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Benjamin März, Kenny Jolley, Thomas James Marrow, Zhaoxia Zhou, Malcolm Heggie, Roger Smith, Houzheng Wu
The data in this article are related to the research article "Mesoscopic structure features in synthetic graphite" (März et al., 2018) [1]. Details of the manufacture of isostatically moulded graphite (iso-graphite), thin foil preparation by focused ion beams (FIB) for analysis, and characterisation methods are provided. The detailed structures of coke filler and binding carbon are presented through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and Raman spectroscopy characterisation...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Cheryl R Dennison Himmelfarb, Binu Koirala, Lola A Coke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Jing Ren, Jianfeng Li, Zuliang Chen, Fangqin Cheng
Membrane distillation (MD) has been hindered in industrial applications due to the potential wetting or fouling caused by complicated organic compositions. This study investigated the correlations between the fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in the MD process, where three coke wastewater samples pre-treated with bio-degradation and coagulation served as feed solutions. Results showed that although most of the bio-refractory organics in coke wastewater were rejected by the hydrophobic membrane, some volatile aromatic organics including benzenes, phenols, quinolines and naphthalenes passed through the membrane during the MD process...
June 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Peter T Clough, Matthew E Boot-Handford, Liya Zheng, Zili Zhang, Paul S Fennell
The performance of combined CO₂-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300⁻500 and 710⁻1000 µm), CaO loading (60⁻100 wt %), Ni-loading (10⁻40 wt %) and presence of dicalcium silicate support (22.6 wt %) on SESR process performance were investigated. The combined particles were characterised by their density, porosity and CO₂ carrying capacity with the analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP)...
May 21, 2018: Materials
Yuling Shan, Zhijun Sui, Yian Zhu, Jinghong Zhou, Xinggui Zhou, De Chen
A strategy for making metal clusters encapsulated inside microporous solids selectively accessible to reactant molecules by manipulating the molecular sieve size and affinity for adsorbed molecule expands the catalytic capabilities of these materials to reactions demanding high selectivity and stability. Selective hydrogen combustion was achieved over Pt clusters encapsulated in LTA zeolite (KA, NaA, CaA) in a propene-rich mixture obtained from propane dehydrogenation and showed obvious pore-size dependent selectivity and coking rate...
June 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Lin Ye, Pu Zhao, Molly Meng-Jung Li, Benedict T W Lo, Chiu Tang, Shik Chi Edman Tsang
The traditional investigation of complex catalyst poisoning phenomena is in the operation level: poisonings commonly attributed to macroscopic coke deposition and particle size change, etc. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution SXRD can reveal the structure of the organic molecule-active site complex in a 3-D environment, leading to an understanding of the poisoning mechanism at the molecular level.
June 6, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Aurora Gomez-Martin, Julian Martinez-Fernandez, Mirco Ruttert, Andreas Heckmann, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke, Joaquin Ramirez-Rico
Graphitized carbon materials from biomass resources were successfully synthesized by means of an iron catalyst, and their electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was investigated. Peak pyrolysis temperatures between 850 °C and 2000 ºC were covered to study the effect of crystallinity and microstructural parameters on the anodic behaviour, focusing on the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency, reversible specific capacity and rate performance. In terms of capacity, results at the highest temperatures are comparable to those of commercially used synthetic graphite derived from a petroleum coke precursor at higher temperatures, and up to two times than non-catalyzed biomass-derived carbons...
June 5, 2018: ChemSusChem
Xiaobiao Zhu, Ye Tian, Feifei Li, Yapeng Liu, Xiaohui Wang, Xiang Hu
Superhydrophobic materials have an excellent performance in oil adsorption. In this study, a novel magnetic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) nanofiber was synthesized by the method of cation polymerization to adsorb oil from water. The magnetic PDVB was hollow nanofiber with Fe3 O4 nanoparticles embedded in its structure. The synthesis condition was optimized that the ratio of divinylbenzene (DVB) to boron fluoride ethyl ether (BFEE) was 10:1 (v/v), and the Fe3 O4 dosage was 0.175 g/g of DVB. The material showed an excellent oil adsorption performance in wastewater, and the oil concentration could be reduced from 2000 to 92...
June 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jingwei Li, Bo Wei, Xing Yue, Zhe Lü
The low performance and insufficient catalytic activity of the perovskite anodes hinder their further application in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Herein, we report a novel La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Nb0.1Pd0.04O3-δ (LSFNP) anode material with Fe-Pd co-exsolutions for IT-SOFCs. Fe0 and Pd0 metallic nanoparticles are confirmed to exsolve on the surface of perovskite anode during operation in hydrogen. The introduced Pd exsolutions significantly promote both the charge transfer process and H2 adsorption ability of the La0...
May 31, 2018: ChemSusChem
Michael Rackl, Florian E Grötsch
This paper presents a dataset of spatial data, angles of repose and bulk densities collected from 108 bulk material heaps. The investigated materials were lignite, wood chips, limestone, blast furnace coke, fresh and dried corn grains, milk powder as well as bituminous coal. Sample sizes range from 16 liters to approximately 220 liters, and each measurement was repeated four times to allow for variance assessment. This dataset is particularly useful for researchers and engineers, who want to investigate the shape of bulk solid heaps, or who want to test or benchmark measurement methods concerning heaps of granular matter, such as the angle of repose...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Data
Andrea Mistaro, Alessandro Felluga, Flavio Moimas, Anna Abatangelo, Tazio Asquini, Renata Bruno, Lorenzo Celic, Michele Guidarelli, Arnold Pastrello, Anita Semec Bertocchi
The chemical composition of atmospheric particulate (PM10) in the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region (NE Italy) has been characterized for the first time with the help of exploratory data analysis (EDA) techniques (uni-, bi-, and multivariated, i.e., principal components analysis), molecular and elemental diagnostic ratios, and seasonal trends. Despite that the available analytical data was limited to the parameters routinely analyzed on PM10 by ARPA FVG (11 elements and 16 PAH congeners), the large number of samples and of measured chemical parameters, together with the applied techniques of data analysis, allowed us to extract useful latent information from the dataset, resulting in a greater knowledge of both regional and local features...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nitya Rai, Meera Sandhu, Vinod Sachdev, Rina Sharma
Purpose: To assess the erosive potential of carbonated beverages and the remineralization potential of beverages with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste on primary and permanent enamel. Materials and methods: A total of 32 primary and 32 permanent enamel specimens were immersed for 5, 10, and 30 minutes, respectively, in beverages, i.e., Coke, Sprite, Mirinda, and Mountain Dew, with and without added 0.2% CPP-ACP. Samples were profiled before immersion and after immersion under laser profiler...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Meirong Lu, Jianhui Fang, Lupeng Han, Kajornsak Faungnawakij, Hongrui Li, Sixiang Cai, Liyi Shi, Hong Jiang, Dengsong Zhang
In this study, halloysites, one of the most abundant clays, with hollow nanotube features were reconstructed by selectively etching silica from the outermost layer of the halloysites associated with unzipping the nanotubes to nanosheets via ball milling, and then, nickel nanoparticles were confined by the resulting defects in the nanosheets to boost charge transfer by a wet impregnation method. The obtained materials were developed as coke-resistant defect-confined Ni-based nanosheet-like catalysts for CO2 reforming of methane (CRM) for the first time...
May 25, 2018: Nanoscale
Xinyu Li, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Liang Zeng, Jiubing Zhao, Hao Tian, Sai Chen, Kang Li, Sier Sang, Jinlong Gong
La2 O3 exhibits good performance for various catalytic applications, such as oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) and dry reforming of methane (DRM), during which coke formation may lead to the deactivation of catalysts. Typically, the reaction between CO2 adsorbed on La2 O3 and coke is the rate-determining step of the coke elimination process. This paper describes the influence of Ce addition on the CO2 adsorption and activation over La2 O3 . Combined with in situ and ex situ characterization and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, we show that Ce addition promotes the formation of bidentate carbonate on La2 O3 via tuning CO2 adsorption energy...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Yafei Liu, You Zhang, Chuang Li, Yun Bai, Daoming Zhang, Chunyu Xue, Guangqing Liu
Pollutant emissions from incomplete combustion of raw coal in low-efficiency residential heating stoves greatly contribute to winter haze in China. Semi-coke coals and improved heating stoves are expected to lower air pollutant emissions and are vigorously promoted by the Chinese government in many national and local plans. In this study, the thermal performance and air pollutant emissions from semi-coke combustion in improved heating stoves were measured in a pilot rural county and compared to the baseline of burning raw coal to quantify the mitigation potential of air pollutant emissions...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Vivek Rana, Subodh Kumar Maiti
The release of industrial effluents into natural wetlands is a ubiquitous problem worldwide, and phytoremediation could be a viable option for treatment. The present study assessed metal accumulation strategies of three dominant emergent plants [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Scirpus grossus (L.) f., and Typha latifolia L.] growing in a wetland contaminated with coke-oven effluent. Metals concentration (mg kg-1 ) in wetland sediment followed the order Mn (408) > Cu (97) > Co (14.2) > Cr (14) > Cd (2...
May 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Marzena Smol, Dariusz Włóka, Maria Włodarczyk-Makuła
In this paper, coke wastewater that had passed through biological and integrated membrane processes (filtration on sand bed-reverse osmosis) was chosen to assess the phytotoxicity of selected industrial wastewater with regard to the test plant- Vicia faba . An innovative research technique in vitro test was conducted in a large scale phytothrone chamber on two matrices: cotton and Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MSBM). The toxicity of wastewater was evaluated for samples: (1) treated in the treatment plant by biological processes, (2) filtrated through a sand bed and filtrated (3) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Chuancheng Duan, Robert J Kee, Huayang Zhu, Canan Karakaya, Yachao Chen, Sandrine Ricote, Angelique Jarry, Ethan J Crumlin, David Hook, Robert Braun, Neal P Sullivan, Ryan O'Hayre
Protonic ceramic fuel cells, like their higher-temperature solid-oxide fuel cell counterparts, can directly use both hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels to produce electricity at potentially more than 50 per cent efficiency1,2 . Most previous direct-hydrocarbon fuel cell research has focused on solid-oxide fuel cells based on oxygen-ion-conducting electrolytes, but carbon deposition (coking) and sulfur poisoning typically occur when such fuel cells are directly operated on hydrocarbon- and/or sulfur-containing fuels, resulting in severe performance degradation over time3-6 ...
May 2018: Nature
Huang Zheng, Xinli Xing, Tianpeng Hu, Yuan Zhang, Jiaquan Zhang, Gehao Zhu, Ying Li, Shihua Qi
The purpose of this study was to assess the human cancer risk due to the exposure to the soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Chengdu Economic Region (CER), western China with the main concern on cancer risk source apportionment. The total concentrations of sixteen PAHs ranged from 12.5 to 75431 ng g-1 , with a mean value of 3106 ng g-1 , which suggested that the most areas of CER were contaminated. Source apportionment of PAHs was conducted by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and the biomass burning contributed most (63...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Guanyi Chen, Ruixue Zhang, Wenchao Ma, Bin Liu, Xiangping Li, Beibei Yan, Zhanjun Cheng, Tiejun Wang
The catalytic cracking upgrading reactions over HZSM-5 of different model compounds of bio-oil have been studied with a self-designed fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) equipment. Typical bio-oil model compounds, such as acetic acid, guaiacol, n-heptane, acetol and ethyl acetate, were chosen to study the products distribution, reaction pathway and deactivation of catalysts. The results showed: C6 -C8 aromatic hydrocarbons, C2 -C4 olefins, C1 -C5 alkanes, CO and CO2 were the main products, and the selectivity of olefins was: ethylene>propylene>butylene...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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