPA) course. This simulation-based program was originally created to allow trainees in pediatric anesthesia to experience operating room emergencies which although infrequent, would be considered key competencies for any practicing anesthetist with responsibility for providing care to children. Since its original manifestation, the course has evolved in content, scope, and worldwide availability, such that it is now available at over 60 locations on five continents...
October 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Christian P Both, Achim Schmitz, Philipp K Buehler, Markus Weiss, Alexander R Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric emergency tapes have been developed to support paramedics and emergency physicians when dosing drugs and selecting medical equipment in pediatric emergency situations. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of 4 pediatric emergency tapes to correctly estimate patient's weight based on a large population of patients. METHODS: Patients undergoing general anesthesia between January 2012 and March 2015 with documented age, sex, body weight, and length were identified from the electronic anesthesia patient data management system of the Department of Anaesthesia, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Murat Tuncer, Banu Çevik, Bilal Eryıldırım, Gökhan Faydacı, Kemal Sarıca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate beneficial effect of anesthesia on extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in children older than 9 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 61 children (aged between 9 and 17 years) treated with SWL for renal stones were included. Depending on the use of general anesthesia, the children were divided into 2 groups: cases treated with SWL under anesthesia (group 1, n = 27) and cases treated with SWL without anesthesia (group 2, n = 34)...
September 2017: Urology
Derya Ozkan, Emel Gonen, Taylan Akkaya, Mesut Bakir
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a preoperative popliteal block on sevoflurane consumption, postoperative pain, and analgesic consumption in children with cerebral palsy (CP) following lower limb surgery. METHODS: Fifty-four patients undergoing lower limb surgery were randomized to receive either a popliteal block + general anaesthesia (group P, n = 27) or general anaesthesia without a popliteal block (group C, n = 27). After anesthesia induction with 50% N2O, O2, and 8% sevoflurane, a popliteal block was given to group P patients with ultrasound guidance as a single dose of 0...
June 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
Kagmeni Giles, Domngang Christelle, Bilong Yannick, Otto Herrmann Fricke, Peter Wiedemann
The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation at the Mana eye Clinic Nkongsamba between 2006 and 2015 Main outcome measures were: best-corrected post operative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Fu-Zhou Hua, Jun Ying, Jing Zhang, Xi-Feng Wang, Yan-Hui Hu, Ying-Ping Liang, Qin Liu, Guo-Hai Xu
The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane is one of the most frequently employed general anaesthetics in neonates, children and adults. Accumulating evidence demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetics is associated with widespread neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Thus, the identification and development of compounds capable of preventing or reducing these adverse effects is of great clinical importance. For this purpose, the present study aimed to assess the effects of a flavonoid, naringenin, on isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Julius Z Wermelt, Richard K Ellerkmann
Emergence Delirium in children after general anesthesia is a common and self limitating event. Although it might be seen as being harmless it can cause other serious complications and might leave both parents and other caregivers with a negative impression behind. Although the cause may still not be clear, potential predictors can be named: preschool age, the use of fast acting volatile anesthestics, higher preoperative anxiety levels and postoperative pain.A child-focused approach to reduce preoperative anxiety focusing on distraction methods rather than pharmacological sedation may be the key as well as sufficient postoperative pain control and the use of total intravenous anesthesia...
July 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
S Khatiwada, B Bhattarai, K Pokharel, A Subedi
INTRODUCTION: Perioperative adverse events are more common in children compared to adult population. Reporting an adverse event proves effective in identifying problems and helps in prevention and early management. Our objective was to identify the types, incidence, and the time of occurrence of perioperative adverse event. We also aimed to find out whether the occurrence of the types of adverse events differ in children below and above five years. METHODS: This was a prospective study in 242, ASA Physical Status I and II children aged day one to 14 years, receiving general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway for various elective surgeries...
April 2015: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
M Boensch, V Schick, O Spelten, J Hinkelbein
BACKGROUND: The correct placement of an endotracheal tube in children is essential as incorrect placement following unilateral ventilation and tube displacement may lead to far-reaching consequences, such as volutrauma and hypoxia, respectively. Different formulae referring to the correct placement of nasotracheal and orotracheal tubes have been published with reference to body weight and age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review article was to identify and compare the published formulae for estimating correct endotracheal tube placement in children with their advantages and disadvantages...
February 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Yang Liu, Dao-Lin Kang, He-Yi Na, Bi-Lian Li, Ying-Yi Xu, Jin Ni, Jun-Zheng Wu
Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study's intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Allyson R Shepherd, Halimah Ali
Dental treatment is the commonest reason for a child to be in hospital in the UK. This is a shocking statistic for a preventable disease. How can we reduce the high numbers of dental general anaesthetics? It is essential that dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is fully justifiable, ensuring that the right patients receive the right treatment. Guidance for general dental practitioners on when to refer a child for a dental GA is discussed. Treatment planning for this dentally high-risk group of children requires a holistic approach...
May 2015: Primary Dental Journal
F Peerbhay, F Titinchi
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries is a common condition amongst young children that negatively impacts on their quality of life, It is an added burden on children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) who have an increased risk of developing caries due to the high sugar contents in their medications, regular consumption of cariogenic foods and a poor salivary flow. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to analyse the management of dental caries in CSHCN at a tertiary public hospital in South Africa...
June 2014: SADJ: Journal of the South African Dental Association
Andreas Dahlander, Leif Jansson, Kerstin Carlstedt, Margaret Grindefjord
The effects of immigration on the demographics of the Swedish population have changed the situation for many dental care providers, placing increased demand on cultural competence. The aim of this investigation was to study the choice of sedation method among children with immigrant background, referred to paediatric dentistry specialists, because of behaviour management problems or dental fear in combination with treatment needs. The material consisted of dental records from children referred to two clinics for paediatric dentistry: 117 records from children with an immigrant background and 106 from children with a non-immigrant background...
2015: Swedish Dental Journal
Josefina Sartori, Pilar Espinoza, María Soledad Díaz, Constanza Ferdinand, Héctor J Lacassie, Alejandro González
INTRODUCTION: Parents feel fear and anxiety before surgery is performed on their child, and those feelings could obstruct their preparation for the surgery. Preoperative information could relieve those feelings. OBJECTIVE: To determine the preoperative information needs of parents of children undergoing elective surgery. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A study was conducted on the parents of children who underwent elective surgery. Demographic data of parents were recorded...
November 2015: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
J K Makkar, N Bhatia, I Bala, D Dwivedi, P M Singh
Emergence delirium is a common problem in children recovering from general anaesthesia. We performed a study comparing emergence characteristics in 100 patients who were randomly allocated to receive either 0.3 μ dexmedetomidine, 1 propofol or saline 0.9% and undergoing infra-umbilical surgery. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was used to grade emergence delirium. Emergence delirium occurred in 9.4% of children in the dexmedetomidine group compared with 13.9% in the propofol group and 40...
January 2016: Anaesthesia
Senem Yildirim, Başak Akça, Aysun Ankay Yilbaş, Ayse Heves Karagöz, Özgür Canbay, Nalan Çelebi, Turgay Öcal
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of listening to the mother's heartbeat and womb sounds on the depth of anaesthesia in children. METHODS: The present study included 40 children scheduled for minor surgery under general anaesthesia, with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) status of 1 to 2. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane, and maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in nitrous oxide. Patients were randomly divided into two groups...
June 2015: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
Yu V Bityukov, S V Dereza, I V Kuznetsov, V N Kurochkin, V V Myasnikova, O V Potyadina, S S Fedorenka
Despite low invasiveness, lacrimal passages, intubation in children requires general anaesthesia to prevent traumatic and neurological complications. General anaesthesia with sevoflurane is optimal for technical simplicity, safety and controllability. Methods of face mask inhalation anesthesia with halothan and sevoflurane were compared in 996 patients. The authors have developed their own standart of performing the face mask inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane in children during lacrimal passages intubation...
May 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Mahmoud Mostafa Amer, Ahmed Abdelaal Ahmed Mahmoud, Marwa Khaled Abdelrahman Mohammed, Ahmed Mostafa Elsharawy, Doaa Abo-Elkasem Ahmed, Ehab Mohamed Farag
BACKGROUND: Magnesium was reported to reduce both the anesthetic requirements and the period needed to reach a bi-spectral index value of 60 when used intra-operatively (Br J Anaesth 83:302-20, 1999; Anesth Analg 20:1273-5, 1988; Br J Anaesth 89:594-8, 2002; Anesth Analg 87:206-10, 1998; Br J Anaesth 89:594-8, 2002; Br J Anaesth 94:438-41, 2005) and to minimize the emergence agitation (Anaesthesia 61:1058-63, 2006). Previous studies examined the influence of magnesium on the anesthetic requirements while the bi-spectral Index values were kept within a constant range...
September 22, 2015: BMC Anesthesiology
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