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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#1
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624237/identification-of-syntaxin-4-as-an-essential-factor-for-the-hepatitis-c-virus-life-cycle
#2
Huimei Ren, Fabian Elgner, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Sami Akhras, Bingfu Jiang, Regina Medvedev, Daniela Ploen, Eberhard Hildt
Although there is evidence that multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are involved in the release of hepatitis C virus (HCV), many aspects of HCV release are still not fully understood. The amount of α-taxilin that prevents SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimidesensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex formation by binding to free syntaxin 4 is reduced in HCV-positive cells. Therefore, it was analyzed whether the t-SNARE protein syntaxin 4 which mediates vesicles fusion is involved in the HCV life cycle. HCV-positive cells possess an increased amount of syntaxin 4 protein, although the amount of syntaxin 4-specific transcripts is decreased in HCV-positive Huh7...
June 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619275/differentiation-affects-the-release-of-exosomes-from-colon-cancer-cells-and-their-ability-to-modulate-the-behavior-of-recipient-cells
#3
Donatella Lucchetti, Federica Calapà, Valentina Palmieri, Caterina Fanali, Federica Carbone, Alfredo Papa, Ruggero De Maria, Marco De Spirito, Alessandro Sgambato
Exosomes are involved in intercellular communication. We previously reported that sodium butyrate-induced differentiation of HT29 colon cancer cells is associated with a reduced CD133 expression. Herein, we analyzed the role of exosomes in the differentiation of HT29 cells. Exosomes were prepared using ultracentrifugation. Gene expression levels were evaluated by real-time PCR. The cell proliferation rate was assessed by MTT assay and with the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system, whereas cell motility was assessed using the scratch test and confocal microscopy...
July 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590904/niemann-pick-type-c-proteins-promote-microautophagy-by-expanding-raft-like-membrane-domains-in-the-yeast-vacuole
#4
Takuma Tsuji, Megumi Fujimoto, Tsuyako Tatematsu, Jinglei Cheng, Minami Orii, Sho Takatori, Toyoshi Fujimoto
Niemann-Pick type C is a storage disease caused by dysfunction of NPC proteins, which transport cholesterol from the lumen of lysosomes to the limiting membrane of that compartment. Using freeze fracture electron microscopy, we show here that the yeast NPC orthologs, Ncr1p and Npc2p, are essential for formation and expansion of raft-like domains in the vacuolar (lysosome) membrane, both in stationary phase and in acute nitrogen starvation. Moreover, the expanded raft-like domains engulf lipid droplets by a microautophagic mechanism...
June 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587154/redistribution-of-endosomal-membranes-to-the-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-site
#5
Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo, Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site...
June 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583040/basal-autophagy-is-altered-in-lagotto-romagnolo-dogs-with-an-atg4d-mutation
#6
Pernilla Syrjä, Tahira Anwar, Tarja Jokinen, Kaisa Kyöstilä, Karin Hultin Jäderlund, Francesca Cozzi, Cecilia Rohdin, Kerstin Hahn, Peter Wohlsein, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Diana Henke, Anna Oevermann, Antti Sukura, Tosso Leeb, Hannes Lohi, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen
A missense variant in the autophagy-related ATG4D-gene has been associated with a progressive degenerative neurological disease in Lagotto Romagnolo (LR) dogs. In addition to neural lesions, affected dogs show an extraneural histopathological phenotype characterized by severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, a finding not previously linked with disturbed autophagy in animals. Here we aimed at testing the hypothesis that autophagy is altered in the affected dogs, at reporting the histopathology of extraneural tissues and at excluding lysosomal storage diseases...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579098/membrane-remodeling-by-amyloidogenic-and-non-amyloidogenic-proteins-studied-by-epr
#7
Jobin Varkey, Ralf Langen
The advancement in site-directed spin labeling of proteins has enabled EPR studies to expand into newer research areas within the umbrella of protein-membrane interactions. Recently, membrane remodeling by amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic proteins has gained a substantial interest in relation to driving and controlling vital cellular processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, shaping of organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and mitochondria, intracellular vesicular trafficking, formation of filopedia and multivesicular bodies, mitochondrial fusion and fission, and synaptic vesicle fusion and recycling in neurotransmission...
July 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561434/intracellular-origin-and-ultrastructure-of-platelet-derived-microparticles
#8
A A Ponomareva, T A Nevzorova, E R Mordakhanova, I A Andrianova, L Rauova, R I Litvinov, J W Weisel
BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived microparticles comprise the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the (patho)physiological roles of platelet-derived microparticles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: Here we studied the formation, ultrastructure, and composition of platelet-derived microparticles from isolated human platelets, either quiescent or stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, thrombin, or calcium ionophore A23187...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559323/contacts-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-other-membranes-in-neurons
#9
Yumei Wu, Christina Whiteus, C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess, Pietro De Camilli
Close appositions between the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other intracellular membranes have important functions in cell physiology. These include lipid homeostasis, regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics, and control of organelle biogenesis and dynamics. Although these membrane contacts have previously been observed in neurons, their distribution and abundance have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we have used focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy to generate 3D reconstructions of intracellular organelles and their membrane appositions involving the ER (distance ≤30 nm) in different neuronal compartments...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553951/post-translational-control-of-t-cell-development-by-the-escrt-protein-chmp5
#10
Stanley Adoro, Kwang Hwan Park, Sarah E Bettigole, Raphael Lis, Hee Rae Shin, Heewon Seo, Ju Han Kim, Klaus-Peter Knobeloch, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Laurie H Glimcher
The acquisition of a protective vertebrate immune system hinges on the efficient generation of a diverse but self-tolerant repertoire of T cells by the thymus through mechanisms that remain incompletely resolved. Here we identified the endosomal-sorting-complex-required-for-transport (ESCRT) protein CHMP5, known to be required for the formation of multivesicular bodies, as a key sensor of thresholds for signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) that was essential for T cell development. CHMP5 enabled positive selection by promoting post-selection thymocyte survival in part through stabilization of the pro-survival protein Bcl-2...
July 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528112/microencapsulation-and-characterization-of-liposomal-vesicles-using-a-supercritical-fluid-process-coupled-with-vacuum-driven-cargo-loading
#11
Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S H Rizvi
A new technique of liposomal microencapsulation, consisting of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion of the supercritical solution and vacuum-driven cargo loading, was successfully developed. It is a continuous flow-through process without usage of any toxic organic solvent. For use as a coating material, the solubility of soy phospholipids in supercritical carbon dioxide was first determined using a dynamic equilibrium system and the data was correlated with the Chrastil model with good agreement...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490497/protein-composition-of-the-hepatitis-a-virus-quasi-envelope
#12
Kevin L McKnight, Ling Xie, Olga González-López, Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Xian Chen, Stanley M Lemon
The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482176/exosomes-ultrastructural-evidence-in-epithelial-cells-of-malpighian-tubules
#13
Anita Giglio, Ida Daniela Perrotta, Pietro Brandmayr
Exosomes in Malpighian tubules of Calathus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were investigated under transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural analyses showed a wide number of multivesicular bodies localized in the apical portion of epithelial cells. Each multivesicular body encloses from 15 to 80 intraluminal vesicles (about 50nm in diameter), originating through inward budding of late endosomes that package molecules into luminal membrane-bound structures. Subsequently they are released as exosomes through exocytosis of multivesicular bodies into the extracellular space after fusion with plasma membrane...
September 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481357/tmbim1-is-a-multivesicular-body-regulator-that-protects-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-and-monkeys-by-targeting-the-lysosomal-degradation-of-tlr4
#14
Guang-Nian Zhao, Peng Zhang, Jun Gong, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Pi-Xiao Wang, Miao Yin, Zhou Jiang, Li-Jun Shen, Yan-Xiao Ji, Jingjing Tong, Yutao Wang, Qiao-Fang Wei, Yong Wang, Xue-Yong Zhu, Xin Zhang, Jing Fang, Qingguo Xie, Zhi-Gang She, Zhihua Wang, Zan Huang, Hongliang Li
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly prevalent liver pathology that can progress from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is currently no pharmacological therapy for NASH. Defective lysosome-mediated protein degradation is a key process that underlies steatohepatitis and a well-recognized drug target in a variety of diseases; however, whether it can serve as a therapeutic target for NAFLD and NASH remains unknown...
June 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477258/x-ray-metal-assessment-and-ovarian-ultrastructure-alterations-of-the-beetle-blaps-polycresta-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-inhabiting-polluted-soil
#15
Wafaa Osman, Mourad Shonouda
X-ray analysis was applied to estimate the percentages of heavy metals in ovarian tissues of the tenebrionid beetle, Blaps polycresta. Calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, cadmium, copper, and zinc were the most common detected metals in ovaries of insects collected from reference and polluted sites. Only cadmium showed significantly higher percentages in the polluted ovaries compared with the reference ones. Ultrastructure investigation revealed severe alterations in polluted ovaries both in the tropharium and in the vitellarium...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476891/drosophila-tg-a-transglutaminase-is-secreted-via-an-unconventional-golgi-independent-mechanism-involving-exosomes-and-two-types-of-fatty-acylations
#16
Toshio Shibata, Jinki Hadano, Daichi Kawasaki, Xiaoqing Dong, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Transglutaminases (TGs) play essential intracellular and extracellular roles by covalently cross-linking many proteins. Drosophila TG is encoded by one gene and has two alternative splicing-derived isoforms, TG-A and TG-B, which contain distinct N-terminal 46- and 38-amino acid sequences, respectively. The TGs identified to date do not have a typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-signal peptide, and the molecular mechanisms of their secretion under physiologic conditions are unclear. Immunocytochemistry revealed that TG-A localizes to multivesicular-like structures, whereas TG-B localizes to the cytosol...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441569/the-cytoskeleton-autophagy-connection
#17
REVIEW
David J Kast, Roberto Dominguez
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430812/nacl-cotransporter-abundance-in-urinary-vesicles-is-increased-by-calcineurin-inhibitors-and-predicts-thiazide-sensitivity
#18
Omar A Z Tutakhel, Arthur D Moes, Marco A Valdez-Flores, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Mathijs V D Vrie, Sabina Jeleń, Robert A Fenton, Robert Zietse, Joost G J Hoenderop, Ewout J Hoorn, Luuk Hilbrands, René J M Bindels
Animal studies have shown that the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus can activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). A common side effect of CNIs is hypertension. Renal salt transporters such as NCC are excreted in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) after internalization into multivesicular bodies. Human studies indicate that CNIs also increase NCC abundance in uEVs, but results are conflicting and no relationship with NCC function has been shown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CsA and Tac on the abundance of both total NCC (tNCC) and phosphorylated NCC at Thr60 phosphorylation site (pNCC) in uEVs, and assessed whether NCC abundance in uEVs predicts the blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411270/short-term-facilitation-at-a-detonator-synapse-requires-the-distinct-contribution-of-multiple-types-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#19
Simon Chamberland, Alesya Evstratova, Katalin Tóth
Neuronal calcium elevations are shaped by several key parameters, including the properties, density, and the spatial location of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). These features allow presynaptic terminals to translate complex firing frequencies and tune the amount of neurotransmitter released. Although synchronous neurotransmitter release relies on both P/Q- and N-type VGCCs at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses, the specific contribution of VGCCs to calcium dynamics, neurotransmitter release, and short-term facilitation remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406455/subcellular-localization-of-arabidopsis-pathogenesis-related-1-pr1-protein
#20
Tamara Pečenková, Roman Pleskot, Viktor Žárský
The Arabidopsisthaliana pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) is an important defense protein, so far it has only been detected in extracellular space and its subcellular sorting and transport remain unexplained. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged full length, as well as a C-terminus truncated version of PR1, we observed that when expressed ectopically in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, PR1 co-localizes only partially with Golgi markers, and much more prominently with the late endosome (LE)/multivesicular body (MVB) FYVE marker...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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