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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441569/the-cytoskeleton-autophagy-connection
#1
REVIEW
David J Kast, Roberto Dominguez
Actin cytoskeleton dynamics play vital roles in most forms of intracellular trafficking by promoting the biogenesis and transport of vesicular cargoes. Mounting evidence indicates that actin dynamics and membrane-cytoskeleton scaffolds also have essential roles in macroautophagy, the process by which cellular waste is isolated inside specialized vesicles called autophagosomes for recycling and degradation. Branched actin polymerization is necessary for the biogenesis of autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430812/nacl-cotransporter-abundance-in-urinary-vesicles-is-increased-by-calcineurin-inhibitors-and-predicts-thiazide-sensitivity
#2
Omar A Z Tutakhel, Arthur D Moes, Marco A Valdez-Flores, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Mathijs V D Vrie, Sabina Jeleń, Robert A Fenton, Robert Zietse, Joost G J Hoenderop, Ewout J Hoorn, Luuk Hilbrands, René J M Bindels
Animal studies have shown that the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus can activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). A common side effect of CNIs is hypertension. Renal salt transporters such as NCC are excreted in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) after internalization into multivesicular bodies. Human studies indicate that CNIs also increase NCC abundance in uEVs, but results are conflicting and no relationship with NCC function has been shown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CsA and Tac on the abundance of both total NCC (tNCC) and phosphorylated NCC at Thr60 phosphorylation site (pNCC) in uEVs, and assessed whether NCC abundance in uEVs predicts the blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411270/short-term-facilitation-at-a-detonator-synapse-requires-the-distinct-contribution-of-multiple-types-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#3
Simon Chamberland, Alesya Evstratova, Katalin Tóth
Neuronal calcium elevations are shaped by several key parameters, including the properties, density, and the spatial location of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). These features allow presynaptic terminals to translate complex firing frequencies and tune the amount of neurotransmitter released. While synchronous neurotransmitter release relies on both P/Q- and N-type VGCCs at hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses, the specific contribution of VGCCs to calcium dynamics, neurotransmitter release and short-term facilitation remains unknown...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406455/subcellular-localization-of-arabidopsis-pathogenesis-related-1-pr1-protein
#4
Tamara Pečenková, Roman Pleskot, Viktor Žárský
The Arabidopsisthaliana pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) is an important defense protein, so far it has only been detected in extracellular space and its subcellular sorting and transport remain unexplained. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged full length, as well as a C-terminus truncated version of PR1, we observed that when expressed ectopically in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, PR1 co-localizes only partially with Golgi markers, and much more prominently with the late endosome (LE)/multivesicular body (MVB) FYVE marker...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406072/harmful-at-non-cytotoxic-concentrations-sio2-spions-affect-surfactant-metabolism-and-lamellar-body-biogenesis-in-a549-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#5
Veno Kononenko, Andreja Erman, Toni Petan, Igor Križaj, Slavko Kralj, Darko Makovec, Damjana Drobne
The pulmonary delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) is a promising approach in nanomedicine. For the efficient and safe use of inhalable NPs, understanding of NP interference with lung surfactant metabolism is needed. Lung surfactant is predominantly a phospholipid substance, synthesized in alveolar type II cells (ATII), where it is packed in special organelles, lamellar bodies (LBs). In vitro and in vivo studies have reported NPs impact on surfactant homeostasis, but this phenomenon has not yet been sufficiently examined...
April 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396666/dynamic-changes-in-the-intracellular-association-of-selected-rab-small-gtpases-with-mhc-class-ii-and-dm-during-dendritic-cell-maturation
#6
Gibrán Pérez-Montesinos, Orestes López-Ortega, Jessica Piedra-Reyes, Laura C Bonifaz, José Moreno
Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392677/optimized-formulation-of-multivesicular-liposomes-loaded-with-oleanolic-acid-enhanced-anticancer-effect-in-vitro
#7
Yunlong Wang, Yuling Luo, Chunhong Li, Xiaoqin Zhang, Chao Pi, Lu Yu, Shurong Wang, Zhirong Zhong
Invasion and metastasis are the main causes leading to the death of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivesicular liposomes loaded with oleanolic acid (OA-MVLs) have been well demonstrated to suppress survival, growth and angiogenesis of HCC cells. Emerging evidence demonstrates that OA was able to suppress the invasion of HCC cells by down-regulating myocyte enhancer factor-2. We hypothesized that the optimized OA-MVLs could inhibit the migration and invasion of HCC cells. In this study, we utilized central composite design and response surface methodology to assess the influence of some parameters on particle size and encapsulation efficiency and obtain the optimized formulation of OA-MVLs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386213/exosomes-in-the-diseased-brain-first-insights-from-in-vivo-studies
#8
REVIEW
Efrat Levy
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale size vesicles secreted by cells and are important mediators of intercellular communication and genetic exchange. Exosomes, EVs generated in endosomal multivesicular bodies, have been the focus of numerous publications as they have emerged as clinically valuable markers of disease states. Exosomes have been mostly studied from conditioned culture media and body fluids, with the difficulty of isolating exosomes from tissues having delayed their study in vivo. The implementation of a method designed to isolate exosomes from tissues, however, has yielded the first insights into characteristics of exosomes in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377049/the-endocytic-pathways-of-a-secretory-granule-membrane-protein-in-hek293-cells-pam-and-egf-traverse-a-dynamic-multivesicular-body-network-together
#9
Nils Bäck, Kristiina Kanerva, Vishwanatha Kurutihalli, Andrew Yanik, Elina Ikonen, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper
Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs)...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357665/egf-uptake-and-degradation-assay-to-determine-the-effect-of-htlv-regulatory-proteins-on-the-escrt-dependent-mvb-pathway
#10
Colin Murphy, Noreen Sheehy
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway plays key roles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) formation and lysosomal degradation of membrane receptors, viral budding, and midbody abscission during cytokinesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is regarded as a prototypical cargo of the MVB/ESCRT pathway and following stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) EGFR/EGF complexes are internalized, sorted into MVBs, and degraded by lysosomes or recycled back to the cell membrane...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356223/the-role-of-the-pi-3-5-p2-kinase-tbfab1-in-endo-lysosomal-trafficking-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#11
Julia K Gilden, Khan Umaer, Emilia K Kruzel, Oliver Hecht, Renan O Correa, John M Mansfield, James D Bangs
Protein trafficking through endo/lysosomal compartments is critically important to the biology of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, but the routes material may take to the lysosome, as well as the molecular factors regulating those routes, remain incompletely understood. Phosphoinositides are signaling phospholipids that regulate many trafficking events by recruiting specific effector proteins to discrete membrane subdomains. In this study, we investigate the role of one phosphoinositide, PI(3,5)P2 in T...
March 27, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350388/corrigendum-the-formation-of-multivesicular-bodies-in-activated-blastocysts-is-influenced-by-autophagy-and-fgf-signaling-in-mice
#12
Hyejin Shin, Soyoung Bang, Jiyeon Kim, Jin Hyun Jun, Haengseok Song, Hyunjung Jade Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347750/glycoconjugates-from-extracellular-vesicles-structures-functions-and-emerging-potential-as-cancer-biomarkers
#13
REVIEW
Julia Costa
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by virtually all cells, carry cellular molecules to the extracellular environment, and may interact with other cells. They are found in body fluids, therefore, constituting useful target sources for the identification of disease biomarkers, for example, in cancer. EVs originate from the plasma membrane or from multivesicular endosomes. They have the same topology as the plasma membrane and are rich in glycoconjugates, displaying specific glycosignatures. Surface glycoconjugates play important roles in EVs biogenesis and in their interaction with other cells...
March 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315217/basophil-degranulation-assay
#14
Madhan Masilamani, Mohanapriya Kamalakannan, Hugh A Sampson
Basophil degranulation assay has gained importance over the last decade in both diagnosis of food allergy and evaluation of progression of immunotherapy. This assay involves the identification and quantification of the expression of CD63 molecule on basophil membrane. CD63 is a marker of multivesicular bodies that is exposed to cell membrane during the process of degranulation in which the contents of basophil granules are released. This chapter describes the methodology for performing this assay.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302909/ppn2-a-novel-zn-2-dependent-polyphosphatase-in-the-acidocalcisome-like-yeast-vacuole
#15
Rūta Gerasimaitė, Andreas Mayer
Acidocalcisome-like organelles are found in all kingdoms of life. Many of their functions, such as the accumulation and storage of metal ions, nitrogen and phosphate, the activation of blood clotting and inflammation, depend on the controlled synthesis and turnover of polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of inorganic phosphate linked by phosphoric anhydride bonds. The exploration of the role of acidocalcisomes in metabolism and physiology requires manipulation of polyP turnover, yet the complete set of proteins responsible for this turnover is unknown...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289043/exocytosis-mediated-urinary-full-length-megalin-excretion-is-linked-with-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Shankhajit De, Shoji Kuwahara, Michihiro Hosojima, Tomomi Ishikawa, Ryohei Kaseda, Piyali Sarkar, Yusuke Yoshioka, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Tomomichi Iida, Sawako Goto, Koji Toba, Yuki Higuchi, Yoshiki Suzuki, Masanori Hara, Hiroyuki Kurosawa, Ichiei Narita, Yoshiaki Hirayama, Takahiro Ochiya, Akihiko Saito
Efficient biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) have not been established. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found previously that urinary levels of full-length megalin (C-megalin), a multiligand endocytic receptor in proximal tubules, was positively correlated with DN progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we found that urinary extracellular vesicle (UEV) excretion and C-megalin content in UEVs or in their exosomal fraction increased along with the progression of the albuminuric stages in T2DM patients...
March 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276699/p120-catenin-in-canonical-wnt-signaling
#17
Mireia Duñach, Beatriz Del Valle-Pérez, Antonio García de Herreros
Canonical Wnt signaling controls β-catenin protein stabilization, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of β-catenin/Tcf-4-dependent transcription. In this review, we revise and discuss the recent results describing actions of p120-catenin in different phases of this pathway. More specifically, we comment its involvement in four different steps: (i) the very early activation of CK1ɛ, essential for Dvl-2 binding to the Wnt receptor complex; (ii) the internalization of GSK3 and Axin into multivesicular bodies, necessary for a complete stabilization of β-catenin; (iii) the activation of Rac1 small GTPase, required for β-catenin translocation to the nucleus; and (iv) the release of the inhibitory action caused by Kaiso transcriptional repressor...
March 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275710/intrastriatally-infused-exogenous-cdnf-is-endocytosed-and-retrogradely-transported-to-substantia-nigra
#18
Kert Mätlik, Helena Vihinen, Ali Bienemann, Jaan Palgi, Merja H Voutilainen, Sigrid Booms, Maria Lindahl, Eija Jokitalo, Mart Saarma, Henri J Huttunen, Mikko Airavaara, Urmas Arumäe
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257521/exosome-secretion-affects-social-motility-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#19
Dror Eliaz, Sriram Kannan, Hadassa Shaked, Gil Arvatz, Itai Dov Tkacz, Lior Binder, Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher, Uthman Okalang, Vaibhav Chikne, Smadar Cohen-Chalamish, Shulamit Michaeli
Extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL) exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB) utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT), through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#20
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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