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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051571/a-new-cellular-type-in-invertebrates-first-evidence-of-telocytes-in-leech-hirudo-medicinalis
#1
Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050192/-advances-in-research-of-exosomes-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
M Q Xu, X D Sun
Exosomes are small vesicles with a molecular diameter of 30 to 100 nm, which are secreted into the cell after the fusion of the multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell origin, including proteins, microRNAs and lipids. Different cell-derived exosomes have different biological functions. Exosomes play a very important role in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The exosomes derived from the eye are involved in the processes of cell growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and immunosuppression by transferring contents to adjacent or distant cells...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032399/evidence-of-extracellular-vesicles-biogenesis-and-release-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Lilian Cruz, Jenny Andrea Arevalo Romero, Mariana Brandão Prado, Tiago G Santos, Marilene Hohmuth Lopes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are considered a source of bioactive molecules that modulate their microenvironment by acting on intercellular communication. Either intracellular endosomal machinery or their derived EVs have been considered a relevant system of signal circuits processing. Herein, we show that these features are found in mESCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed structures and organelles of the endosomal system such as coated pits and endocytosis-related vesicles, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing either few or many intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that could be released as exosomes to extracellular milieu...
October 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028346/influence-of-hofmeister-i-on-tuning-optoelectronic-properties-of-ampholytic-polythiophene-by-varying-ph-and-conjugating-with-rna
#4
Radhakanta Ghosh, Dhruba P Chatterjee, Sujoy Das, Titas Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Ayan Datta, Arun K Nandi
A significant tuning of optoelectronic properties of polythiophene (PT) chains due to Hofmeister iodide (I-) ion is demonstrated in ampholytic polythiophene [polythiophene-g-poly{(N,N,N-trimethylamino iodide)ethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid}, APT] at different pH. In acidic medium, the absorption and emission signals of PT chromophore exhibit appreciable blue shift in presence of I- as counter anion only. The co-operative effect of undissociated -COOH and quaternary ammonium groups immobilize I- near apolar PT chain causing threading of grafted chains and hence twisting of the backbone attributing to the blue shift...
October 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982145/encapsulation-of-ropivacaine-in-a-combined-donor-acceptor-ionic-gradient-liposomal-system-promotes-extended-anesthesia-time
#5
Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva, Michelle Franz-Montan, Cíntia Elisabeth Gomez Limia, Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Mário Antônio Braga, Viviane Aparecida Guilherme, Camila Batista da Silva, Bruna Renata Casadei, Cíntia Maria Saia Cereda, Eneida de Paula
Ropivacaine is a local anesthetic with similar potency but lower systemic toxicity than bupivacaine, the most commonly used spinal anesthetic. The present study concerns the development of a combined drug delivery system for ropivacaine, comprised of two types of liposomes: donor multivesicular vesicles containing 250 mM (NH4)2SO4 plus the anesthetic, and acceptor large unilamellar vesicles with internal pH of 5.5. Both kinds of liposomes were composed of hydrogenated soy-phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol (2:1 mol%) and were prepared at pH 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978534/nmr-spectroscopy-and-electron-microscopy-identification-of-metabolic-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-the-kidney-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Tafadzwa Chihanga, Qing Ma, Jenna D Nicholson, Hannah N Ruby, Richard E Edelmann, Prasad Devarajan, Michael A Kennedy
Cellular, molecular, and ultrastructural nephron changes associated with ischemia reperfusion injury-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) are not completely understood. Here, a multidisciplinary study was used to identify nephron changes in a mouse model of IRI-AKI. Histological analyses indicated distended Bowman's glomerular spaces and proximal and distal tubules. Increased filtrate volume in nephrons was caused by reduced water reabsorption by severely damaged proximal tubule brush borders and blocked flow of filtrate into collecting tubules by mucoprotein casts in distal tubules...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973578/identification-and-characterization-of-bmvta1-a-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-bombycidae-homologue-for-vta1-that-is-up-regulated-in-development
#7
Hengchuan Xia, Dandan Shao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qiang Wang, Yang Zhou, Keping Chen
Vps20-associated 1 (Vta1) positively regulates Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) to disassemble endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) for repeated uses in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding and other processes. Currently, these proteins have mainly been studied in yeast and mammalian cells, while identities of them in insects remain largely unknown. We previously identified BmVps4, a Vps4 homologue from Bombyx mori. Here, we report the identification of a homologue for Vta1, designated as BmVta1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936744/cardiac-telocyte-derived-exosomes-and-their-possible-implications-in-cardiovascular-pathophysiology
#8
Mirca Marini, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Among cardiac interstitial cells, the recently described telocytes (TCs) display the unique ability to build a supportive three-dimensional network formed by their very long and thin prolongations named telopodes. Cardiac TCs are increasingly regarded as pivotal regulators in intercellular signaling with multiple cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, microvessels, nerve endings, fibroblasts and immune cells, thus converting the cardiac stromal compartment into an integrated system that may drive either heart development or maintenance of cardiac homeostasis in post-natal life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936738/vascular-calcification-regulation-by-exosomes-in-the-vascular-wall
#9
Marcel Liberman, Luciana Cavalheiro Marti
Vascular calcification is a tightly regulated process that increases during ageing and occurs mainly in patients with diabetes and chronic renal failure. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are synthesized in a particular population of endosomes, also called multivesicular bodies, by inside budding into the lumen of the compartment. After fusion of exosome with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes have a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930853/combined-resection-of-the-right-liver-lobe-and-retrohepatic-inferior-vena-cava-to-treat-hepatic-alveolar-echinococcosis-a-case-report
#10
Lei Du, Ling-Qiang Zhang, Li-Zhao Hou, Li Ren, Hai-Jiu Wang, Xin-Jian Guo, Haining Fan
RATIONALE: Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) is a potentially fatal and chronically progressive infestation that is caused by the multivesicular metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis (EM). HAE behaves like a malignant tumor and has been referred to as "worm cancer." The main treatment method for HAE is surgical resection. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 41-year-old Tibetan alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patient with AE lesions invading the right liver lobe and retrohepatic inferior vena cava (RHIVC)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925029/loss-of-gas6-and-axl-signaling-results-in-extensive-axonal-damage-motor-deficits-prolonged-neuroinflammation-and-less-remyelination-following-cuprizone-exposure
#11
Alex K Ray, Juwen C DuBois, Ross C Gruber, Hillary M Guzik, Maria E Gulinello, Geoffrey Perumal, Cedric Raine, Lauren Kozakiewicz, Julie Williamson, Bridget Shafit-Zagardo
The TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their ligands, Gas6 and ProS1, are important for innate immune responses and central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. While only Gas6 directly activates Axl, ProS1 activation of Tyro3/MerTK can indirectly activate Axl through receptor heterodimerization. Therefore, we generated Gas6(-/-) Axl(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice to specifically examine the contribution of this signaling axis while retaining ProS1 signaling through Tyro3 and MerTK...
December 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919742/intracellular-disposition-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-macrophages-intracellular-uptake-exocytosis-and-intercellular-transport
#12
Li Qun Jiang, Ting Yu Wang, Thomas J Webster, Hua-Jian Duan, Jing Ying Qiu, Zi Ming Zhao, Xiao Xing Yin, Chun Li Zheng
Biodegradable nanomaterials have been widely used in numerous medical fields. To further improve such efforts, this study focused on the intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles (CsNPs) in macrophages, a primary cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Such interactions with the MPS determine the nanoparticle retention time in the body and consequently play a significant role in their own clinical safety. In this study, various dye-labeled CsNPs (about 250 nm) were prepared, and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893927/mutant-huntingtin-inhibits-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-expression-and-impairs-exosome-secretion-from-astrocytes
#13
Yan Hong, Ting Zhao, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
In the brain, astrocytes secrete diverse substances that regulate neuronal function and viability. Exosomes, which are vesicles produced through the formation of multivesicular bodies and their subsequent fusion with the plasma membrane, are also released from astrocytes via exocytotic secretion. Astrocytic exosomes carry heat shock proteins that can reduce the cellular toxicity of misfolded proteins and prevent neurodegeneration. Although mutant huntingtin (mHtt) affects multiple functions of astrocytes, it remains unknown whether mHtt impairs the production of exosomes from astrocytes...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880477/exosomes-as-new-players-in-metabolic-organ-cross-talk
#14
REVIEW
Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi
Blood glucose homeostasis requires a constant communication between insulin-secreting and insulin-sensitive cells. A wide variety of circulating factors, including hormones, cytokines and chemokines work together to orchestrate the systemic response of metabolic organs to changes in the nutritional state. Failure in the coordination between these organs can lead to a rise in blood glucose levels and to the appearance of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are produced via the endosomal pathway and are released from the cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878075/the-characterization-of-the-quasi-enveloped-hepatitis-e-virus-particles-released-by-the-cellular-exosomal-pathway
#15
Shigeo Nagashima, Masaharu Takahashi, Tominari Kobayashi, Tanggis, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Takashi Nishiyama, Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Hiroaki Okamoto
Our previous studies demonstrated that membrane-associated hepatitis E virus (HEV) particles-now considered "quasi-enveloped particles"-are present in the multivesicular body with intraluminal vesicles (exosomes) in infected cells, and that the release of HEV virions is related to the exosomal pathway. In this study, we characterized exosomes purified from culture supernatant of HEV-infected PLC/PRF/5 cells. Purified CD63-, CD9-, or CD81-positive exosomes derived from the culture supernatant of HEV-infected cells that had been cultivated in serum-free medium were found to contain HEV RNA and the viral capsid (ORF2) and ORF3 proteins, as determined by a RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867368/plant-escrt-complexes-moving-beyond-endosomal-sorting
#16
REVIEW
Caiji Gao, Xiaohong Zhuang, Jinbo Shen, Liwen Jiang
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is an ancient system that deforms membrane and severs membrane necks from the inside. Extensive evidence has accumulated to demonstrate the conserved functions of plant ESCRTs in multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and MVB-mediated membrane protein sorting. In addition, recent exciting findings have uncovered unique plant ESCRT components and point to emerging roles for plant ESCRTs in non-endosomal sorting events such as autophagy, cytokinesis, and viral replication...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851452/enhanced-exosome-secretion-in-down-syndrome-brain-a-protective-mechanism-to-alleviate-neuronal-endosomal-abnormalities
#17
Sébastien A Gauthier, Rocío Pérez-González, Ajay Sharma, Fang-Ke Huang, Melissa J Alldred, Monika Pawlik, Gurjinder Kaur, Stephen D Ginsberg, Thomas A Neubert, Efrat Levy
A dysfunctional endosomal pathway and abnormally enlarged early endosomes in neurons are an early characteristic of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have hypothesized that endosomal material can be released by endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs) into the extracellular space via exosomes to relieve neurons of accumulated endosomal contents when endosomal pathway function is compromised. Supporting this, we found that exosome secretion is enhanced in the brains of DS patients and a mouse model of the disease, and by DS fibroblasts...
August 29, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844737/structural-templating-of-j-aggregates-visualizing-bis-monoacylglycero-phosphate-domains-in-live-cells
#18
Gary C H Mo, Christopher M Yip
Identifying the key structural and dynamical determinants that drive the association of biomolecules, whether in solution, or perhaps more importantly in a membrane environment, has critical implications for our understanding of cellular dynamics, processes, and signaling. With recent advances in high-resolution imaging techniques, from the development of new molecular labels to technical advances in imaging methodologies and platforms, researchers are now reaping the benefits of being able to directly characterize and quantify local dynamics, structures, and conformations in live cells and tissues...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842471/isgylation-a-key-to-lock-the-cell-gates-for-preventing-the-spread-of-threats
#19
REVIEW
Carolina Villarroya-Beltri, Susana Guerra, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin-like protein whose expression and conjugation to targets (ISGylation) is induced by infection, interferon (IFN)-α and -β, ischemia, DNA damage and aging. Attention has historically focused on the antiviral effects of ISGylation, which blocks the entry, replication or release of different intracellular pathogens. However, recently, new functions of ISGylation have emerged that implicate it in multiple cellular processes, such as DNA repair, autophagy, protein translation and exosome secretion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835279/a%C3%AE-accumulation-causes-mvb-enlargement-and-is-modelled-by-dominant-negative-vps4a
#20
Katarina Willén, James R Edgar, Takafumi Hasegawa, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Clare E Futter, Gunnar K Gouras
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulates in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the onset of AD pathogenesis. Alterations in endosomes are among the earliest changes associated with AD but the mechanism(s) that cause endosome enlargement and the effects of MVB dysfunction on Aβ accumulation and tau pathology are incompletely understood. METHODS: MVB size and Aβ fibrils in primary neurons were visualized by electron microscopy and confocal fluorescent microscopy...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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