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L Marsili, A Suppa, F Di Stasio, D Belvisi, N Upadhyay, I Berardelli, M Pasquini, S Petrucci, M Ginevrino, G Fabbrini, F Cardona, G Defazio, A Berardelli
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics and often associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Responses to intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS/cTBS), which probe long-term potentiation (LTP)-/depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1), are reduced in GTS. ITBS-/cTBS-induced M1 plasticity can be affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. We investigated whether the BDNF polymorphism influences iTBS-/cTBS-induced LTP-/LTD-like M1 plasticity in 50 GTS patients and in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Meagan M Carr, Pelin D Catak, Megan C Pejsa-Reitz, Karen K Saules, Ashley N Gearhardt
Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
S M L Ribeiro, J E Morley, T K Malmstrom, D K Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) and different dimensions of physical activity (PA) as predictors of change in disabilities and other known precursors of progressive disability in a population-based sample of African Americans. DESIGN: Longitudinal investigation of the independent associations of reported FVI and PA with six-year changes in disabilities and other known precursors of progressive disability. SETTING: Longitudinal study of a population-representative cohort of late middle-aged African Americans...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Nickolai Titov, Blake F Dear, Lauren G Staples, James Bennett-Levy, Britt Klein, Ronald M Rapee, Gerhard Andersson, Carol Purtell, Greg Bezuidenhout, Olav B Nielssen
OBJECTIVE: The MindSpot Clinic provides online mental health services to Australian adults with anxiety and depression. This paper describes users of MindSpot between January 2013 and June 2015. Outcomes are considered against three key objectives: improving access to mental health services, improving public awareness of how to access services and providing evidence-based treatments. METHOD: Website traffic data were examined to determine patterns of use. Demographic characteristics, past service utilisation and reasons for contacting MindSpot were analysed...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Froukje E de Vries, Danielle C Cath, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Patricia van Oppen, Gerrit Glas, Dick J Veltman, Odile A van den Heuvel, Anton J L M van Balkom
OBJECTIVE: The tic-related subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a distinct clinical profile. The course of tic-related OCD has previously been investigated in treatment studies, with inconclusive results. This study aimed to compare clinical profiles between tic-related and tic-free OCD patients and to establish the influence of tics on the 2-year natural course in adult OCD patients. METHODS: Within the Netherlands OCD Association cohort, 377 patients with a current DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD were divided into a tic-related group (28%) and a tic-free group and compared on clinical variables with t tests or χ² tests...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Adina R Lemeshow, Ashley N Gearhardt, Jeanine M Genkinger, William R Corbin
BACKGROUND: While food addiction is well accepted in popular culture and mainstream media, its scientific validity as an addictive behavior is still under investigation. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using data from two community-based convenience samples. METHODS: We assessed the internal and test-retest reliability of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, and estimated the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using the Yale Food Addiction Scale as the benchmark...
December 2016: Eating Behaviors
P Velloso, C Piccinato, Y Ferrão, E Aliende Perin, R Cesar, L Fontenelle, A G Hounie, M C do Rosário
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a chronic course leading to huge impact in the patient's functioning. Suicidal thoughts and attempts are much more frequent in OCD subjects than once thought before. AIM: To empirically investigate whether the suicidal phenomena could be analyzed as a suicidality severity continuum and its association with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and quality of life (QoL), in a large OCD sample. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 548 patients diagnosed with OCD according to the DSM-IV criteria, interviewed in the Brazilian OCD Consortium (C-TOC) sites...
October 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Ines Hilker, Isabel Sánchez, Trevor Steward, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Roser Granero, Ashley N Gearhardt, Rita Cristina Rodríguez-Muñoz, Carlos Dieguez, Ana B Crujeiras, Iris Tolosa-Sola, Felipe F Casanueva, José M Menchón, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
: Food addiction (FA) has been examined in different populations. Although high FA levels are associated with greater eating disorder severity, few studies have addressed how FA relates to treatment outcome. GOALS: The study aims (1) to determine whether a brief intervention for bulimia nervosa (BN) reduces FA diagnosis or severity compared with baseline and (2) to determine if FA is predictive of treatment outcome. METHOD: Sixty-six female BN patients participated in the study...
September 4, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Prashant Mahajan, Nathan Kuppermann, Asuncion Mejias, Nicolas Suarez, Damien Chaussabel, T Charles Casper, Bennett Smith, Elizabeth R Alpern, Jennifer Anders, Shireen M Atabaki, Jonathan E Bennett, Stephen Blumberg, Bema Bonsu, Dominic Borgialli, Anne Brayer, Lorin Browne, Daniel M Cohen, Ellen F Crain, Andrea T Cruz, Peter S Dayan, Rajender Gattu, Richard Greenberg, John D Hoyle, David M Jaffe, Deborah A Levine, Kathleen Lillis, James G Linakis, Jared Muenzer, Lise E Nigrovic, Elizabeth C Powell, Alexander J Rogers, Genie Roosevelt, Richard M Ruddy, Mary Saunders, Michael G Tunik, Leah Tzimenatos, Melissa Vitale, J Michael Dean, Octavio Ramilo
IMPORTANCE: Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns ("RNA biosignatures") in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures...
August 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Cathleen Haense, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Florian Wilke, Christoph Schrader, Holger H Capelle, Lilli Geworski, Frank M Bengel, Joachim K Krauss, Georg Berding
In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ingmar H A Franken, Ilse M T Nijs, Ashley Toes, Frederik M van der Veen
Currently, there is an ongoing debate about whether it is possible to be addicted to food. There are several indications pointing in this direction, but research is scarce. Up to this date it is not exactly known whether this "food addiction" shares common neurocognitive deficits observed in the more classical types of addictions such as substance use disorders (SUDs). One commonly observed finding in SUD patients is that there is an impaired cognitive control. One of the essential components of cognitive control is performance monitoring...
July 15, 2016: Biological Psychology
D R M A Højgaard, E L Mortensen, T Ivarsson, K Hybel, G Skarphedinsson, J B Nissen, R Valderhaug, K Dahl, B Weidle, N C Torp, M Grados, A B Lewin, K H Melin, E A Storch, L H Wolters, T K Murphy, E J S Sonuga-Barke, P H Thomsen
The underlying structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains to be confirmed in child and adolescent populations. In this paper we report the first factor analytic study of individual OCD items from Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). OCD symptoms were assessed using the CY-BOCS symptom checklist in a sample of 854 patients with OCD (7-18 years of age) recruited from clinics in five countries. Pooled data were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify the optimal factor structure...
July 7, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
R Wang, W H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intranasal midazolam premedication on children who undergoing inhaled induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane. METHODS: One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA)Ⅰ-Ⅱ children undergoing elective operations in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from June 2014 to June 2015 were randomly assigned into 2 groups, and 50 cases in each group. Patients received different intranasal premedication giving 30 min before anesthesia: midazolam 0...
June 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Petros Skapinakis, Deborah M Caldwell, William Hollingworth, Peter Bryden, Naomi A Fineberg, Paul Salkovskis, Nicky J Welton, Helen Baxter, David Kessler, Rachel Churchill, Glyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Several interventions are available for management of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults, but few studies have compared their relative efficacy in a single analysis. We aimed to simultaneously compare all available treatments using both direct and indirect data. METHODS: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched the two controlled trials registers maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration Common Mental Disorders group for trials published up to Feb 16, 2016...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Joseph O'Neill, Tsz M Lai, Courtney Sheen, Giulia C Salgari, Ronald Ly, Casey Armstrong, Susanna Chang, Jennifer G Levitt, Noriko Salamon, Jeffry R Alger, Jamie D Feusner
Focal brain metabolic effects detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent prospective indices of clinical status and guides to treatment design. Sampling bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), anterior middle cingulate cortex (aMCC), and thalamus in 40 adult patients and 16 healthy controls, we examined relationships of the neurometabolites glutamate+glutamine (Glx), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline-compounds (Cho) with OCD diagnosis and multiple symptom types...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Louise Amália de Moura, Iohanna Maria Guimarães Dias, Lilian Varanda Pereira
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. METHOD: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS)...
June 14, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Stefano Liguori, Massimiliano Stacchini, Daniele Ciofi, Nicole Olivini, Sofia Bisogni, Filippo Festini
IMPORTANCE: Effective methods to reduce children's preoperative anxiety (such as giving information beforehand, organizing a tour of the operating room [OR] before the intervention, and incorporating clown physicians) may be difficult to implement for some hospitals, as they are time-consuming and expensive and require hospital staff to be performed. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of Clickamico, an app that shows clown physicians giving a comical and informative tour of the OR, for reducing preoperative anxiety in children...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Bin Feng, Zhang-Jin Zhang, Rui-Ming Zhu, Guo-Zhen Yuan, Li-Yuan Luo, Grainne M McAlonan, Fang-Zhong Xu, Jiong Chen, Lan-Ying Liu, Yang-Yang Lv, Hei Kiu Wong, Ying Zhang, Li-Xia Zhu
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is thought to have potential to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding TEAS to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clomipramine would improve the efficacy of these conventional treatments in OCD. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 360 OCD patients were assigned to receive TEAS combined with CBT plus clomipramine (Group A, n = 120), TEAS combined with CBT plus placebo (Group B, n = 120), and simulated (placebo) TEAS combined with CBT plus clomipramine (Group C, n = 120) for 12 weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jennifer M Reinhart, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Allison Dickey, Steven Yale, Lauren A Trepanier
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to sulfonamide antibiotics occur uncommonly, but with potentially severe clinical manifestations. A familial predisposition to sulfonamide HS is suspected, but robust predictive genetic risk factors have yet to be identified. Strongly linked genetic polymorphisms have been used clinically as screening tests for other HS reactions prior to administration of high-risk drugs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate for genetic risk of sulfonamide HS in the immunocompetent population using genome-wide association...
2016: PloS One
B Garcia-Delgar, A E Ortiz, A Morer, P Alonso, M C do Rosário, L Lázaro
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is best understood as a complex overlap of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions with specific clinical and etiological characteristics. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DYBOCS) was developed to assess the presence and severity of each of these OC symptom dimensions. Despite showing excellent psychometric properties in adults, the psychometric properties of the DYBOCS have not been widely investigated in children and adolescents...
July 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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