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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753988/sy-10-2-the-role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-t2dm
#1
Chang Hee Jung
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder and is a major global public health problem with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapy for glycemic control in T2DM is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis primarily by the glucose reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetes agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney tubule independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve outcomes for patient with T2DM...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710244/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-lipodystrophy-syndromes-a-multi-society-practice-guideline
#2
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668003/from-kidneys-govern-bones-to-chronic-kidney-disease-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-bone-disorder-a-crosstalk-between-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-modern-science
#3
REVIEW
Xiao-Qin Wang, Xin-Rong Zou, Yuan Clare Zhang
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643504/the-obesity-paradox-an-endocrine-perspective
#4
Yee-Ming Cheung, Anju Joham, Sharon Marks, Helena Teede
Obesity is a growing epidemic both in Australia and worldwide. Being overweight or obese is known to be adversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders and hypertension. Despite the adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent observational studies have suggested that in some overweight and obese individuals with established chronic disease, there is a survival advantage which is paradoxically better than individuals of normal weight. A burgeoning area of interest is the existence of this paradox in chronic endocrine disorders, especially with respect to osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well at the latter's chronic complications: chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease...
September 19, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642899/sy-10-2-the-role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-t2dm
#5
Chang Hee Jung
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder and is a major global public health problem with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapy for glycemic control in T2DM is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute to glucose homeostasis primarily by the glucose reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetes agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney tubule independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve outcomes for patient with T2DM...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594197/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-analogs-for-treating-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Jun Zhang, Yang Li
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a member of the endocrine FGF subfamily. FGF21 expression is induced under different disease conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, and it has a broad spectrum of functions in regulating various metabolic parameters. Many different approaches have been pursued targeting FGF21 and its receptors to develop therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes and other aspects of metabolic conditions. In this article, we summarize some of these key approaches and highlight the potential challenges in the development of these agents...
2015: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456554/mammalian-aquaglyceroporin-function-in-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Umberto Laforenza, Cinzia Bottino, Giulia Gastaldi
Aquaglyceroporins are integral membrane proteins that are permeable to glycerol as well as water. The movement of glycerol from a tissue/organ to the plasma and vice versa requires the presence of different aquaglyceroporins that can regulate the entrance or the exit of glycerol across the plasma membrane. Actually, different aquaglyceroporins have been discovered in the adipose tissue, small intestine, liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, endocrine pancreas and capillary endothelium, and their differential expression could be related to obesity and the type 2 diabetes...
January 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26093666/changes-in-the-pattern-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-in-czech-republic
#8
Petr Broulík, Svatopluk Adámek, Petr Libánský, Jozef Kubinyi
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is currently the most common endocrine disorder in Czech Republic after diabetes and thyroid diseases particularly in postmenopausal women. Over the past 40 years PHPT has changed from a rare severe disease of the bones and kidneys to common disease with hypertension, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, easy fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. During 43 years we have examined one of the greatest groups of patients with PHPT. In the early 1970 the estimated incidence of PHPT in former Czechoslovakia was approximately 8 cases per 100 000 persons per year...
2015: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089953/association-of-auricular-reflective-points-and-status-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-matched-case-control-study
#9
Lorna Kwai-Ping Suen, Chao Hsing Yeh, Jojo Yee Mei Kwan, Paul Hong Lee, Grace Sau Ping Yeung, Esther C Y Wong, Billie C Lau, Samuel Chi Hung Tsang, Alice Siu Ping Cheung, Vincent Tok Fai Yeung
The reflexive property of the ear can cause various physical attributes to appear on the auricle in the presence of bodily disorders. The association of auricular signals (presence or absence of discoloration, marks after pressing, tenderness, and electrical resistance) and diabetes mellitus (DM) should be further investigated because auricular diagnosis is an objective, painless, and noninvasive method that provides rapid access to information. A matched case-control study on 282 subjects was conducted. Cases (n = 141) were defined as those diagnosed with type 2 DM (T2DM)...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26003379/long-term-effects-of-lithium-on-renal-thyroid-and-parathyroid-function-a-retrospective-analysis-of-laboratory-data
#10
Brian Shine, Rebecca F McKnight, Laurence Leaver, John R Geddes
BACKGROUND: Lithium is a widely used and highly effective treatment for mood disorders, but causes poorly characterised adverse effects in kidney and endocrine systems. We aimed to analyse laboratory information system data to determine the incidence of renal, thyroid, and parathyroid dysfunction associated with lithium use. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of laboratory data from Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Trust (Oxfordshire, UK), we investigated the incidence of renal, thyroid, and parathyroid dysfunction in patients (aged ≥18 years) who had at least two creatinine, thyrotropin, calcium, glycated haemoglobin, or lithium measurements between Oct 1, 1982, and March 31, 2014, compared with controls who had not had lithium measurements taken...
August 1, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25867572/potentiation-of-endocrine-adverse-effects-of-lithium-by-enalapril-and-verapamil
#11
R Krysiak, B Okopien
Lithium, which is widely used in the management of patients with bipolar disorder, may alter the function of some endocrine organs, particularly the thyroid and parathyroid glands, as well as it may reduce the sensitivity of the kidneys to vasopressin. In most lithium-treated patients, endocrine abnormalities are limited to one endocrine organ and are observed only after long-term lithium therapy. The patient reported in this study developed hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus...
December 2014: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25715394/bicaudal-c1-promotes-pancreatic-neurog3-endocrine-progenitor-differentiation-and-ductal-morphogenesis
#12
Laurence A Lemaire, Joan Goulley, Yung Hae Kim, Solenne Carat, Patrick Jacquemin, Jacques Rougemont, Daniel B Constam, Anne Grapin-Botton
In human, mutations in bicaudal C1 (BICC1), an RNA binding protein, have been identified in patients with kidney dysplasia. Deletion of Bicc1 in mouse leads to left-right asymmetry randomization and renal cysts. Here, we show that BICC1 is also expressed in both the pancreatic progenitor cells that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals that PKD2 functions downstream of BICC1 in preventing cyst formation in the pancreas...
March 1, 2015: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280384/meta-analysis-of-diabetic-nephropathy-associated-genetic-variants-in-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-involved-in-different-biochemical-pathways
#13
Nyla Nazir, Khalid Siddiqui, Sara Al-Qasim, Dhekra Al-Naqeb
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disorder, affecting an estimated population of 382 million people worldwide. It is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN); primary cause of end-stage renal disease. Different inflammatory and angiogenic molecules in various pathways are important modulators in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Differential disease risk in DN may be partly attributable to genetic susceptibility...
2014: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25215272/a-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-sglt2-inhibitor
#14
REVIEW
Chang Hee Jung, Jung Eun Jang, Joong-Yeol Park
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major public health problem that is rapidly increasing in prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapies for glycemic control is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute immensely to glucose homeostasis by reabsorbing glucose from the glomerular filtrate. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve the outcomes of patients with T2DM...
August 2014: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25066675/endocrine-disruptors-and-other-inhibitors-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-2-tissue-specific-consequences-of-enzyme-inhibition
#15
REVIEW
Jana Vitku, Luboslav Starka, Marie Bicikova, Martin Hill, Jiri Heracek, Lucie Sosvorova, Richard Hampl
Numerous chemicals in the environment have the ability to interact with the endocrine system. These compounds are called endocrine disruptors (EDs). Exposure to EDs represents one of the hypotheses for decreasing fertility, the increased risk of numerous cancers and obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. There are various mechanisms of ED action, one of which is their interference in the action of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that maintains a balance between active and inactive glucocorticoids on the intracellular level...
January 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24835445/long-term-endocrinologic-complications-of-cystinosis
#16
A Gultekingil Keser, R Topaloglu, Y Bilginer, N Besbas
AIM: Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by defective cystine transport from lysosomes to cytoplasm and cystine crystal accumulation damaging many organs and tissues especially kidneys but extrarenal systems such as endocrine system. We aim to investigate endocrinologic complications of cystinosis METHODS: In our study, twenty one patients were reviewed retrospectively for endocrinologic complications. RESULTS: Eighteen (85...
April 2014: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24757306/evaluation-of-antioxidants-in-the-kidney-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#17
D Gomathi, M Kalaiselvi, G Ravikumar, K Devaki, C Uma
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. Dual endocrine deficits of impaired insulin action (insulin resistance) and inadequate insulin secretion create an environment of chronic hyperglycemia and general metabolic disarray. Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic pathogenesis. Oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ) has been shown to damage pancreatic beta cell and produce hyperglycemia in rats. The present study was made to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of the Evolvulus alsinoides in STZ induced rats...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24578711/channelopathies
#18
REVIEW
June-Bum Kim
Channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the dysfunction of ion channels located in the membranes of all cells and many cellular organelles. These include diseases of the nervous system (e.g., generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis), the cardiovascular system (e.g., long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), the respiratory system (e...
January 2014: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24572579/-lithium-treatment-and-potential-long-term-side-effects-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Umberto Albert, David De Cori, Giovanni Blengino, Filippo Bogetto, Giuseppe Maina
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Lithium is recommended by all treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder (BD) as a first-line maintenance treatment. However, the potential side effects and risks associated with long-term lithium use may at times make the implementation of these recommendations in daily practice challenging. The aim of the study is to review available literature on potential long-term side effects of lithium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed/Medline search was performed on papers dealing with long-term treatment with lithium and side effects...
January 2014: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24382480/bisphenol-a-and-human-chronic-diseases-current-evidences-possible-mechanisms-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Raja Rezg, Saloua El-Fazaa, Najoua Gharbi, Bessem Mornagui
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide, with over 6billion pounds produced and over 100t released into the atmosphere each year. Recent extensive literature has raised concerns about its possible implication in the etiology of some human chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, reproductive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, birth defects, chronic respiratory and kidney diseases and breast cancer. In this review, we present the highlighted evidences on the relationship between BPA exposure and human chronic diseases and we discuss its eventual mechanisms of action, especially genetic, epigenetic and endocrine disruption mechanisms with the possible involvement of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell signaling...
March 2014: Environment International
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