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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327736/a-dnp-supported-solid-state-nmr-study-of-carbon-species-in-fluid-catalytic-cracking-catalysts
#1
Deni Mance, Johan van der Zwan, Marjolein E Z Velthoen, Florian Meirer, Bert M Weckhuysen, Marc Baldus, Eelco T C Vogt
A combination of solid-state NMR techniques supported by EPR and SEM-EDX experiments was used to localize different carbon species (coke) in commercial fluid catalytic cracking catalysts. Aliphatic coke species formed during the catalytic process and aromatic coke species deposited directly from the feedstock respond differently to dynamic nuclear polarization signal enhancement in integral and crushed FCC particles, indicating that aromatic species are mostly concentrated on the outside of the catalyst particles, whereas aliphatic species are also located on the inside of the FCC particles...
March 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320639/exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-volatile-organic-compounds-among-recently-pregnant-rural-guatemalan-women-cooking-and-heating-with-solid-fuels
#2
John R Weinstein, Renée Asteria-Peñaloza, Anaité Diaz-Artiga, Gilberto Davila, S Katharine Hammond, Ian T Ryde, Joel N Meyer, Neal Benowitz, Lisa M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319865/application-of-a-self-organizing-map-and-positive-matrix-factorization-to-investigate-the-spatial-distributions-and-sources-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-soils-from-xiangfen-county-northern-china
#3
Shi-Yang Tao, Bu-Qing Zhong, Yan Lin, Jin Ma, Yongzhang Zhou, Hong Hou, Long Zhao, Zaijin Sun, Xiaopeng Qin, Huading Shi
The concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 128 surface soil samples from Xiangfen County, northern China. The total mass concentration of these PAHs ranged from 52 to 10,524ng/g, with a mean of 723ng/g. Four-ring PAHs contributed almost 50% of the total PAH burden. A self-organizing map and positive matrix factorization were applied to investigate the spatial distribution and source apportionment of PAHs. Three emission sources of PAHs were identified, namely, coking ovens (21...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315602/synergistic-effect-on-co-gasification-reactivity-of-biomass-petroleum-coke-blended-char
#4
Juntao Wei, Qinghua Guo, Yan Gong, Lu Ding, Guangsuo Yu
In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature...
March 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289048/health-risk-of-inhalation-exposure-to-sub-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-particulate-matter-and-gaseous-pollutants-in-an-urban-industrial-area-in-south-africa-an-ecological-study
#5
Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo, Ayo Stephen Adebowale, Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu, Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). DESIGN: The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. SETTING: The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287516/determination-of-carbonyl-functional-groups-in-bio-oils-by-potentiometric-titration-the-faix-method
#6
Stuart Black, Jack R Ferrell
Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278780/analysis-of-organic-compounds-degradation-and-electricity-generation-in-anaerobic-fluidized-bed-microbial-fuel-cell-for-coking-wastewater-treatment
#7
Xinmin Liu, Jianjun Wu, Qingjie Guo
A single-chambered packing-type anaerobic fluidized microbial fuel cell (AFBMFC) with coking wastewater (CWW) as fuel was built to treat CWW, which not only has high treating efficiency, but also can convert organic matter in wastewater into electricity. AFBMFC was constructed by using anaerobic sludge that was domesticated as inoculation sludge, which was used to biochemically treat CWW. The organic compounds in CWW were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction step by step every day. The extraction phase was concentrated by a rotary evaporator and a nitrogen sweeping device and was analyzed by GC-MS...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251539/enhanced-treatment-of-coking-wastewater-containing-phenol-pyridine-and-quinoline-by-integration-of-an-e-fenton-process-into-biological-treatment
#8
Lanlan Xue, Jiaxin Liu, Meidi Li, Liang Tan, Xiangyu Ji, Shengnan Shi, Bei Jiang
In this study, the pyridine and quinoline could be cometabolically degraded by phenol-cultivated Comamonas sp. strain JB(strain JB). The integration of magnetically immobilized cells of JB and an E-Fenton process into one entity has been designed to prepare a novel integration system to improve the treatment efficiency of phenol, pyridine, and quinoline in coking wastewater. The optimal pH for the integration system was 3.5. Degradation rates of phenol, pyridine, quinoline, and COD by the integration system were significantly exceeded the sum degradation rates of the single E-Fenton process and magnetically immobilized cells at the optimal voltage of 1 V...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245943/electricity-production-and-benzene-removal-from-groundwater-using-low-cost-mini-tubular-microbial-fuel-cells-in-a-monitoring-well
#9
Shih-Hsien Chang, Chih-Hung Wu, Ruei-Cyun Wang, Chi-Wen Lin
A low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for treating groundwater that contained benzene in monitoring wells. Experimental results indicate that increasing the length and density, and reducing the size of the char particles in the anode effectively reduced the internal resistance. Additionally, a thinner polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel separator and PVA with a higher molecular weight improved electricity generation. The optimal parameters for the MFC were an anode density of 1.22 g cm(-3), a coke of 150 μm, an anode length of 6 cm, a PVA of 105,600 g mol(-1), and a separator thickness of 1 cm...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241711/-identification-of-occupation-disease-of-one-case-of-lung-cancer-caused-by-the-coke-oven-emissions
#10
H W Ding, L L Yang, L H Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213229/fast-method-to-quantify-pahs-in-contaminated-soils-by-direct-thermodesorption-using-analytical-pyrolysis
#11
C Biache, C Lorgeoux, A Saada, S Colombano, P Faure
A method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification, based on pyrolysis at 450°C combined with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection (Py-GC-MS/FID), was developed and compared to a conventional PAH quantification method using accelerated solvent extraction and GC-MS analyses. The PAH contents of three coking plant soils, one gas plant soil, two wood-treating facility soils and one certified reference material (CRM - BCR 524) were determined using both methods...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194458/an-assessment-of-hydrocarbon-species-in-the-methanol-to-hydrocarbon-reaction-over-a-zsm-5-catalyst
#12
Suwardiyanto, Russell F Howe, Emma K Gibson, C Richard A Catlow, Ali Hameed, James McGregor, Paul Collier, Stewart F Parker, David Lennon
A ZSM-5 catalyst is examined in relation to the methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) reaction as a function of reaction temperature and time-on-stream. The reaction profile is characterised using in-line mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the material contained within a catch-pot downstream from the reactor is analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For a fixed methanol feed, reaction conditions are selected to define various stages of the reaction coordinate: (i) initial methanol adsorption at a sub-optimum reaction temperature (1 h at 200 °C); (ii) initial stages of reaction at an optimised reaction temperature (1 h at 350 °C); (iii) steady-state operation at an optimised reaction temperature (3 days at 350 °C); and (iv) accelerated ageing (3 days at 400 °C)...
February 14, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192674/designing-visual-aids-that-promote-risk-literacy
#13
Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Edward T Cokely
Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy...
February 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187969/seasonal-changes-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-response-to-hydrology-and-anthropogenic-activities-in-the-pearl-river-estuary-china
#14
Feng Liu, Lixia Niu, Hui Chen, Ping Li, Feng Tian, Qingshu Yang
The behaviours of PAHs (containing 2-6 aromatic rings) in the Pearl River estuary were examined each month in 2011. This study was designed to investigate the abundance of 16 priority PAHs and their response to the seasonal dynamics of anthropogenic activities and hydrological cycles. Monthly mean concentrations of ∑16PAHs in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were 88.31ng/L and 252.31ng/L respectively, with higher concentrations in the wet season (April to September). Heavy precipitation in the wet season resulted in relatively increased PAH input via riverine discharges and atmospheric deposition...
February 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186749/aedes-aegypti-larvicidal-sesquiterpene-alkaloids-from-maytenus-oblongata
#15
Seindé Touré, Charlotte Nirma, Michael Falkowski, Isabelle Dusfour, Isabelle Boulogne, Arnaud Jahn-Oyac, Maïra Coke, Didier Azam, Romain Girod, Céline Moriou, Guillaume Odonne, Didier Stien, Emeline Houël, Véronique Eparvier
Four new sesquiterpene alkaloids (1-4) with a β-dihydroagrofuran skeleton and a new triterpenoid (5) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Maytenus oblongata stems. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and ECD experiments. The M. oblongata stem EtOAc extract and the pure compounds isolated were tested for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions, and compounds 2 and 3 were found to be active.
February 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186217/time-and-space-resolved-study-of-the-methanol-to-hydrocarbons-mth-reaction-influence-of-zeolite-topology-on-axial-deactivation-patterns
#16
Daniel Rojo-Gama, Samaneh Etemadi, Eliot Kirby, Karl Petter Lillerud, Pablo Beato, Stian Svelle, Unni Olsbye
Zeolites representing seven different topologies were subjected to life-time assessment studies as methanol to hydrocarbons (MTH) catalysts at 400 °C, P(MeOH) = 13 kPa and P(tot) = 100 kPa. The following topologies were studied: ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), IM-5 (IMF), ITQ-13 (ITH), ZSM-5 (MFI), mordenite (MOR) and beta (BEA). Two experimental approaches were used. In the first approach, each catalyst was tested at three different contact times, all giving 100% initial conversion. The life-time before conversion decreased to 50% at each contact time was measured and used to calculate critical contact times (i...
February 10, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184397/carbon-induced-selective-regulation-of-cobalt-based-fischer-tropsch-catalysts-by-ethylene-treatment
#17
Peng Zhai, Pei-Pei Chen, Jinglin Xie, Jin-Xun Liu, Huabo Zhao, Lili Lin, Bo Zhao, Hai-Yan Su, Qingjun Zhu, Wei-Xue Li, Ding Ma
Various carbonaceous species were controllably deposited on Co/Al2O3 catalysts using ethylene as carbon source during the activation process for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Atomic, polymeric and graphitic carbon were distinguished by Raman spectroscopy, thermoanalysis and temperature programmed hydrogenation. Significant changes occurred in both the catalytic activity and selectivity toward hydrocarbon products after ethylene treatment. The activity decreased along with an increase in CH4 selectivity, at the expense of a remarkable decrease of heavy hydrocarbon production, resulting in enhanced selectivity for the gasoline fraction...
February 10, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181800/vanadium-geochemistry-of-oil-sands-fluid-petroleum-coke
#18
Jake A Nesbitt, Matthew B J Lindsay
Vanadium has previously been linked to elevated toxicity of leachates derived from oil sands petroleum coke. However, geochemical controls on V mobility within coke deposits remain poorly constrained. Detailed examinations of porewater and solid-phase V geochemistry were therefore performed on oil sands fluid petroleum coke deposits in Alberta, Canada. Sample collection focused on both active and reclaimed deposits, which contained more than 3 × 10(7) m(3) of fluid petroleum coke. Dissolved V concentrations were highest (up to 3...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181029/smoking-modify-the-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-on-oxidative-damage-to-dna-in-coke-oven-workers
#19
Jin Yang, Hongjie Zhang, Huitao Zhang, Wubin Wang, Yanli Liu, Yanfeng Fan
PURPOSE: Coke oven emissions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that oxidative DNA damage may play a pivotal role in the carcinogenic mechanism of lung cancer. Little is known about the effect of interaction between PAHs exposure and lifestyle on DNA oxidative damage. METHODS: The study population is composed by coke oven workers (365) and water treatment workers (144), and their urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined...
February 8, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177427/erlotinib-and-acid-suppressive-agents-is-it-worth-to-take-a-coke
#20
A Retamero, D Conde-Estévez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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