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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604051/safe-or-out-does-the-location-of-attention-affect-judgments-at-first-base-in-baseball
#1
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599003/measurement-agreement-between-a-newly-developed-sensing-insole-and-traditional-laboratory-based-method-for-footstrike-pattern-detection-in-runners
#2
Roy T H Cheung, Winko W An, Ivan P H Au, Janet H Zhang, Zoe Y S Chan, Alfred Man, Fannie O Y Lau, Melody K Y Lam, K K Lau, C Y Leung, N W Tsang, Louis K Y Sze, Gilbert W K Lam
This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females) were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424267/using-a-novel-data-resource-to-explore-heart-rate-during-mountain-and-road-running
#3
Andrew Best, Barry Braun
Online, accessible performance and heart rate data from running competitions are posted publicly or semi-publicly to social media. We tested the efficacy of one such data resource- Strava- as a tool in exercise physiology investigations by exploring heart rate differences in mountain racing and road racing running events. Heart rate and GPS pace data were gathered from Strava activities posted by 111 males aged 21-49, from two mountain races (Mt. Washington Road Race and Pike's Peak Ascent) and two road race distances (half marathon and marathon)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388232/acute-responses-of-strength-and-running-mechanics-to-increasing-and-decreasing-pain-in-patients-with-patellofemoral-pain
#4
David M Bazett-Jones, Wendy Huddleston, Stephen Cobb, Kristian O'Connor, Jennifer E Earl-Boehm
CONTEXT:   Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is typically exacerbated by repetitive activities that load the patellofemoral joint, such as running. Understanding the mediating effects of changes in pain in individuals with PFP might inform injury progression, rehabilitation, or both. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the effects of changing pain on muscular strength and running biomechanics in those with PFP. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   University research laboratory...
May 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263283/running-technique-is-an-important-component-of-running-economy-and-performance
#5
Jonathan P Folland, Sam J Allen, Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Stephanie E Forrester
Despite an intuitive relationship between technique and both running economy (RE) and performance, and the diverse techniques used by runners to achieve forward locomotion, the objective importance of overall technique and the key components therein remain to be elucidated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between individual and combined kinematic measures of technique with both RE and performance. METHODS: Ninety-seven endurance runners (47 females) of diverse competitive standards performed a discontinuous protocol of incremental treadmill running (4-min stages, 1-km·h increments)...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212265/variations-in-oxidative-stress-levels-in-3-days-follow-up-in-ultramarathon-mountain-race-athletes
#6
Ypatios Spanidis, Dimitrios Stagos, Marina Orfanou, Nikolaos Goutzourelas, David Bar-Or, Demetrios Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas
Spanidis, Y, Stagos, D, Orfanou, M, Goutzourelas, N, Bar-or, D, Spandidos, D, and Kouretas, D. Variations in oxidative stress levels in 3 days follow-up in ultramarathon mountain race athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 582-594, 2017-The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultramarathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected prerace and 24, 48, and 72 hours postrace. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812406/pacing-during-an-ultramarathon-running-event-in-hilly-terrain
#7
Hugo A Kerhervé, Tom Cole-Hunter, Aaron N Wiegand, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. METHODS: Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749685/pacing-ability-in-elite-runners-with-intellectual-impairment
#8
Debbie VAN Biesen, Florentina J Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n = 67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 yr; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 yr). The ability to perform at a preplanned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400-m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637250/selection-age-and-exercise-dependence-of-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-patterns-in-a-rat-model-of-metabolic-fitness
#9
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
November 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607302/a-new-footwear-technology-to-promote-non-heelstrike-landing-and-enhance-running-performance-fact-or-fad
#10
Janet H Zhang, Aislinn J C McPhail, Winko W An, Waqar M Naqvi, Daniel L H Chan, Ivan P H Au, Alvin T W Luk, Tony L Chen, Roy T H Cheung
This study sought to compare the kinetics and kinematics data in a group of habitual shod runners when running in traditional running shoes and newly designed minimalist shoes with lug platform. This novel footwear design claims to simulate barefoot running and reduce energy loss during impact. We compared footstrike angle (FSA), vertical average (VALR) and instantaneous (VILR) loading rates, energy loss and initial vertical stiffness between two shoe conditions. Runners demonstrated a decreased FSA while running in minimalist shoes with lug platform than traditional shoes (P = 0...
August 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553989/novel-approach-to-analysing-large-data-sets-of-personal-sun-exposure-measurements
#11
Suzana M Blesić, Đorđe I Stratimirović, Jelena V Ajtić, Caradee Y Wright, Martin W Allen
Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand...
November 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537056/high-intensity-efforts-in-elite-soccer-matches-and-associated-movement-patterns-technical-skills-and-tactical-actions-information-for-position-specific-training-drills
#12
Jack Ade, John Fitzpatrick, Paul S Bradley
This study aimed to translate movement patterns, technical skills and tactical actions associated with high-intensity efforts into metrics that could potentially be used to construct position-specific conditioning drills. A total of 20 individual English Premier League players' high-intensity running profiles were observed multiple times (n = 100) using a computerised tracking system. Data were analysed using a novel high-intensity movement programme across five positions (centre back [CB], full-back [FB], central midfielder [CM], wide midfielder [WM] and centre forward [CF])...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465629/variations-in-oxidative-stress-levels-in-three-days-follow-up-in-ultra-marathon-mountain-race-athletes
#13
Spanidis Ypatios, Stagos Dimitrios, Orfanou Marina, Goutzourelas Nikolaos, Bar-Or David, Spandidos Demetrios, Kouretas Demetrios
The aim of the present study was the monitoring of the redox status of runners participating in a mountain ultra-marathon race of 103 km. Blood samples from 12 runners were collected pre race and 24, 48 and 72 h post race. The samples were analyzed by using conventional oxidative stress markers, such as protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma, as well as glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. In addition, two novel markers the static oxidation-reduction potential marker (sORP) and the capacity oxidation-reduction potential (cORP) were measured in plasma...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459673/four-weeks-of-classical-altitude-training-increases-resting-metabolic-rate-in-highly-trained-middle-distance-runners
#14
Amy L Woods, Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Philo U Saunders, Anthony J Rice, Kevin G Thompson
High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether 4 weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly trained athletes were recruited for 4 weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n = 5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n = 5)...
February 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356820/editorial-reflux-while-running-something-to-belch-about
#15
EDITORIAL
D A Carlson, I Hirano
Running is the most popular form of exercise in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common during exercise and may affect performance. Previous studies have focused on increased intra-abdominal pressure as a major determinant of acid reflux during physical exertion. In this issue, Herregods et al. examined the mechanisms of GER in healthy volunteers using simultaneous high-resolution manometry and pH impedance testing performed while running. Novel observations afforded by the utilization of state-of-the-art technology include the importance of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation ("belch reflex") and transient formation of hiatal hernia during exercise...
July 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339377/how-much-does-lower-body-strength-impact-paralympic-running-performance
#16
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Development of evidence-based methods of Paralympic classification requires research quantifying the relative strength of association between ratio-scaled measures of impairment and athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which muscle strength affects running performance in runners with and without brain impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants were 41 male runners: 13 with brain impairments (RBI) and 28 non-disabled (NDR)...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336162/prediction-and-quantification-of-individual-athletic-performance-of-runners
#17
Duncan A J Blythe, Franz J Király
We present a novel, quantitative view on the human athletic performance of individual runners. We obtain a predictor for running performance, a parsimonious model and a training state summary consisting of three numbers by application of modern validation techniques and recent advances in machine learning to the thepowerof10 database of British runners' performances (164,746 individuals, 1,417,432 performances). Our predictor achieves an average prediction error (out-of-sample) of e.g. 3.6 min on elite Marathon performances and 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150199/investigating-biomechanical-function-of-toes-through-external-manipulation-integrating-analysis
#18
Qichang Mei, Justin Fernandez, Patria Hume, Yaodong Gu
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the function of toes while running through comparing bound toes by external- manipulation with natural separate toes by evaluating kinematics and plantar pressure analysis. METHODS: Seven habitually barefoot male runners participated in the running test under toes binding and non-binding conditions, and Vicon and Novel insole plantar pressure measurement were conducted synchronously to collect kinematics and foot loading...
2016: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040829/design-of-a-heart-rate-controller-for-treadmill-exercise-using-a-recurrent-fuzzy-neural-network
#19
Chun-Hao Lu, Wei-Cheng Wang, Cheng-Chi Tai, Tien-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In this study, we developed a computer controlled treadmill system using a recurrent fuzzy neural network heart rate controller (RFNNHRC). Treadmill speeds and inclines were controlled by corresponding control servo motors. The RFNNHRC was used to generate the control signals to automatically control treadmill speed and incline to minimize the user heart rate deviations from a preset profile. METHODS: The RFNNHRC combines a fuzzy reasoning capability to accommodate uncertain information and an artificial recurrent neural network learning process that corrects for treadmill system nonlinearities and uncertainties...
May 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950347/comparison-of-physiological-variables-between-the-elliptical-bicycle-and-run-training-in-experienced-runners
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ian E Klein, Jason B White, Sharon R Rana
Klein, IE, White, JB, and Rana, SR. Comparison of physiological variables between the elliptical bicycle and run training in experienced runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2998-3006, 2016-A novel outdoor elliptical bicycle (EBIKE) has been designed to elicit running-similar physiological adaptations while reducing the impact forces that commonly lead to injury. Various cross-training methods have been used to reduce injury risk, restore or maintain fitness, and prevent detraining. The purpose of this study was to compare 4 weeks of EBIKE-only training to run-only training on maximal oxygen consumption, ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, running economy, and 5,000 m time trial times...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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