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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670015/extracellular-vesicles-as-conveyors-of-membrane-derived-bioactive-lipids-in-immune-system
#1
REVIEW
Krizia Sagini, Eva Costanzi, Carla Emiliani, Sandra Buratta, Lorena Urbanelli
Over the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been established as an additional way to transmit signals outside the cell. They are membrane-surrounded structures of nanometric size that can either originate from the membrane invagination of multivesicular bodies of the late endosomal compartment (exosomes) or bud from the plasma membrane (microvesicles). They contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids—namely miRNA, but also mRNA and lncRNA—which are derived from the parental cell, and have been retrieved in every fluid of the body...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669945/adiponectin-t-cadherin-system-enhances-exosome-biogenesis-and-decreases-cellular-ceramides-by-exosomal-release
#2
Yoshinari Obata, Shunbun Kita, Yoshihisa Koyama, Shiro Fukuda, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yuya Fujishima, Hirofumi Nagao, Shigeki Masuda, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Yuto Nakamura, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Barbara Ranscht, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Rikinari Hanayama, Shoichi Shimada, Norikazu Maeda, Iichiro Shimomura
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating protein, accumulates in vasculature, heart, and skeletal muscles through interaction with a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cadherin, T-cadherin. Recent studies have demonstrated that such accumulation is essential for adiponectin-mediated cardiovascular protection. Here, we demonstrate that the adiponectin/T-cadherin system enhances exosome biogenesis and secretion, leading to the decrease of cellular ceramides. Adiponectin accumulated inside multivesicular bodies, the site of exosome generation, in cultured cells and in vivo aorta, and also in exosomes in conditioned media and in blood, together with T-cadherin...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668757/actin-polymerization-in-the-endosomal-pathway-but-not-on-the-coxiella-containing-vacuole-is-essential-for-pathogen-growth
#3
Heather E Miller, Charles L Larson, Robert A Heinzen
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV) and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603861/msc-cross-talk-with-cancer-cells-provides-therapeutic-potential
#4
REVIEW
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass
Various direct and indirect cellular interactions between multi-functional mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC) and cancer cells contribute to increasing plasticity within the tumor tissue and its microenvironment. Direct and tight communication between MSC and cancer cells is based on membrane protein interactions and the exchange of large plasma membrane fragments also known as trogocytosis. An ultimate but rare direct interaction resumes in fusion of these two cellular partners resulting in the formation of new cancer hybrid cell populations...
March 31, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584722/pikfyve-regulates-melanosome-biogenesis
#5
Marc C Liggins, Jessica L Flesher, Sohail Jahid, Priya Vasudeva, Victoria Eby, Shunsuke Takasuga, Junko Sasaki, Takehiko Sasaki, Raymond E Boissy, Anand K Ganesan
PIKfyve, VAC14, and FIG4 form a complex that catalyzes the production of PI(3,5)P2, a signaling lipid implicated in process ranging from lysosome maturation to neurodegeneration. While previous studies have identified VAC14 and FIG4 mutations that lead to both neurodegeneration and coat color defects, how PIKfyve regulates melanogenesis is unknown. In this study, we sought to better understand the role of PIKfyve in melanosome biogenesis. Melanocyte-specific PIKfyve knockout mice exhibit greying of the mouse coat and the accumulation of single membrane vesicle structures in melanocytes resembling multivesicular endosomes...
March 27, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580272/ejaculated-boar-spermatozoa-displaying-a-rare-multivesicular-defect
#6
Szabolcs Nagy, Tuire Tamminen, Magnus Andersson, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
Two cases of a previously unreported sperm defect appearing in boar studs in Finland are presented. Spermatozoa showed small particles scattered on their surface with a prevalence decreasing with boar age. Semen samples, either stained with eosin-nigrosin or examined with phase contrast optics on formaldehyde-fixed spermatozoa, revealed the presence of multiple particles attached to the surface of spermatozoa counted as dead cells at fixation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed these were multivesicular and multilamellar vesicles, built up by phospholipid membranes...
March 27, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560259/the-life-cycle-of-platelet-granules
#7
REVIEW
Anish Sharda, Robert Flaumenhaft
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546036/the-conserved-escrt-iii-machinery-participates-in-the-phagocytosis-of-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
Yunuen Avalos-Padilla, Roland L Knorr, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Reinhard Lipowsky, Rumiana Dimova, Esther Orozco
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ≥250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica , the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545816/tomato-prenylated-rab-acceptor-protein-1-modulates-trafficking-and-degradation-of-the-pattern-recognition-receptor-leeix2-affecting-the-innate-immune-response
#9
Lorena Pizarro, Meirav Leibman-Markus, Silvia Schuster, Maya Bar, Tal Meltz, Adi Avni
Plants recognize microbial/pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMP/PAMP) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering an immune response against pathogen progression. MAMP/PAMP triggered immune response requires PRR endocytosis and trafficking for proper deployment. LeEIX2 is a well-known Solanum lycopersicum RLP-PRR, able to recognize and respond to the fungal MAMP/PAMP ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX), and its function is highly dependent on intracellular trafficking. Identifying protein machinery components regulating LeEIX2 intracellular trafficking is crucial to our understanding of LeEIX2 mediated immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542322/dynamic-scaling-of-exosome-sizes
#10
Michael E Paulaitis, Kitty Agarwal, Serge Patrick Nana-Sinkam
A model is proposed for characterizing exosome size distributions based on dynamic scaling of domain growth on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies in the established exosome biogenesis pathway. The scaling exponent in this model captures the asymmetry of exosome size distributions, which are notably right-skewed to larger vesicles independent of the minimum detectable vesicle size. Analyses of exosome size distributions obtained by cryo-TEM imaging and nanoparticle tracking (NTA) show, respectively, that the scaling exponent is sensitive to the state of the cell source for exosomes in cell culture supernatants, and can distinguish exosome size distributions in serum samples taken from cancer patients relative to those from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497081/hypoxia-induced-exosome-secretion-promotes-survival-of-african-american-and-caucasian-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Gati K Panigrahi, Prakash P Praharaj, Taylor C Peak, Jessica Long, Ravi Singh, Johng S Rhim, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Gagan Deep
African American men in the United States have higher mortality due to prostate cancer (PCa) compared to other races. One reason for this disparity is the lack of in-depth understanding of the PCa biology in African Americans. For example, hypoxia in prostate tumor microenvironment is associated with adverse prognosis; still, no hypoxia-related studies have been reported in African Americans. Here, we compared African-American and Caucasian PCa cells for exosome secretion under normoxic (21% O2 ) and hypoxic (1% O2 ) conditions...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486175/degree-of-calcification-and-cyst-activity-in-hepatic-cystic-echinococcosis-in-humans
#12
Margherita Conchedda, Aldo Caddori, Alessia Caredda, Salvatore Capra, Gianfranco Bortoletti
To evaluate the relationship between cyst activity and calcification degree in cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans, 99 hepatic cysts at successive stages of involution, surgically excised from 72 Sardinian patients, have been analyzed. Cysts were classified into 4 groups according to calcification extent: CALC 0 (no calcification); CALC 1 (scattered punctate calcifications); CALC 2 (large coarse segmental/partial calcifications); CALC 3 (complete or nearly complete circumferential ring of calcification up to thick wall of osseous consistency/calcified content of cyst)...
February 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452354/alpha-synuclein-inhibits-snx3-retromer-mediated-retrograde-recycling-of-iron-transporters-in-s-cerevisiae-and-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Dhaval Patel, Chuan Xu, Sureshbabu Nagarajan, Zhengchang Liu, Wayne O Hemphill, Runhua Shi, Vladimir N Uversky, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell, Stephan N Witt
We probed the role of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in modulating sorting nexin 3 (Snx3)-retromer-mediated recycling of iron transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. In yeast, the membrane-bound heterodimer Fet3/Ftr1 is the high affinity iron importer. Fet3 is a membrane-bound multicopper ferroxidase, whose ferroxidase domain is orthologous to human ceruloplasmin (Cp), that oxidizes external Fe+2 to Fe+3; the Fe+3 ions then channel through the Ftr1 permease into the cell. When the concentration of external iron is low (< 1 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is maintained on the plasma membrane by retrograde endocytic-recycling; whereas, when the concentration of external iron is high (> 10 µM), Fet3/Ftr1 is endocytosed and shunted to the vacuole for degradation...
February 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444958/cdc48-and-ubiquilins-confer-selective-anterograde-protein-sorting-and-entry-into-the-multivesicular-body-in-yeast
#14
Rachel Kama, Galina Gabriely, Vydehi Kanneganti, Jeffrey E Gerst
Cdc48/p97 is known primarily for the retro-translocation of misfolded proteins in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Here, we uncover a novel function for both Cdc48 and the conserved UBA-UBL ubiquitin receptor (ubiquilin) proteins in yeast ( e.g. Ddi1, Dsk2, Rad23), which deliver ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome for degradation. We show that Cdc48, its core adaptors Npl4 and Ufd1, and the ubiquilins confer the constitutive anterograde delivery of carboxypeptidase S (Cps1), a membranal hydrolase, to the multivesicular body (MVB) and vacuolar lumen...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436780/autosomal-tubulointerstitial-kidney-disease-muc1-type-differential-proteomics-suggests-that-mutated-muc1-insc-affects-vesicular-transport-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#15
Simon Staubach, Andrea Wenzel, Bodo B Beck, Markus M Rinschen, Stefan Müller, Franz-Georg Hanisch
Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease associated to the MUC1 gene (ADTKD-MUC1; formerly MCKD1) belongs to a heterogenous group of rare hereditary kidney diseases that is prototypically caused by frameshift mutations in the MUC1 repeat domain. The mutant MUC1(insC) lacks the transmembrane domaine, exhibits aberant cellular topology and hence might gain a function during the pathological process. To get insight into potential pathomechanisms we performed differential proteomics of extracellular vesicles shed by renal epithelia into the urine of patients...
February 13, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427073/dissecting-the-biochemical-architecture-and-morphological-release-pathways-of-the-human-platelet-extracellular-vesiculome
#16
Silvia H De Paoli, Tseday Z Tegegn, Oumsalama K Elhelu, Michael B Strader, Mehulkumar Patel, Lukas L Diduch, Ivan D Tarandovskiy, Yong Wu, Jiwen Zheng, Mikhail V Ovanesov, Abdu Alayash, Jan Simak
Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEVs) have emerged as potential mediators in intercellular communication. PEVs exhibit several activities with pathophysiological importance and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Here, imaging and analytical techniques were employed to unveil morphological pathways of the release, structure, composition, and surface properties of PEVs derived from human platelets (PLTs) activated with the thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Based on extensive electron microscopy analysis, we propose four morphological pathways for PEVs release from TRAP-activated PLTs: (1) plasma membrane budding, (2) extrusion of multivesicular α-granules and cytoplasmic vacuoles, (3) plasma membrane blistering and (4) "pearling" of PLT pseudopodia...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410228/facile-metabolic-glycan-labeling-strategy-for-exosome-tracking
#17
Tae Sup Lee, Young Kim, Weiqi Zhang, In Ho Song, Ching-Hsuan Tung
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles derived from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the surrounding plasma membrane. Exosomes have various diagnostic and therapeutic potentials in cancer and other diseases, thus tracking exosomes is an important issue. METHODS: Here, we report a facile exosome labeling strategy using a natural metabolic incorporation of an azido-sugar into the glycan, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. In culture, tetra-acetylated N-azidoacetyl-D-mannosamine (Ac4ManNAz) was spontaneously incorporated into glycans within the cells and later redistributed onto their exosomes...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403276/characterization-of-exosomes-derived-from-toxoplasma-gondii-and-their-functions-in-modulating-immune-responses
#18
Yawen Li, Yuan Liu, Fangming Xiu, Jianing Wang, Hua Cong, Shenyi He, Yongyu Shi, Xiaoyan Wang, Xun Li, Huaiyu Zhou
Introduction: Exosomes are nanograde membrane-bound vesicles secreted from most cell types through the fusion of multivesicular bodies with plasma membranes. Some of these exosomes are well defined, and are known to have immunomodulatory properties as well as play critical roles in intercellular communications. In this study, we characterized the exosomes derived from Toxoplasma gondii and their functions in aspect of immune responses. Methods: T. gondii exosomes were isolated and identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blotting...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400984/antigen-presentation-by-extracellular-vesicles-from-professional-antigen-presenting-cells
#19
Marthe F S Lindenbergh, Willem Stoorvogel
The initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity require multifaceted modes of communication between different types of immune cells, including direct intercellular contact, secreted soluble signaling molecules, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs can be formed as microvesicles directly pinched off from the plasma membrane or as exosomes secreted by multivesicular endosomes. Membrane receptors guide EVs to specific target cells, allowing directional transfer of specific and complex signaling cues. EVs are released by most, if not all, immune cells...
January 31, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386126/unconventional-trafficking-of-mammalian-phospholipase-d3-to-lysosomes
#20
Adriana Carolina Gonzalez, Michaela Schweizer, Sebastian Jagdmann, Christian Bernreuther, Thomas Reinheckel, Paul Saftig, Markus Damme
Variants in the phospholipase D3 (PLD3) gene have genetically been linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. We present a detailed biochemical analysis of PLD3 and reveal its endogenous localization in endosomes and lysosomes. PLD3 reaches lysosomes as a type II transmembrane protein via a (for mammalian cells) uncommon intracellular biosynthetic route that depends on the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery. PLD3 is sorted into intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes, and ESCRT-dependent sorting correlates with ubiquitination...
January 23, 2018: Cell Reports
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