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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772011/brain-molecular-changes-and-behavioral-alterations-induced-by-propofol-anesthesia-exposure-in-peripubertal-rats
#1
Željko Pavković, Kosara Smiljanić, Selma Kanazir, Desanka Milanović, Vesna Pešić, Sabera Ruždijić
BACKGROUND: Propofol is commonly used in modern anesthesiology. Some findings suggest that it is highly addictive. AIM: In this study it was examined whether propofol anesthesia exposure was able to induce behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes already described in addictive drug usage in peripubertal rats, during the onset of mid/periadolescence as a developmental period with increasing vulnerability to drug addiction. METHODS: The expression of D1 dopamine receptor, a dopamine, and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein with a Mr 32 000; Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα; and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog-B was examined in peripubertal rats 4, 24, and 48 hour after propofol anesthesia exposure by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
September 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762072/sweet-taste-liking-is-associated-with-subjective-response-to-amphetamine-in-women-but-not-men
#2
Jessica Weafer, Nicholas Lyon, Donald Hedeker, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. METHODS: Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#3
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716726/early-life-risperidone-enhances-locomotor-responses-to-amphetamine-during-adulthood
#4
Bobbie Lee Stubbeman, Clifford J Brown, Justin R Yates, Mark E Bardgett
Antipsychotic drug prescriptions for pediatric populations have increased over the past 20 years, particularly the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone. Most antipsychotic drugs target forebrain dopamine systems, and early-life antipsychotic drug exposure could conceivably reset forebrain neurotransmitter function in a permanent manner that persists into adulthood. This study determined whether chronic risperidone administration during development modified locomotor responses to the dopamine/norepinephrine agonist, D-amphetamine, in adult rats...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#5
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633996/effects-of-monoaminergic-drugs-on-training-induced-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-older-adults
#6
Trisha M Kesar, Samir R Belagaje, Paola Pergami, Marc W Haut, Gerald Hobbs, Cathrin M Buetefisch
Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623171/broad-analgesic-activity-of-a-novel-selective-m1-agonist
#7
Michael W Wood, Giovanni Martino, Martin Coupal, Mattias Lindberg, Patricia Schroeder, Vijayaratnam Santhakumar, Manon Valiquette, Johan Sandin, Daniel Widzowski, Jennifer Laird
Although the muscarinic receptor family has long been a source of potentially compelling targets for small molecule drug discovery, it was difficult to achieve agonist selectivity within the family. A new class of M1 muscarinic agonists has emerged, and these compounds have been characterized as agonists that activate the receptor at an allosteric site. Members of this class of M1 agonists have been shown to be selective across the muscarinic receptors. However, upon introduction of a novel pharmacologic mechanism, it is prudent to ensure that no new off-target activities have arisen, particularly within the context of in vivo experiments...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598863/characterization-of-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Michael D Berquist, Lisa E Baker
Recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in the early 2000s prompted numerous scientific investigations of its behavioral and neurochemical effects. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the interoceptive stimulus effects of MDPV using a validated in-vivo drug-detection assay. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 0.3 mg/kg MDPV from saline under a fixed ratio 20 (FR 20) schedule of food reinforcement. After stimulus control was established with MDPV (∼35 training sessions), substitution tests were commenced with drugs from several chemical classes, including drugs with predominantly dopaminergic actions [MDPV, D-amphetamine, (+)-methamphetamine, (-)-cocaine], drugs with predominantly serotonergic actions [(+)-lysergic acid diethylamide, (+)-fenfluramine], and drugs with both serotonergic and dopaminergic actions (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylmethcathinone)...
August 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588509/behavioral-effects-of-a-novel-benzofuranyl-piperazine-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-suggest-a-potential-therapeutic-application-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Michelle M Rodriguez, Carl Overshiner, J David Leander, Xia Li, Denise Morrow, Richard G Conway, David L Nelson, Karin Briner, Jeffrey M Witkin
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the only effective pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nonetheless, their generally limited efficacy, side-effects, and delayed onset of action require improved medications for this highly prevalent disorder. Preclinical and clinical findings have suggested serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors as a potential drug target. Data in rats and mice are presented here on the effects of a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist ((3S)-3-Methyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-7-benzofuranyl]-piperazine) (CPD 1) with high potency and full efficacy at 5-HT2C receptors and less potency and partial agonism at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579351/preclinical-abuse-liability-assessment-of-abt-126-an-agonist-at-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr
#10
Thomas J Hudzik, Ana M Basso, James J Lynch, William M Bracken, Eric G Mohler, Kathy L Kohlhaas, Hongyu Xu, George Haig, Laura Gault
ABT-126 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is selective for the α7 subtype of the receptor. nAChRs are thought to play a role in a variety of neurocognitive processes and have been a pharmacologic target for disorders with cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As part of the preclinical safety package for ABT-126, its potential for abuse was assessed. While the involvement of the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor in the addictive properties of nicotine has been demonstrated, the role of the α7 receptor has been studied much less extensively...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-is-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#11
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or to carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487656/adolescent-female-cannabinoid-exposure-diminishes-the-reward-facilitating-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-d-amphetamine-in-the-adult-male-offspring
#12
George Pitsilis, Dimitrios Spyridakos, George G Nomikos, George Panagis
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ(9)-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ(9)-THC (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450187/nitrosoamphetamine-binding-to-myoglobin-and-hemoglobin-crystal-structure-of-the-h64a-myoglobin-nitrosoamphetamine-adduct
#13
Bing Wang, Samantha M Powell, Ye Guan, Nan Xu, Leonard M Thomas, George B Richter-Addo
N-hydroxyamphetamine (AmphNHOH) is an oxidative metabolite of amphetamine and methamphetamine. It is known to form inhibitory complexes upon binding to heme proteins. However, its interactions with myoglobin (Mb) and hemoglobin (Hb) have not been reported. We demonstrate that the reactions of AmphNHOH with ferric Mb and Hb generate the respective heme-nitrosoamphetamine derivatives characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the H64A Mb-nitrosoamphetamine complex to 1...
July 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#14
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
June 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alter-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#15
C P King, L Militello, A Hart, C L St Pierre, E Leung, C L Versaggi, N Roberson, J Catlin, A A Palmer, J B Richards, P J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knockout (KO) rats and AdipoQ KO mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and KO (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared with wild-type (WT) rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383154/the-forensic-implications-of-amphetamine-intoxication-in-cases-of-inflicted-blunt-craniocerebral-trauma
#16
Roger W Byard, James Donkin, Robert Vink
The effects of D-amphetamine on outcome after blunt craniocerebral trauma are characterized and the potential legal implications discussed. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was induced under general anesthesia in adult, male Sprague Dawley rats using the impact acceleration model. At 10 min prior to injury, D-amphetamine (5 mg/kg) or saline vehicle was administered subcutaneously; animals were subsequently assessed over a 7-day period post-trauma for motor outcome using a rotarod device. D-amphetamine treated animals performed significantly better (p < 0...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373066/role-of-d-amphetamine-and-d-methamphetamine-as-active-metabolites-of-benzphetamine-evidence-from-drug-discrimination-and-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Matthew L Banks, Rodney W Snyder, Timothy R Fennell, S Stevens Negus
Benzphetamine is a Schedule III anorectic agent that is a prodrug for d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine and may have utility as an "agonist" medication for cocaine use disorder treatment. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profile of benzphetamine using a drug discrimination procedure in rhesus monkeys. The potency and time course of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were compared for benzphetamine (10-18mg/kg, intramuscular (IM)) and d-amphetamine (0.032-0.32mg/kg, IM) in monkeys (n=3-4) trained to discriminate IM cocaine (0...
May 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372478/investigation-of-impulsivity-in-binge-eating-rats-in-a-delay-discounting-task-and-its-prevention-by-the-d-amphetamine-prodrug-lisdexamfetamine
#18
Steven P Vickers, Simon Goddard, Richard J Brammer, Peter H Hutson, David J Heal
Freely-fed, female, rats were trained in a two-lever, delay-discounting task: one lever delivered a single chocolate-flavoured pellet immediately and the other a three-pellet reward after increasing delay (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 s). Rats were divided into two groups (i.e. binge-eating rats given irregular, limited access to chocolate in addition to normal chow and controls maintained on normal chow). Both groups exhibited increased preference for the immediate reward as the delay interval was lengthened. The discounting rate was significantly greater in binge-eating rats than non-binge-eating controls, especially as the behaviour became more established indicating that increased impulsivity and intolerance of delayed reward are part of the psychopathology of binge-eating...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366864/dopamine-dependent-setting-of-a-circadian-oscillator-underlying-the-memory-for-time-of-day
#19
Sean W Cain, Omar A Rawashdeh, Michael Siu, Seung Cheol Kim, Martin R Ralph
Animals learn and remember the time of day that significant conditions occur, and anticipate recurrence at 24-h intervals, even after only one exposure to the condition. On several place-conditioning tasks, animals show context avoidance or preference only near the time of day of the experience. The memory for time of day is registered by a circadian oscillator that is set at the time of the training. We show that manipulations of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission can set a time memory in place preference and avoidance tasks, indicating that time of day is part of the context that is learned...
March 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#20
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
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