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novel runner

Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
John Parker, Amanda N Schellenberger, Amy L Roe, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Angela I Calderón
The attraction of novel foods proceeds alongside epidemic cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and related risk factors. Dieticians have identified chia ( Salvia hispanica ) as a product with a catalog of potential health benefits relating to these detriments. Chia is currently consumed not only as seeds, but also as oil, which brings about similar effects. Chia seeds and chia seed oil are used mainly as a food commodity and the oil is also used popularly as a dietary ingredient used in various dietary supplements available in the U...
March 13, 2018: Planta Medica
Tingting Fu, Guoxun Zheng, Gao Tu, Fengyuan Yang, Yu Zong Chen, Xiaojun Yao, Xiaofeng Li, Weiwei Xue, Feng Zhu
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) plays a key role in synaptic information storage and memory, which is a well-known target for a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, the increasing efforts have been focused on the design of allosteric modulators, and the negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are the front runners. Recently, the architecture of transmembrane (TM) domain of mGlu5 receptor has been determined by crystallographic experiment. However, it has been not well understood how the pharmacophores of NAMs accommodated into the allosteric binding site...
March 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
James S Hogg, James G Hopker, Sarah L Coakley, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Mariëtte E van der Watt, Janette Reader, Alisje Churchyard, Sindisiwe H Nondaba, Sonja B Lauterbach, Jandeli Niemand, Sijuade Abayomi, Riëtte A van Biljon, Jessica I Connacher, Roelof D J van Wyk, Claire Le Manach, Tanya Paquet, Diego González Cabrera, Christel Brunschwig, Anjo Theron, Sonia Lozano-Arias, Janneth F I Rodrigues, Esperanza Herreros, Didier Leroy, James Duffy, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale, Dalu Mancama, Theresa L Coetzer, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz
Objectives: Novel chemical tools to eliminate malaria should ideally target both the asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. Several imidazopyridazines (IMPs) and 2-aminopyridines (2-APs) have been described as potent antimalarial candidates targeting lipid kinases. However, these have not been extensively explored for stage-specific inhibition of gametocytes in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Here we provide an in-depth evaluation of the gametocytocidal activity of compounds from these chemotypes and identify novel starting points for dual-acting antimalarials...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Krzysztof Przednowek, Janusz Iskra, Krzysztof Wiktorowicz, Tomasz Krzeszowski, Adam Maszczyk
This paper presents a novel approach to planning training loads in hurdling using artificial neural networks. The neural models performed the task of generating loads for athletes' training for the 400 meters hurdles. All the models were calculated based on the training data of 21 Polish National Team hurdlers, aged 22.25 ± 1.96, competing between 1989 and 2012. The analysis included 144 training plans that represented different stages in the annual training cycle. The main contribution of this paper is to develop neural models for planning training loads for the entire career of a typical hurdler...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Karli Montague, Marzia Malcangio
In cancer treatments a dose-limiting side-effect of chemotherapeutic agents is the development of neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed by clinically available drugs at present. Chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of premature cessation of treatment and so a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the development of novel, more effective therapies, is greatly needed. In some cases, only a weak correlation between chemotherapy-induced pain and neuronal damage is observed both clinically and preclinically...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Stefano Mammola, Peter Michalik, Eileen A Hebets, Marco Isaia
Organismal biology has been steadily losing fashion in both formal education and scientific research. Simultaneous with this is an observable decrease in the connection between humans, their environment, and the organisms with which they share the planet. Nonetheless, we propose that organismal biology can facilitate scientific observation, discovery, research, and engagement, especially when the organisms of focus are ubiquitous and charismatic animals such as spiders. Despite being often feared, spiders are mysterious and intriguing, offering a useful foundation for the effective teaching and learning of scientific concepts and processes...
2017: PeerJ
Kurt H Schütte, Stefan Seerden, Rachel Venter, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse running injury with pathomechanics likely to be exaggerated by fatigue. Wearable accelerometry provides a novel alternative to assess biomechanical parameters continuously while running in more ecologically valid settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of outdoor running fatigue and MTSS on both dynamic loading and dynamic stability derived from trunk and tibial accelerometery. Runners with (n=14) and without (n=16) history of MTSS performed an outdoor fatigue run of 3200m...
January 2018: Gait & Posture
Jerome Koral, Dustin J Oranchuk, Roberto Herrera, Guillaume Y Millet
Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training, but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Xiaochen Zhang, Chunxiao Yang, Jing Gao, Hongqiang Yin, Hui Zhang, Tao Zhang, Zhuo Yang
It is well known that voluntary running can enhance synaptic plasticity and improve learning and memory abilities. The Notch1 receptor is also reported to be associated with these processes, but its role in running-induced alterations is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the Notch1 signalling pathway was involved in voluntary running-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Notch1 heterozygous deficient (Notch1(+/-)) mice and wildtype (WT) C57BL littermates were randomly divided into runner group and non-runner group...
September 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Martin P Schwellnus, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan, Wayne Derman, Dina C Janse Van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a significant medical complication in distance runners, yet factors associated with EAMC are poorly documented. OBJECTIVE: To document risk factors associated with EAMC in runners. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two ocean races (21.1 km, and 56 km). PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen thousand seven hundred seventy-eight race entrants. METHODS: Participants completed a prerace medical history screening tool including: training, cardiovascular disease (CVD), risk factors for, and symptoms of CVD, history of diseases affecting major organ systems, cancer, allergies, medication use, and running injury...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Luca Dalle Carbonare, Marcello Manfredi, Giuseppe Caviglia, Eleonora Conte, Elisa Robotti, Emilio Marengo, Samuele Cheri, Francesco Zamboni, Daniele Gabbiani, Michela Deiana, Daniela Cecconi, Federico Schena, Monica Mottes, Maria Teresa Valenti
Physical activity improves overall health and counteracts metabolic pathologies. Adipose tissue and bone are important key targets of exercise; the prevalence of diseases associated with suboptimal physical activity levels has increased in recent times as a result of lifestyle changes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation in either osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is regulated by many factors. Particularly, the expression of master genes such as RUNX2 and PPARγ2 is essential for MSC commitment to osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, respectively...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Kristian Ujka, Luca Bastiani, Gennaro D'Angelo, Bruna Catuzzo, Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Guido Giardini, Lorenza Pratali
Background: Strenuous and endurance exercise training have been associated with morphological and functional heart remodeling. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel technique that allows an accurate quantification of global myocardium deformation. Our aim was to evaluate together left and right cardiac remodeling in different long-distance running athletes: marathon runners (42 km) (M) and endurance mountain runners (>300 Km) (UT). Methods: A total of 92 athletes (70 males, 76%) including 47 M [age 45 ± 7 years; training: 18 (9-53) years(*)days/week], 45 UT [age 42 ± 9, training: 30 (15-66) years(*)days/week] underwent conventional echocardiography and STE (Beyond Diogenes 2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Louise Gourlay, Claudio Peri, Martino Bolognesi, Giorgio Colombo
Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer...
December 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Roy T H Cheung, Winko W An, Ivan P H Au, Janet H Zhang, Zoe Y S Chan, Alfred Man, Fannie O Y Lau, Melody K Y Lam, K K Lau, C Y Leung, N W Tsang, Louis K Y Sze, Gilbert W K Lam
This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females) were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback...
2017: PloS One
Andrew Best, Barry Braun
Online, accessible performance and heart rate data from running competitions are posted publicly or semi-publicly to social media. We tested the efficacy of one such data resource- Strava- as a tool in exercise physiology investigations by exploring heart rate differences in mountain racing and road racing running events. Heart rate and GPS pace data were gathered from Strava activities posted by 111 males aged 21-49, from two mountain races (Mt. Washington Road Race and Pike's Peak Ascent) and two road race distances (half marathon and marathon)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
David M Bazett-Jones, Wendy Huddleston, Stephen Cobb, Kristian O'Connor, Jennifer E Earl-Boehm
CONTEXT:   Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is typically exacerbated by repetitive activities that load the patellofemoral joint, such as running. Understanding the mediating effects of changes in pain in individuals with PFP might inform injury progression, rehabilitation, or both. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the effects of changing pain on muscular strength and running biomechanics in those with PFP. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   University research laboratory...
May 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
Jonathan P Folland, Sam J Allen, Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Stephanie E Forrester
Despite an intuitive relationship between technique and both running economy (RE) and performance, and the diverse techniques used by runners to achieve forward locomotion, the objective importance of overall technique and the key components therein remain to be elucidated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between individual and combined kinematic measures of technique with both RE and performance. METHODS: Ninety-seven endurance runners (47 females) of diverse competitive standards performed a discontinuous protocol of incremental treadmill running (4-min stages, 1-km·h increments)...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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