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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666919/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-and-evidence-for-disease-prevention-in-the-older-population
#1
REVIEW
Julia Kühn, Paula Trotz, Gabriele I Stangl
The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, usually assessed by the analysis of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH])D), is very high in the aging German population. An important factor that reduces endogenous vitamin D synthesis in older persons is physical inactivity or care-dependency that limits the time spent outside. Additionally, it has been suggested that the age-dependent decline in the glomerular filtration rate is associated with a reduced production of bioactive calcitriol. As this phenomenon is not detectable by the assessment of 25(OH)D, it is necessary to analyze the level of parathyroid hormone as a marker of calcitriol function...
April 17, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659423/safety-and-efficacy-of-oki-stenting-used-to-treat-obstructions-in-the-right-mainstem-bronchus
#2
Levent Dalar, Yasin Abul
BACKGROUND: Silicone stenting has been used to palliatively manage respiratory symptoms in patients with airway stenoses. Oki and Saka recently developed stents that can be used to manage stenoses around the carina between the bronchus to the right upper lobe and the bronchus intermedius (termed the primary right carina). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Oki stenting used to treat airway stenosis around the primary right carina. METHODS: We included 5 patients with airway stenoses...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657378/lung-collapse-secondary-to-massive-pericardial-effusion-in-adults-two-case-reports
#3
Yogesh Manhas, Antara Gokhale
We present two cases of respiratory insufficiency due to left lung collapse secondary to massive pericardial effusion. Both patients had pericardial effusion due to their underlying disease. Radioimaging showed compression of the left bronchus. Patients got symptomatic relief after pericardiocentesis. Follow-up imaging showed expansion of the lung.
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653187/mid-cervical-spinal-cord-contusion-causes-robust-deficits-in-respiratory-parameters-and-pattern-variability
#4
Philippa M Warren, Cara Campanaro, Frank J Jacono, Warren J Alilain
Mid-cervical spinal cord contusion disrupts both the pathways and motoneurons vital to the activity of inspiratory muscles. The present study was designed to determine if a rat contusion model could result in a measurable deficit to both ventilatory and respiratory motor function under "normal" breathing conditions at acute to chronic stages post trauma. Through whole body plethysmography and electromyography we assessed respiratory output from three days to twelve weeks after a cervical level 3 (C3) contusion...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652272/comparison-of-immediate-extubation-versus-ultrafast-tracking-strategy-in-the-management-of-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#5
Amarja Sachin Nagre, Nagesh P Jambures
Introduction: Ultrafast tracking of anesthesia (UFTA) is practiced routinely, whereas immediate on-table extubation after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting surgery has many concerns. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of immediate extubation (IE) versus UFTA. Methods: Sixty patients were enrolled who underwent OPCAB surgery. The two groups IE and UFTA had thirty patients each. Inclusion criteria were patients for OPCAB surgery including left main stenosis...
April 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652170/pulmonary-transplantation-of-human-ipsc-derived-macrophages-ameliorates-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#6
Christine Happle, Nico Lachmann, Mania Ackermann, Anja Mirenska, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, Adele Mucci, Miriam Hetzel, Torsten Glomb, Takuji Suzuki, Claudia Chalk, Silke Glage, Oliver Dittrich-Breiholz, Bruce Trapnell, Thomas Moritz, Gesine Hansen
Rationale While the transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells harbors enormous potential for the treatment of pulmonary diseases, in vivo data demonstrating clear therapeutic benefits of human iPSC-derived cells in lung disease models is missing. Objective We here tested the therapeutic potential of iPSC-derived macrophages in a humanized disease model of hereditary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (herPAP). herPAP is caused by a genetic defect of the GM-CSF-receptor, which leads to disturbed macrophage differentiation and protein/surfactant degradation in the lungs subsequently resulting in severe respiratory insufficiency...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648682/elderly-onset-varicella-pneumonia-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-taking-tofacitinib
#7
Nobuya Abe, Takashi Kudo, Satoshi Jodo
A 68-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis, who was treated with tofacitinib, a type of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, was admitted for dyspnea and generalized purpuric vesicular rash, following 3 days of fever and malaise. She developed hypoxia from respiratory insufficiency. On physical examination, the systemic eruptions had an erythematous base and were present in various stages, from maculopapular to vesicular and pustular, with crusting (left). Chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse infiltrates with reticular and nodular lesions in the bilateral lung fields (right)...
April 12, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643245/recombinant-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-expressing-membrane-bound-il-15-as-immunomodulatory-adjuvant-enhances-nk-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-responses-and-confers-heterologous-protection
#8
Qian M Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Dianjun Cao, Debin Tian, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Christopher Overend, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Adam J Rogers, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Paul C Roberts, Xiang-Jin Meng
Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to improve vaccine immunogenicity, since they are important in initiating and shaping the immune response. The available commercial modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are unable to mount sufficient heterologous protection, as they typically induce weak innate and inadequate T cell responses. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of recombinant PRRSV MLVs incorporated with porcine cytokine IL-15 or IL-18 gene fusing to a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification signal that can anchor the cytokines to cell membrane...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615095/loss-of-xbp1-accelerates-age-related-decline-in-retinal-function-and-neurodegeneration
#9
Todd McLaughlin, Marek Falkowski, Jae Whan Park, Stephen Keegan, Michael Elliott, Joshua J Wang, Sarah X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aging is the strongest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and extended age results in neuronal degeneration and functional decline in the visual system. Among many contributing factors to age-related deterioration of neurons is an insufficient activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to cellular stress. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major component of the UPR and is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis and reducing cellular stresses...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609727/medical-cannabis-and-the-treatment-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-position-statement
#10
Kannan Ramar, Ilene M Rosen, Douglas B Kirsch, Ronald D Chervin, Kelly A Carden, R Nisha Aurora, David A Kristo, Raman K Malhotra, Jennifer L Martin, Eric J Olson, Carol L Rosen, James A Rowley
The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605217/long-term-survival-after-admission-for-copd-exacerbation-a-comparison-with-the-general-population
#11
Pauline V van Hirtum, Roy T M Sprooten, Jan A van Noord, Monique van Vliet, Martijn D de Kruif
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy data of COPD patients in comparison to the general population are primarily based upon long-term population cohort studies. These studies are limited by a poor definition of clinically significant COPD. The key element in the course of COPD is a clinical exacerbation. Therefore, this study investigated 15-year survival following hospitalization for an exacerbation of COPD in comparison to the general population. METHODS: A number of 4229 subjects was studied, including 845 hospitalized COPD patients and 3384 age and sex matched controls...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602790/retrospective-natural-history-of-thymidine-kinase-2-deficiency
#12
Caterina Garone, Robert W Taylor, Andrés Nascimento, Joanna Poulton, Carl Fratter, Cristina Domínguez-González, Julie C Evans, Mariana Loos, Pirjo Isohanni, Anu Suomalainen, Dipak Ram, M Imelda Hughes, Robert McFarland, Emanuele Barca, Carlos Lopez Gomez, Sandeep Jayawant, Neil D Thomas, Adnan Y Manzur, Karin Kleinsteuber, Miguel A Martin, Timothy Kerr, Grainne S Gorman, Ewen W Sommerville, Patrick F Chinnery, Monika Hofer, Christoph Karch, Jeffrey Ralph, Yolanda Cámara, Marcos Madruga-Garrido, Jana Domínguez-Carral, Carlos Ortez, Sonia Emperador, Julio Montoya, Anupam Chakrapani, Joshua F Kriger, Robert Schoenaker, Bruce Levin, John L P Thompson, Yuelin Long, Shamima Rahman, Maria Alice Donati, Salvatore DiMauro, Michio Hirano
BACKGROUND: Thymine kinase 2 (TK2) is a mitochondrial matrix protein encoded in nuclear DNA and phosphorylates the pyrimidine nucleosides: thymidine and deoxycytidine. Autosomal recessive TK2 mutations cause a spectrum of disease from infantile onset to adult onset manifesting primarily as myopathy. OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective natural history study of a large cohort of patients with TK2 deficiency. METHODS: The study was conducted by 42 investigators across 31 academic medical centres...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600496/allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-farber-disease
#13
Karoline Ehlert, Thierry Levade, Maja Di Rocco, Edoardo Lanino, Michael H Albert, Monika Führer, Andrea Jarisch, Tayfun Güngör, Francis Ayuk, Josef Vormoor
BACKGROUND: Farber disease (FD) is a rare, lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient acid ceramidase activity. FD has long been considered a fatal disorder with death in the first three decades of life resulting either from respiratory insufficiency as a consequence of airway involvement or from progressive neurodegeneration because of nervous system involvement. Peripheral symptoms associated with FD, including inflammatory joint disease, have been described to improve relatively rapidly after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599744/myopathy-with-sqstm1-and-tia1-variants-clinical-and-pathological-features
#14
Zhiyv Niu, Carly Sabine Pontifex, Sarah Berini, Leslie E Hamilton, Elie Naddaf, Eric Wieben, Ross A Aleff, Kristina Martens, Angela Gruber, Andrew G Engel, Gerald Pfeffer, Margherita Milone
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the molecular defect of three unrelated individuals with late-onset predominant distal myopathy; to describe the spectrum of phenotype resulting from the contributing role of two variants in genes located on two different chromosomes; and to highlight the underappreciated complex forms of genetic myopathies. Patients and methods: Clinical and laboratory data of three unrelated probands with predominantly distal weakness manifesting in the sixth-seventh decade of life, and available affected and unaffected family members were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597031/clinical-technological-and-economic-issues-associated-with-developing-new-lung-surfactant-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Hyun Chang Kim, You-Yeon Won
Discovery of lung surfactant deficiency as a main cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) has influenced a steep increase in lung surfactant research. Although this has yielded impactful scientific discoveries, much of the basic research on lung surfactants has failed to translate into clinical practices. This is attributed to insufficient information covering the entire lung surfactant ecosystem, from the basic science to economics surrounding the development and clinical practices. In this manuscript, developments related to improving therapeutic lung surfactant as well as the degree of unmet need are analyzed from both technical and economic perspectives...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596687/initial-predictors-of-poor-survival-in-myositis-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-a-multicentre-cohort-of-497-patients
#16
Shinji Sato, Kenichi Masui, Naoshi Nishina, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Atsushi Kawakami, Maasa Tamura, Kei Ikeda, Takahiro Nunokawa, Yoshinori Tanino, Katsuaki Asakawa, Yuko Kaneko, Takahisa Gono, Taro Ukichi, Shinjiro Kaieda, Taio Naniwa, Masataka Kuwana
Objective: To identify initial predictors of poor survival in patients with PM/DM-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: We established a multicentre retrospective cohort of incident cases of PM/DM-associated ILD from 44 institutions across Japan (Multicentre Retrospective Cohort of Japanese Patients with Myositis-associated ILD, JAMI). Inclusion criteria were an onset age ⩾16 years; PM/DM or clinically amyopathic DM according to the published criteria; imaging evidence of ILD; and availability of serum samples for assays of autoantibodies such as anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 and anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase...
March 27, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590143/short-term-evaluation-of-respiratory-effort-by-premature-infants-supported-with-bubble-nasal-continuous-airway-pressure-using-seattle-pap-and-a-standard-bubble-device
#17
Stephen E Welty, Craig G Rusin, Larissa I Stanberry, George T Mandy, Alfred L Gest, Jeremy M Ford, Carl H Backes, C Peter Richardson, Christopher R Howard, Thomas N Hansen, Charles V Smith
BACKGROUND: Almost one million prematurely born infants die annually from respiratory insufficiency, predominantly in countries with limited access to respiratory support for neonates. The primary hypothesis tested in the present study was that a modified device for bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure (Bn-CPAP) would provide lower work of spontaneous breathing, estimated by esophageal pressure-rate products. METHODS: Infants born <32 weeks gestation and stable on Bn-CPAP with FiO2 <0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588874/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-zika-and-dengue-infected-patients-lessons-learned-from-the-co-circulation-of-dengue-zika-and-chikungunya-in-brazil
#18
Elzinandes Leal Azeredo, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Luciana Santos Barbosa, Thiara Manuele Alves Souza, Jessica Badolato-Corrêa, Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Maria de Filippis, Márcia Dal Fabbro, Izilyanne Hoscher Romanholi, Rivaldo Venancio da Cunha
BACKGROUND: The current triple epidemic caused by dengue, zika and chikungunya constitutes a serious health problem in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate acute samples (up to the 7 days of symptoms) from patients presenting acute fever syndrome suspected as arboviral infection and characterize the clinical and laboratorial profile during the co-circulation of dengue, zika and chikungunya in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), midwest region of Brazil. METHODS: All suspected cases (n=134) were tested by using serological and molecular diagnostic tests including DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV RT-PCR, Dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture ELISA, anti- DENV IgM ELISA and anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584889/longitudinal-assessment-of-illnesses-stress-dosing-and-illness-sequelae-in-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#19
Diala El-Maouche, Courtney J Hargreaves, Ninet Sinaii, Ashwini Mallappa, Padmasree Veeraraghavan, Deborah P Merke
Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients are at risk for life-threatening adrenal crises. Management of illness episodes aims to prevent adrenal crises. Objective: We evaluated rates of illnesses and associated factors in a cohort of CAH patients followed prospectively and receiving repeated glucocorticoid stress dosing education. Methods: Longitudinal analysis of 156 CAH patients followed at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center over 23 years was performed...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582888/intake-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-reduces-duration-and-severity-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-comparison-study
#20
Y Shimizu, Y Ito, K Yui, K Egawa, H Orimo
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) which is a hydroxide of vitamin D3 ingestion on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed from December 2015 to September 2016 in the Nihonbashi Egawa Clinic, Kei Medical Office TOC Building Medical Clinic, and Medical Corporation Kaiseikai Kita-Shinyokohama Medical Clinic, in Japan...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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