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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#1
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alters-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#2
Christopher P King, Leah Militello, Amy Hart, Celine L St Pierre, Emily Leung, Cassandra L Versaggi, Nathaniel Roberson, James Catlin, Abraham A Palmer, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knock-out rats and AdipoQ knock-out mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and knock-out (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared to wild-type rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383154/the-forensic-implications-of-amphetamine-intoxication-in-cases-of-inflicted-blunt-craniocerebral-trauma
#3
Roger W Byard, James Donkin, Robert Vink
The effects of D-amphetamine on outcome after blunt craniocerebral trauma are characterized and the potential legal implications discussed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced under general anesthesia in adult, male Sprague Dawley rats using the impact acceleration model. At 10 min prior to injury, D-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered subcutaneously; animals were subsequently assessed over a 7-day period post-trauma for motor outcome using a rotarod device. D-amphetamine treated animals performed significantly better (p < 0...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373066/role-of-d-amphetamine-and-d-methamphetamine-as-active-metabolites-of-benzphetamine-evidence-from-drug-discrimination-and-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Matthew L Banks, Rodney W Snyder, Timothy R Fennell, S Stevens Negus
Benzphetamine is a Schedule III anorectic agent that is a prodrug for d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine and may have utility as an "agonist" medication for cocaine use disorder treatment. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile of benzphetamine using a drug discrimination procedure in rhesus monkeys. The potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were compared for benzphetamine (10-18mg/kg, intramuscular (IM)) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg, IM) in monkeys (n=3-4) trained to discriminate IM cocaine (0...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372478/investigation-of-impulsivity-in-binge-eating-rats-in-a-delay-discounting-task-and-its-prevention-by-the-d-amphetamine-prodrug-lisdexamfetamine
#5
Steven P Vickers, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, David J Heal
Freely-fed, female, rats were trained in a two-lever, delay-discounting task: one lever delivered a single chocolate-flavoured pellet immediately and the other a three-pellet reward after increasing delay (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 s). Rats were divided into two groups (i.e. binge-eating rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate in addition to normal chow and controls maintained on normal chow). Both groups exhibited increased preference for the immediate reward as the delay interval was lengthened. The discounting rate was significantly greater in binge-eating rats than non-binge-eating controls, especially as the behaviour became more established indicating that increased impulsivity and intolerance of delayed reward are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366864/dopamine-dependent-setting-of-a-circadian-oscillator-underlying-the-memory-for-time-of-day
#6
Sean W Cain, Omar A Rawashdeh, Michael Siu, Seung Cheol Kim, Martin R Ralph
Animals learn and remember the time of day that significant conditions occur, and anticipate recurrence at 24-h intervals, even after only one exposure to the condition. On several place-conditioning tasks, animals show context avoidance or preference only near the time of day of the experience. The memory for time of day is registered by a circadian oscillator that is set at the time of the training. We show that manipulations of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission can set a time memory in place preference and avoidance tasks, indicating that time of day is part of the context that is learned...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#7
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290500/pramipexole-restores-depressed-transmission-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-following-mptp-lesion
#8
Javier Castro-Hernández, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein
The hippocampus has a significant association with memory, cognition and emotions. The dopaminergic projections from both the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra are thought to be involved in hippocampal activity. To date, however, few studies have investigated dopaminergic innervation in the hippocampus or the functional consequences of reduced dopamine in disease models. Further complicating this, the hippocampus exhibits anatomical and functional differentiation along its dorso-ventral axis. In this work we investigated the role of dopamine on hippocampal long term potentiation using D-amphetamine, which stimulates dopamine release, and also examined how a dopaminergic lesion affects the synaptic transmission across the anatomic subdivisions of the hippocampus...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287789/effects-of-adolescent-exposure-to-methylmercury-and-d-amphetamine-on-reversal-learning-and-an-extradimensional-shift-in-male-mice
#9
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
Adolescence is associated with the continued maturation of dopamine neurotransmission and is implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric illnesses. Adolescent exposure to neurotoxicants that distort dopamine neurotransmission, such as methylmercury (MeHg), may modify the effects of chronic d-amphetamine (d-AMP) administration on reversal learning and attentional-set shifting. Male C57Bl/6n mice were randomly assigned to two MeHg-exposure groups (0 ppm and 3 ppm) and two d-AMP-exposure groups (saline and 1 mg/kg/day), producing four treatment groups (n = 10-12/group): control, MeHg, d-AMP, and MeHg + d-AMP...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285123/preclinical-predictors-that-the-orthosteric-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-ly3020371-will-not-engender-ketamine-associated-neurotoxic-motor-cognitive-subjective-or-abuse-liability-related-effects
#10
J M Witkin, J A Monn, J Li, B Johnson, D L McKinzie, X-S Wang, B A Heinz, R Li, P L Ornstein, S C Smith, C H Mitch, D O Calligaro, S Swanson, D Allen, K Phillips, G Gilmour
The novel mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY3020371, has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects comparable to that of the clinically-effective antidepressant ketamine. In the present study, we investigated whether LY3020371 would be predicted to be free of the side-effects and safety pharmacology issues associated with ketamine. In contrast to ketamine, LY3020371 produced small increases in locomotion and did not impair motor performance on an inverted screen. Ketamine, but not LY3020371, increased dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of rats...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274654/dopaminergic-modulation-of-reward-guided-decision-making-in-alcohol-preferring-aa-rats
#11
Ville Oinio, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen, Kalervo Kiianmaa
R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239338/differential-neural-responses-underlying-the-inhibition-of-the-startle-response-by-pre-pulses-or-gaps-in-mice
#12
Rocio Moreno-Paublete, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R Cederroth
Gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) is a behavioral paradigm used for inferring the presence of tinnitus in animal models as well as humans. In contrast to pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), the neural circuitry controlling GPIAS is poorly understood. To increase our knowledge on GPIAS, a comparative study with PPI was performed in mice combining these behavioral tests and c-Fos activity mapping in brain areas involved in the inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). Both pre-pulses and gaps efficiently inhibited the ASR and abolished the induction of c-Fos in the pontine reticular nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#13
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147891/mechanistic-assessment-of-the-analgesic-anti-inflammatory-and-antipyretic-actions-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-in-animal-models
#14
Omoniyi K Yemitan, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
CONTEXT: Aqueous root extract of Dalbergia saxatilis, Hook, f., (Leguminosae) (DS) is reported useful for toothache, pains, and fever, but not scientifically proven. OBJECTIVE: This study determined its effectiveness in pain, inflammation, and fever, applying scientific models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss mice or Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were pretreated with distilled water, DS (100 or 200 mg/kg), or standard drug for 30 min. The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid writhing, tail flick, tail immersion, tail clip, hot plate, and formalin pain tests; anti-inflammatory effects were determined via carrageenan and dextran rat paw oedema tests; antipyretic activity was measured by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ECL) and turpentine in rabbits, and d-amphetamine sulphate (d-AS) pyrexia test in rats...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134996/combined-ipsilateral-limb-use-score-as-an-index-of-motor-deficits-and-neurorestoration-in-parkinsonian-rats
#15
Juuso V Leikas, Tiina M Kääriäinen, Aaro J Jalkanen, Marko Lehtonen, Tomi Rantamäki, Markus M Forsberg
Our aim was to apply a robust non-drug induced sensorimotor test battery to assess the efficacy of neurorestorative therapies on the motor deficits caused by partial unilateral 6-OHDA lesion mimicking early stage PD. Since the 6-OHDA lesion protocols to induce partial DA depletion in striatum vary extensively between laboratories, we evaluated the associations between different intrastriatal 6-OHDA doses (1 X 0-20 and 2 X 0-30 µg), striatal DA depletion (HPLC-ECD) and D-amphetamine induced rotation to identify a lesion protocol that would produce 40-60% striatal DA depletion...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112453/food-restriction-induces-synaptic-incorporation-of-calcium-permeable-ampa-receptors-in-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Jiangyong Ouyang, Ioana Carcea, Jennifer K Schiavo, Kymry T Jones, Ariana Rabinowitsch, Rhonda Kolaric, Soledad Cabeza de Vaca, Robert C Froemke, Kenneth D Carr
Chronic food restriction potentiates behavioral and cellular responses to drugs of abuse and D-1 dopamine receptor agonists administered systemically or locally in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the alterations in NAc synaptic transmission underlying these effects are incompletely understood. AMPA receptor trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and previous studies have shown that both sucrose and d-amphetamine rapidly alter the abundance of AMPA receptor subunits in the NAc postsynaptic density (PSD) in a manner that differs between food-restricted and ad libitum fed rats...
March 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062254/the-effects-of-d-govadine-on-conditioned-place-preference-with-d-amphetamine-or-food-reward
#17
Maya O Nesbit, Carine Dias, Anthony G Phillips
Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB) have a high affinity for dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors and may provide a novel treatment for drug addiction. We assessed the effects of the THPB d-govadine on the acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of d-amphetamine-(1.5mg/kg, i.p.) induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Furthermore, the effects of d-govadine on conditioned association between contextual stimuli and a natural reward were examined using food-induced CPP. In separate experiments, rats received d-govadine (0, 0...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935735/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Lenard A Adler, Samuel Alperin, Terry Leon, Stephen V Faraone
BACKGROUND: Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is a prodrug and consists of an active moiety, d-amphetamine, bound to lysine. Clinically, d-amphetamine becomes available postcleavage of the prodrug in the blood stream. Clinical effects of LDX in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been shown to persist up to 14 hours; however, pharmacokinetic (PK) data of LDX and amphetamine in ADHD adults are not currently available. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine PK data of LDX and d-amphetamine in plasma and (2) to compare such PK data with Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS) ratings (PK vs...
March 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929346/individual-differences-in-the-reinforcing-and-subjective-effects-of-d-amphetamine-dimensions-of-impulsivity
#19
Arit Harvanko, Catherine Martin, Joshua Lile, Richard Kryscio, Thomas H Kelly
Previous research has shown a relationship between impulsive personality and the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine. Impulsive personality, however, is comprised of multiple dimensions. The association between different dimensions of impulsive personality and the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the independent contributions of the "sensation-seeking" and "impulsivity" dimensions of the impulsive sensation-seeking subscale of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) to the subjective and reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915043/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-effect-of-diphenyl-diselenide-on-motor-function-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#20
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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