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Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West
OBJECTIVE: To examine the lifetime prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (e.g., Adderall, Concerta, Ritalin, Dexedrine) among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, binge drinking, marijuana, and other drug use) based on lifetime histories of medical and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. METHOD: Nationally representative samples of high school seniors from the Monitoring the Future study were surveyed via self-administered questionnaires...
December 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Shaheen E Lakhan, Annette Kirchgessner
Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes...
September 2012: Brain and Behavior
Andres G Viana, Lindsay Trent, Matthew T Tull, Laurie Heiden, John D Damon, Terry L Hight, John Young
OBJECTIVE: The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among youth is a significant public health concern, ranking as the second most frequently used class of drug in youth after marijuana. Given the complex and multiple pathways that may lead to NMUPD in youth, this study examines predictors of NMUPD across constitutional, psychological, and family/peer domains. METHOD: An ethnically diverse sample of 6790 youth in the 6th-12th grades enrolled in public schools throughout Mississippi completed a battery of questionnaires as part of a broader school-based mental health screening initiative in Mississippi (Behavioral Vital Signs Project)...
December 2012: Addictive Behaviors
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1946: Federation Proceedings
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1947: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1948: Journal of Pediatrics
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1949: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 1949: New York State Journal of Medicine
Li-Tzy Wu, Daniel J Pilowsky, William E Schlenger, Deborah M Galvin
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in the prevalence and characteristics of misuse of methamphetamine (meth) and prescription stimulants were examined in a representative US sample of youths and young adults aged 16-25 (N=24,409). METHODS: Stimulant misusers were categorized into three mutually exclusive subgroups: meth users only, meth and prescription stimulant users, and prescription stimulant users only (e.g., Benzedrine, Ritalin, or Dexedrine). Multinominal logistic regression analyses identified the characteristics associated with misuse of meth and prescription stimulants...
July 10, 2007: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Dorit Shmueli, Varda Gross-Tsur
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate has been rigorously studied and found to be a safe and effective drug. However, there is a need for pharmacological alternatives since there are patients and therapists who are reluctant to use the drug. In some cases it is ineffective, others suffer from intolerable side effects and still others need treatment extended for the entire day. Recently, new pharmacological agents have been introduced for use in Israel...
August 2005: Harefuah
Craig R Rush, Stephen T Higgins, Andrea R Vansickel, William W Stoops, Joshua A Lile, Paul E A Glaser
RATIONALE: Methylphenidate (Ritalin) and d-amphetamine (Dexedrine), stimulants commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), produce a similar constellation of behavioral effects. The results of previous studies suggest that d-amphetamine increases rates of smoking and the reinforcing effects of smoking. The effects of methylphenidate on smoking have not been assessed although it is the most commonly prescribed pharmacotherapy for ADHD and individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for smoking...
October 2005: Psychopharmacology
A M O Bakheit
Impairment of language function (aphasia) is one of the most common neurological symptoms after stroke. Approximately one in every three patients who have an acute stroke will suffer from aphasia. The estimated incidence and prevalence of stroke in Western Europe is 140 and 800 per 100,000 of the population. Aphasia often results in significant disability and handicap. It is a major obstacle for patients to live independently in the community. When recovery from aphasia occurs, it is usually incomplete and patients are rarely able to return to full employment and other social activities...
March 2004: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Brian Greenfield, Lily Hechman
A number of medication and psychologic treatment options for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have become available during the past 5 years, while others are under investigation. This review describes the safety and effectiveness of the stimulants (i.e., methylphenidate and dexedrine), and particularly the newer long-acting stimulants (i.e., Concerta) and Adderall XR) in the treatment of this population. Some nonstimulant/nonantidepressants, particularly atomoxetine, have also been shown to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms...
January 2005: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Paul E A Glaser, Theresa C Thomas, B Matthew Joyce, F Xavier Castellanos, Greg A Gerhardt
RATIONALE: Current medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include some single isomer compounds [dextroamphetamine (D: -amphetamine, dexedrine) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)] and some racemic compounds [methylphenidate and mixed-salts amphetamine (Adderall)]. Adderall, which contains approximately 25% L: -amphetamine, has been successfully marketed as a first-line medication for ADHD. Although different clinical effects have been observed for D: -amphetamine, Adderall, and benzedrine; potential psychopharmacological differences on the level of neurotransmission between D: -amphetamine and L: -amphetamine have not been well characterized...
March 2005: Psychopharmacology
Sean Esteban McCabe, John R Knight, Christian J Teter, Henry Wechsler
AIMS: To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of non-medical use of prescription stimulants (Ritalin, Dexedrine or Adderall) among US college students in terms of student and college characteristics. DESIGN: A self-administered mail survey. SETTING: One hundred and nineteen nationally representative 4-year colleges in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 10 904 randomly selected college students in 2001...
January 2005: Addiction
John T Cody, Sandra Valtier, Stephen L Nelson
Interpretation of drug testing results requires detailed scientific information, particularly in those cases where the question of legitimate use versus illicit use arises. Amphetamine remains a widely abused drug throughout the world, although it is also used therapeutically for weight loss, narcolepsy, and attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD). Treatment of ADHD using stimulant drugs is much more common now than it was in even the recent past. Increasingly, older individuals are diagnosed and treated for ADHD, and treatment often continues into adulthood...
October 2004: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1950: Canadian Medical Association Journal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1950: Pediatrics
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1950: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
S George
The effectiveness of using amphetamine isomer ratios to determine individual compliance with a Dexedrine (dexamphetamine, Celltech, Slough, UK) treatment regimen for the maintenance and detoxification from amphetamine abuse has been audited. The calculation of l/d-amphetamine isomer ratios in urine has been shown previously to provide an accurate method for determining the compliance of subjects prescribed dexamphetamine. This audit was performed on the results obtained subsequent to the analysis of 369 urine specimens collected from 87 subjects (26 female, 61 male), all prescribed dexamphetamine collected from January 1999 to December 2002...
December 2003: Addiction Biology
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