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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#1
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577427/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-physical-activity-and-depressive-symptoms-in-the-african-american-health-aah-study
#2
Sandra M L Ribeiro, Theodore K Malmstrom, John E Morley, Douglas K Miller
BACKGROUND: Healthy diet and physical activity (PA) have been associated with reduced depressive symptoms, but few studies have examined them simultaneously in African Americans. AIMS: To investigate fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) and PA as predictors of clinically-relevant levels of depressive symptoms (CRLDS) in African Americans. METHODS: African American Health (AAH) is a population-based longitudinal study of African Americans in St...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531454/preliminary-validation-of-the-malay-yale-food-addiction-scale-factor-structure-and-item-analysis-in-an-obese-population
#3
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Norafidza Ashiquin Abd Patah, Mahalakshmi Ponnusamy Pillai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Researchers suggest that the rise in obesity rates may be explained by the addictive properties of certain types of food. In view of the growing obesity epidemic in South-East Asia, there is a need for a psychometric tool to assess the concept of food addiction amongst high-risk populations. The objective of this study is to translate the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) into the Malay language and subsequently validate its use in an obese population. METHODS: Between the year 2014 and 2015, a total of 250 obese adults were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay version of the YFAS at a primary care clinic...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390444/the-relationship-between-obsessive-compulsive-personality-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-outcomes-predictive-utility-and-clinically-significant-change
#4
Shalane K Sadri, Peter M McEvoy, Sarah J Egan, Robert T Kane, Clare S Rees, Rebecca A Anderson
BACKGROUND: The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. AIMS: We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD...
April 9, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382063/the-effects-of-preanesthetic-parental-presence-on-preoperative-anxiety-of-children-and-their-parents-a-randomized-clinical-trial-study-in-iran
#5
Razie Rasti-Emad-Abadi, Abbas Naboureh, Morteza Nasiri, Nilofar Motamed, Faezeh Jahanpour
INTRODUCTION: Parental presence during induction of anesthesia (PPIA) has been a controversial issue, with some studies showing its effects on reducing anxiety. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of PPIA on preoperative anxiety of children as well as their parents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted among 60 children aged 2-10 years and their parents. Children were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370722/development-of-the-modified-yale-food-addiction-scale-version-2-0
#6
Erica M Schulte, Ashley N Gearhardt
The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) operationalizes indicators of addictive-like eating, originally based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for substance-use disorders. The YFAS has multiple adaptations, including a briefer scale (mYFAS). Recently, the YFAS 2.0 was developed to reflect changes to diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5. The current study developed a briefer version of the YFAS 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) using the participant sample from the YFAS 2...
March 29, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363925/methods-to-decrease-variability-in-histological-scoring-in-placentas-from-a-cohort-of-preterm-infants
#7
Jennifer K Straughen, Dawn P Misra, Linda M Ernst, Adrian K Charles, Samantha VanHorn, Samiran Ghosh, Irina Buhimschi, Catalin Buhimschi, George Divine, Carolyn M Salafia
OBJECTIVE: Reliable semiquantitative assessment of histological placental acute inflammation is problematic, even among experts. Tissue samples in histology slides often show variability in the extent and location of neutrophil infiltrates. We sought to determine whether the variability in pathologists' scoring of neutrophil infiltrates in the placenta could be reduced by the use of 'regions of interest' (ROIs) that break the sample into smaller components. DESIGN: ROIs were identified within stained H&E slides from a cohort of 56 women...
March 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358599/a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-of-azithromycin-in-youth-with-acute-onset-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Tanya K Murphy, Erin M Brennan, Carly Johnco, Ellisa Carla Parker-Athill, Branko Miladinovic, Eric A Storch, Adam B Lewin
OBJECTIVES: Sudden and severe onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may present secondary to infectious and/or immune-mediated triggers. We assessed the preliminary efficacy, tolerability, and safety of azithromycin compared with placebo in the treatment of OCD and associated symptoms in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). METHODS: Thirty-one youth aged 4-14 years (M = 8.26 ± 2.78 years, 62.5% male) were randomized to receive either placebo or azithromycin for 4 weeks (10 mg/kg up to 500 mg per day)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340111/assessment-of-patient-reported-outcome-instruments-to-assess-chronic-low-back-pain
#9
Abhilasha Ramasamy, Mona L Martin, Steven I Blum, Hiltrud Liedgens, Charles Argoff, Rainer Freynhagen, Mark Wallace, Kelly P McCarrier, Donald M Bushnell, Noël V Hatley, Donald L Patrick
Objective.:  To identify patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments that assess chronic low back pain (cLBP) symptoms (specifically pain qualities) and/or impacts for potential use in cLBP clinical trials to demonstrate treatment benefit and support labeling claims. Design.:  Literature review of existing PRO measures. Methods.:  Publications detailing existing PRO measures for cLBP were identified, reviewed, and summarized. As recommended by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) PRO development guidance, standard measurement characteristics were reviewed, including development history, psychometric properties (validity and reliability), ability to detect change, and interpretation of observed changes...
June 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265120/a-genome-wide-gene-by-trauma-interaction-study-of-alcohol-misuse-in-two-independent-cohorts-identifies-prkg1-as-a-risk-locus
#10
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, J Gelernter, M B Stein
Traumatic life experiences are associated with alcohol use problems, an association that is likely to be moderated by genetic predisposition. To understand these interactions, we conducted a gene-by-environment genome-wide interaction study (GEWIS) of alcohol use problems in two independent samples, the Army STARRS (STARRS, N=16 361) and the Yale-Penn (N=8084) cohorts. Because the two cohorts were assessed using different instruments, we derived separate dimensional alcohol misuse scales and applied a proxy-phenotype study design...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236739/food-addiction-in-children-associations-with-obesity-parental-food-addiction-and-feeding-practices
#11
T Burrows, J Skinner, M A Joyner, J Palmieri, K Vaughan, A N Gearhardt
Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ)...
February 16, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207915/suicidal-and-death-ideation-among-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-presenting-for-intensive-intervention
#12
Eric A Storch, Brian Kay, Monica S Wu, Joshua M Nadeau, Bradley Riemann
BACKGROUND: This study examined the frequency and relation of death and/or suicidal ideation to treatment response in 101 adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presenting for intensive intervention. METHODS: Within 2 days of admission to an intensive treatment program, 101 adults with OCD completed the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Self Report, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form, and were administered the Columbia Suicide Scale by a trained clinician...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071825/systematic-review-of-severity-scales-and-screening-instruments-for-tics-critique-and-recommendations
#13
Davide Martino, Tamara M Pringsheim, Andrea E Cavanna, Carlo Colosimo, Andreas Hartmann, James F Leckman, Sheng Luo, Alexander Munchau, Christopher G Goetz, Glenn T Stebbins, Pablo Martinez-Martin
BACKGROUND: Several clinician, informant, and self-report instruments for tics and associated phenomena have been developed that differ in construct, comprehensiveness, and ease of administration. OBJECTIVE: A Movement Disorders Society subcommittee aimed to rate psychometric quality of severity and screening instruments for tics and related sensory phenomena. METHODS: Following the methodology adopted by previous Movement Disorders Society subcommittee papers, a review of severity and screening instruments for tics was completed, applying a classification as "recommended," "suggested," or "listed" to each instrument...
March 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930952/prevalence-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-food-addiction-in-persons-with-obesity-seeking-weight-reduction
#14
Ariana M Chao, Jena A Shaw, Rebecca L Pearl, Naji Alamuddin, Christina M Hopkins, Zayna M Bakizada, Robert I Berkowitz, Thomas A Wadden
INTRODUCTION: Food addiction is a controversial concept. The potential influence of food addiction on patients' psychosocial functioning and well-being has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between psychosocial functioning (depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life [HRQOL]) and food addiction as measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). We also explored whether food addiction contributed additional variance in explaining psychosocial functioning, beyond demographic and clinical factors (e...
February 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930951/symptom-correspondence-between-clinicians-and-patients-on-the-yale-brown-obsessive-compulsive-scale
#15
Eric A Storch, Joshua M Nadeau, Alessandro S De Nadai, Sandra L Cepeda, Bradley C Riemann, Philip Seibell, Brian Kay
The present study examined concordance between the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and its self-report version (Y-BOCS-SR), as well as theoretically derived moderators. Sixty-seven adults (ages 18-67) with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were administered the Y-BOCS prior to completing self-report measures. The Y-BOCS-SR generated lower scores relative to the clinician-administered Y-BOCS (5.3 points lower). Strong correspondence was shown between the Y-BOCS and Y-BOCS-SR; however, many items exhibited fair to moderate agreement, particularly the resistance and control against obsessions/compulsions items...
February 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930748/six-nine-year-follow-up-of-deep-brain-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Sarah M Fayad, Andrew G Guzick, Adam M Reid, Dana M Mason, Agustina Bertone, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun, Wayne K Goodman, Herbert E Ward
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) region has shown promise as a neurosurgical intervention for adults with severe treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Pilot studies have revealed improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms and secondary outcomes following DBS. We sought to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of DBS of the VC/VS for adults with OCD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A long term follow-up study (73-112 months) was conducted on the six patients who were enrolled in the original National Institute of Mental Health pilot study of DBS for OCD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900437/bdnf-and-ltp-ltd-like-plasticity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#17
L Marsili, A Suppa, F Di Stasio, D Belvisi, N Upadhyay, I Berardelli, M Pasquini, S Petrucci, M Ginevrino, G Fabbrini, F Cardona, G Defazio, A Berardelli
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics and often associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Responses to intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS/cTBS), which probe long-term potentiation (LTP)-/depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1), are reduced in GTS. ITBS-/cTBS-induced M1 plasticity can be affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. We investigated whether the BDNF polymorphism influences iTBS-/cTBS-induced LTP-/LTD-like M1 plasticity in 50 GTS patients and in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893229/measurement-invariance-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale-2-0-across-gender-and-racial-groups
#18
Meagan M Carr, Pelin D Catak, Megan C Pejsa-Reitz, Karen K Saules, Ashley N Gearhardt
Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791218/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-physical-activity-as-predictors-of-disability-risk-factors-in-african-american-middle-aged-individuals
#19
S M L Ribeiro, J E Morley, T K Malmstrom, D K Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) and different dimensions of physical activity (PA) as predictors of change in disabilities and other known precursors of progressive disability in a population-based sample of African Americans. DESIGN: Longitudinal investigation of the independent associations of reported FVI and PA with six-year changes in disabilities and other known precursors of progressive disability. SETTING: Longitudinal study of a population-representative cohort of late middle-aged African Americans...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733709/the-first-30-months-of-the-mindspot-clinic-evaluation-of-a-national-e-mental-health-service-against-project-objectives
#20
Nickolai Titov, Blake F Dear, Lauren G Staples, James Bennett-Levy, Britt Klein, Ronald M Rapee, Gerhard Andersson, Carol Purtell, Greg Bezuidenhout, Olav B Nielssen
OBJECTIVE: The MindSpot Clinic provides online mental health services to Australian adults with anxiety and depression. This paper describes users of MindSpot between January 2013 and June 2015. Outcomes are considered against three key objectives: improving access to mental health services, improving public awareness of how to access services and providing evidence-based treatments. METHOD: Website traffic data were examined to determine patterns of use. Demographic characteristics, past service utilisation and reasons for contacting MindSpot were analysed...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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