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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652167/computational-phantoms-icrp-icru-and-further-developments
#1
M Zankl, J Becker, C Lee, W E Bolch, Y S Yeom, C H Kim
Phantoms simulating the human body play a central role in radiation dosimetry. The first computational body phantoms were based upon mathematical expressions describing idealised body organs. With the advent of more powerful computers in the 1980s, voxel phantoms have been developed. Being based on three-dimensional images of individuals, they offer a more realistic anatomy. Hence, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to construct voxel phantoms representative of the adult Reference Male and Reference Female for the update of organ dose coefficients...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621601/results-from-the-third-scottish-national-prevalence-survey-is-a-population-health-approach-now-needed-to-prevent-hai
#2
Shona Cairns, Cheryl Gibbons, Aynsley Milne, Hazel King, Melissa Llano, Laura MacDonald, William Malcolm, Chris Robertson, Jacqueline Sneddon, Jennifer Weir, Jacqui Reilly
BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are a major public health concern and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A robust and current evidence base that is specific to local, national and Europe-wide settings is necessary to inform the development of strategies to reduce HAI and contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AIM: To measure the prevalence of HAI and antimicrobial prescribing and identify key priority areas for interventions to reduce the burden of infection...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605009/troglostrongylus-brevior-a-feline-lungworm-of-paediatric-concern
#3
Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Roberta Iatta, Vito Colella, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Angelo Corsaro, Emanuele Brianti, Domenico Otranto
The immature immune system of cats in their paediatric age (i.e., first six months of life) favours the establishment of infectious respiratory tract diseases mainly caused by well recognized viruses and bacteria species. Conversely, lungworm infections are less investigated during respiratory disorders in kittens. In the last decade, Troglostrongylus brevior has been found affecting the respiratory tract of cats, along with the better-known Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Given the scant data available on the epidemiology of feline troglostrongylosis, faecal samples from 575 domestic animals living in three Italian municipalities (i...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590206/worldwide-increased-prevalence-of-human-adenovirus-type-3-hadv-3-respiratory-infections-is-well-correlated-with-heterogeneous-hypervariable-regions-hvrs-of-hexon
#4
Ezazul Haque, Urmila Banik, Tahmina Monwar, Leela Anthony, Arun Kumar Adhikary
Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554296/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-respiratory-tract-fungal-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-uk-survey-of-current-practice
#5
M Boyle, J E Moore, J L Whitehouse, D Bilton, D G Downey
Aspergillus fumigatus is commonly found in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the most recognized associated clinical condition. However, accurate diagnosis remains challenging, and there is a paucity of clinical trials to guide clinical management of fungal disease. The aim of this survey was to assess the variability in current practice across the UK in diagnosis and management of fungal lung disease in CF patients. A 21 question anonymous online survey was sent to 94 paediatric and adult CF consultants in the UK...
March 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515662/summer-schools-of-adult-and-paediatric-respiratory-medicine-course-report
#6
EDITORIAL
Iana O Andreieva, Olha Konstantynovska, Fabio Midulla, Diana Marangu, Nino Mchedlishvili
Participants in the 2017 ERS summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine describe their experiences http://ow.ly/i4y930hzLU0.
March 2018: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480461/fitness-to-fly-in-the-paediatric-population-how-to-assess-and-advice
#7
REVIEW
Joël Israëls, Ad F Nagelkerke, Dick G Markhorst, Marc van Heerde
The number of children on commercial aircrafts is rising steeply and poses a need for their treating physicians to be aware of the physiologic effects and risks of air travel. The most important risk factors while flying are a decrease in partial oxygen pressure, expansion of trapped air volume, low cabin humidity, immobility, recirculation of air and limited options for medical emergencies. Because on-board medical emergencies mostly concern exacerbations of chronic disease, the medical history, stability of current disease and previous flight experience should be assessed before flight...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436403/chronic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Matthias Griese
Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391051/short-course-antimicrobial-therapy-for-paediatric-respiratory-infections-safer-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jeffrey Pernica, Stuart Harman, April Kam, Jacob Bailey, Redjana Carciumaru, Sarah Khan, Martha Fulford, Lehana Thabane, Robert Slinger, Cheryl Main, Marek Smieja, Mark Loeb
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is commonly diagnosed in children. The Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines recommend 10 days of high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP but 5-day "short course" therapy may be just as effective. Randomized trials in adults have already demonstrated non-inferiority of 5-day short-course treatment for adults hospitalized with severe CAP and for adults with mild CAP treated as outpatients. Minimizing exposure to antimicrobials is desirable to avoid harms including diarrhoea, rashes, severe allergic reactions, increased circulating antimicrobial resistance, and microbiome disruption...
February 1, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316914/differential-induction-of-malaria-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-plasmodium-chabaudi-as-or-plasmodium-berghei-nk65
#10
Diletta Scaccabarozzi, Katrien Deroost, Yolanda Corbett, Natacha Lays, Paola Corsetto, Fausta Omodeo Salè, Philippe E Van den Steen, Donatella Taramelli
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria and severe anaemia are the most common deadly complications of malaria, and are often associated, both in paediatric and adult patients, with hepatopathy, whose pathogenesis is not well characterized, and sometimes also with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, two species of murine malaria, the lethal Plasmodium berghei strain NK65 and self-healing Plasmodium chabaudi strain AS which differ in their ability to cause hepatopathy and/or ARDS were used to investigate the lipid alterations, oxidative damage and host immune response during the infection in relation to parasite load and accumulation of parasite products, such as haemozoin...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233756/paediatric-minimally-invasive-abdominal-and-urological-surgeries-current-trends-and-perioperative-management
#11
Myriam Bellon, Alia Skhiri, Florence Julien-Marsollier, Serge Malbezin, Diallo Thierno, Julie Hilly, Alaa ElGhoneimi, Arnaud Bonnard, Daphné Michelet, Souhayl Dahmani
Minimally invasive surgery during abdominal, thoracic and urological procedures has become the standard management of many surgical interventions in adults. Recent development of smaller devices has allowed the management of many paediatric surgeries using these minimally invasive techniques. However, the lack of knowledge of (a) adequate management of haemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurring during those procedures and (b) postoperative advantages of these techniques over open surgeries, still impairs their development...
December 9, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216678/-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-asthma-guideline-of-the-german-respiratory-society-and-the-german-atemwegsliga-in-cooperation-with-the-paediatric-respiratory-society-and-the-austrian-society-of-pneumology
#12
R Buhl, R Bals, X Baur, D Berdel, C-P Criée, M Gappa, A Gillissen, T Greulich, P Haidl, E Hamelmann, P Kardos, K Kenn, L Klimek, S Korn, M Lommatzsch, H Magnussen, T Nicolai, D Nowak, O Pfaar, K F Rabe, J Riedler, T Ritz, K Schultz, A Schuster, T Spindler, C Taube, K Taube, C Vogelmeier, A von Leupold, F Wantke, S Weise, J Wildhaber, H Worth, A Zacharasiewicz
The present guideline is a new version and an update of the guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, which replaces the previous version for german speaking countries from the year 2006. The wealth of new data on the pathophysiology and the phenotypes of asthma, and the expanded spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic options necessitated a new version and an update. This guideline presents the current, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, for children and adolescents as well as for adults with asthma...
December 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202565/the-efficacy-of-topical-hyaluronan-in-rhinosinusitis-a-systematic-review
#13
M Casale, P Vella, A Moffa, V Grimaldi, L Sabatino, V Rinaldi, M A Lopez, P Baptista, F Salvinelli
Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common inflammatory conditions of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most common causes of absence from work and for visits to the family doctor. The treatment strategy in both acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is to reduce the severity of the symptoms, minimize the duration of the disease and prevent complications. Topical therapy has become an important tool in otolaryngologists’ armamentarium for rhinosinusitis treatment. Recently, topical hyaluronic acid (HA), the major component of many extracellular matrices that promotes tissue healing, including activation and moderation of the inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, has been proposed for ARS and CRS adjuvant tool...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201634/innovative-chest-physiotherapy-techniques-the-metaneb-%C3%A2-system-in-the-intubated-child-with-extensive-burns
#14
Alexandra Ferguson, Sarah Wright
Introduction: The Metaneb® is a new generation Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation device utilised by the physiotherapist to assist airway clearance by providing calibrated oscillations during inspiration up to 3.8Hz. Predominantly used in the adult chronic respiratory patient, with anecdotal evidence in intubated patients, it was also proven to be safe in a paediatric lung model lab study. This case report outlines the first use of the Metaneb® with an intubated child in Australia...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196274/neuromuscular-diseases-diagnosis-and-management
#15
REVIEW
P Mary, L Servais, R Vialle
Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) affect the peripheral nervous system, which includes the motor neurons and sensory neurons; the muscle itself; or the neuromuscular junction. Thus, the term NMDs encompasses a vast array of different syndromes. Some of these syndromes are of direct relevance to paediatric orthopaedic surgeons, either because the presenting manifestation is a functional sign (e.g., toe-walking) or deformity (e.g., pes cavus or scoliosis) suggesting a need for orthopaedic attention or because orthopaedic abnormalities requiring treatment develop during the course of a known NMD...
February 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170351/54-paediatric-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-in-england-and-wales-a-10-year-epidemiological-study
#16
James Vassallo, Melanie Webster, Edward Barnard, Marisol Fragoso Iniguez, Mark Lyttle, Jason Smith
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) has traditionally been described as futile, with poor outcomes. Reported survival rates vary widely, with higher rates observed from mechanisms leading to a respiratory cause of traumatic cardiac arrest (e.g., drowning and hanging). Currently there is little evidence regarding outcomes following TCA in children. The primary aim of our study was to describe 30 day survival following TCA. Secondary aims were to provide an analysis of injury patterns (severe haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury), describe the functional outcome at discharge and to report the association between survival and interventions performed...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117964/clinical-characteristics-of-children-evaluated-for-suspected-pulmonary-embolism-with-d-dimer-testing
#17
Jessica Kanis, Jonathan Pike, Cassandra L Hall, Jeffrey A Kline
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine clinical variables in children tested for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) that predict PE+ outcome for the development of paediatric PE prediction rule. METHODS: Data were collected by query of a laboratory database for D-dimer from January 2004 to December 2014 for a large multicentre hospital system and the radiology database for pulmonary vascular imaging in children aged 5-17. Using explicit, predefined methods, trained abstractors, determined if D-dimer was sent in the evaluation of PE and then recorded predictor data which was tested for association with PE+ outcome using univariate techniques...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064471/nasopharyngeal-metagenomic-deep-sequencing-data-lancaster-uk-2014-2015
#18
Kate V Atkinson, Lisa A Bishop, Glenn Rhodes, Nicolas Salez, Neil R McEwan, Matthew J Hegarty, Julie Robey, Nicola Harding, Simon Wetherell, Robert M Lauder, Roger W Pickup, Mark Wilkinson, Derek Gatherer
Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from volunteers attending a general medical practice and a general hospital in Lancaster, UK, and at Lancaster University, in the winter of 2014-2015. 51 swabs were selected based on high RNA yield and allocated to deep sequencing pools as follows: patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthmatics; adults with no respiratory symptoms; adults with feverish respiratory symptoms; adults with respiratory symptoms and presence of antibodies against influenza C; paediatric patients with respiratory symptoms (2 pools); adults with influenza C infection (2 pools), giving a total of 9 pools...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936698/recommendations-for-mechanical-ventilation-of-critically-ill-children-from-the-paediatric-mechanical-ventilation-consensus-conference-pemvecc
#19
Martin C J Kneyber, Daniele de Luca, Edoardo Calderini, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Etienne Javouhey, Jesus Lopez-Herce, Jürg Hammer, Duncan Macrae, Dick G Markhorst, Alberto Medina, Marti Pons-Odena, Fabrizio Racca, Gerhard Wolf, Paolo Biban, Joe Brierley, Peter C Rimensberger
PURPOSE: Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. METHODS: The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905374/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-versus-heated-humidifiers-for-mechanically-ventilated-adults-and-children
#20
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, David A Todd, Jann P Foster, Bisanth T Batuwitage
BACKGROUND: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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