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Chen Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Fangqin Cheng, Yu Liu
In this study, a lignite activated coke (LAC)-assisted activated sludge (AS) process was developed for enhancing biodegradation of phenol, while the effects of LAC on sludge properties and microbial community structure were investigated. It was found that more than 90% of phenol was removed within 1 h in the LAC/AS, which was 3 times higher than the conventional AS process. Moreover, the floc size and settleability were also significantly improved in the LAC/AS. These results suggested that LAC could serve as the nucleating agent to promote the formation of compact floc, which was beneficial for toxicity mitigation and system stability...
March 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kai Zhang, Shaojuan Luo, Zewei Liu, Chao Li, Ke Zheng, Xin Yan, Ying Wu, Hongxia Xi
Amphiphilic surfactants are widely used as templates to synthesize hierarchically structured zeolites due to their multiple functions; however, piloting such new dual-functional templates is limited by its nature of time-consuming and high cost. Herein, a simple organic molecule, without a long hydrophobic alkyl chain, was tailored from a gemini-type, poly-quaternary ammonium surfactant and effectively used as a dual-porogenic template to synthesize hierarchical MTW zeolite. Upon a range of synthesis parameters optimization, our detailed characterizations suggested that the hierarchical MTW zeolite would completely crystallize within 36 hours from the surface to inside of quasi - spherical particles through in situ consumption of amorphous silicon and aluminum species, much faster than most of the hierarchical MTW zeolite generated by conventional methods...
April 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ruosong Xie, Miaomiao Wu, Guangfei Qu, Ping Ning, Yingying Cai, Pei Lv
A newly designed electric assisted micro-electrolysis filter (E-ME) was developed to investigate its degradation efficiency for coking wastewater and correlated characteristics. The performance of the E-ME system was compared with separate electrolysis (SE) and micro-electrolysis (ME) systems. The results showed a prominent synergistic effect on COD removal in E-ME systems. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed that the applied electric field enhanced the degradation of phenolic compounds...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
YunHui Zhang, DeYi Hou, GuanNan Xiong, YongHong Duan, ChuanYang Cai, Xin Wang, JingYa Li, Shu Tao, WenXin Liu
A series of field samples including ambient air (gaseous and particulate phases), dust fall, surface soil, rhizosphere soil and cabbage tissues (leaf, root and core), were collected in vegetable bases near a large coking manufacturer in Shanxi Province, Northern China, during a harvest season. A factor analysis was employed to apportion the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the statistical results indicated coal combustion was the dominant emission source that accounted for different environmental media and cabbage tissues, while road traffic, biomass burning and the coking industry contributed to a lesser extent...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Lynn D Mohr, Lola A Coke
PURPOSE: Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction...
May 2018: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Yu-Ping Xu, Pei-Gao Duan, Feng Wang, Qing-Qing Guan
Background: In this study, a two-step processing method (hydrothermal liquefaction followed by catalytic upgrading) was used to produce upgraded bio-oil. A comprehensive screening analysis of algal species, including four microalgae and four macroalgae, was conducted to bridge the gap between previous accounts of microalgae and macroalgae hydrothermal liquefaction and the upgrading process of the resulting crude bio-oils. Results: Hydrothermal liquefaction using eight algal biomasses was performed at 350 °C for 1 h...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sohini Guha Thakurta, Mukesh Aakula, Jitamanyu Chakrabarty, Susmita Dutta
Bioremediation of wastewater is gaining popularity over chemical treatment due to the greener aspect. The volume of literature containing algal biodegradation is small. Especially, removal of toxic materials like phenol from coke-oven wastewater using fast-growing cyanobacteria was not tried. The current study, therefore, targeted at bioremediation of phenol from wastewater using Leptolyngbya sp., a cyanobacterial strain, as a finishing step. Furthermore, the growth of the strain was studied under different conditions, varying phenol concentration 50-150 mg/L, pH 5-11, inoculum size 2-10% to assess its ability to produce lipid...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Jose L Gomez-Eyles, Upal Ghosh
A bench scale study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ amendments to reduce the bioavailability of pollutants in sediments from a site impacted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cadmium. The amendments tested included fine and coarse coal-based activated carbons (AC), an enhanced pinewood derived biochar (EPB), organoclay, and coke dosed at 5% of sediment dry weight. Strong reductions in total PCB porewater concentrations were observed in sediments amended with the fine AC (94...
March 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Wenlan Yang, Jicheng Wang, Ming Hua, Yanyang Zhang, Xinxing Shi
Effluent organic matter (EfOM) in bio-treated wastewater generally has negative impacts on advanced wastewater treatment processes. Thus, a comprehensive characterization of EfOM would help determine feasibility of wastewater treatment. The aim of this work was to characterize EfOM originating from four coking wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) in China, using specific UV absorbance (SUVA), EfOM fractionation, size exclusion chromatography, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the predominant species in all the EfOM samples were hydrophobic compounds with high SUVA values...
March 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Ivo Alxneit
A python module (HRTEMFringeAnalyzer) is reported to evaluate the local crystallinity of samples from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images in a mostly automated fashion. The user only selects the size of a square analyser window and a step size which translates the window in the micrograph. Together they define the resolution of the results obtained. Regions where fringe patterns are visible are identified and their lattice spacing d and direction ϕ as well as the corresponding mean errors σ determined...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
A Singh, R Kamal, I Ahamed, M Wagh, V Bihari, B Sathian, C N Kesavachandran
Background: Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with lung cancer in various epidemiological studies in industries such as aluminium reduction/smelting, coal gasification, coke production, iron/steel foundries, coal/coke and related products and carbon/graphite electrodes production. Aims: To update data on the association between PAH exposure and morbidity and mortality due to lung cancer among workers in different occupations, including smoking data...
March 20, 2018: Occupational Medicine
J A Caruso, P M Stemmer
Petroleum coke (PC) is a coal-like product that is produced during the refinement of crude oil and bituminous sand. Fugitive dust from open storage of PC in urban areas is a potential human health concern. Animal inhalation studies suggest that PC leads to an adverse pulmonary histopathology, including areas of fibrosis and chronic inflammation; however, little is known about its impact on human health. In order to identify biomarkers and cellular pathways that are associated with exposure, we performed two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses on secreted proteins from two human lung culture models...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Allen A C Reule, Jing Shen, Natalia Semagina
Bimetallic ion exchange on a zeolite often impacts its catalytic properties as compared to monometallic counterparts. Here, we address the synergistic effect of simultaneous copper and zinc ion exchange on mordenite (MOR), as found earlier for dimethyl ether (DME) carbonylation. Samples with various Cu/Zn ratios were characterized by diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) in 3600 and 720 cm-1 regions, pore distribution analysis via Ar physisorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
March 25, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Marta Marczak, Stanisław Budzyń, Jakub Szczurowski, Krzysztof Kogut, Piotr Burmistrz
Due to its adverse impact on health, as well as its global distribution, long atmospheric lifetime and propensity for deposition in the aquatic environment and in living tissue, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has classified mercury and its compounds as a severe air quality threat. Such widespread presence of mercury in the environment originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Global anthropogenic emission of mercury is evaluated at 2000 Mg year-1 . According to the National Centre for Emissions Management (Pol...
March 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eric D Kessel, Scott J Ketcheson, Jonathan S Price
Post-mine landscape reclamation of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region requires the use of tailings sand, an abundant mine-waste material that often contains large amounts of sodium (Na+ ). Due to the mobility of Na+ in groundwater and its effects on vegetation, water quality is a concern when incorporating mine waste materials, especially when attempting to construct groundwater-fed peatlands. This research is the first published account of Na+ redistribution in groundwater from a constructed tailings sand upland to an adjacent constructed fen peat deposit (Nikanotee Fen)...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaohua Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Shanshan Shao, Liangxiu Dong, Jin Zhang, Chao Hu, Yixi Cai
Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapor from rape straw was performed in a vacuum pyrolysis system over La/HZSM-5 with hierarchical structure. When 3M Na2 CO3 was used for alkali treatment, the desilication process of HZSM-5 zeolite was highly controllable and the hierarchical porous HZSM-5(Hi-ZSM-5) zeolite was formed. After that, Hi-ZSM-5 was modified by impregnation with lanthanum ion, the acid sites of Lewis increased and the concentrations ratio of Brönsted acid and Lewis acid of the catalyst was improved...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tadeusz Dziok, Andrzej Strugała, Adam Włodek
During the cokemaking process, a significant amount of mercury occurring in a coal blend is released to the atmosphere. One of the ways of reducing this emission is to reduce mercury content in a coal blend. This could be obtained through the coal washing process. The optimization of this process requires the knowledge of mercury occurrence in coal, especially in its inorganic constituents. A qualitative analysis of mercury occurrence in the inorganic constituents of Polish coking coals was performed using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jinlong Gong, Zhijian Zhao, Tengfang Wu, Chuanye Xiong, Guodong Sun, Rentao Mu, Liang Zeng
Supported vanadium oxides are one of the most promising alternative catalysts for propane dehydrogenation (PDH) and massive efforts have been made to improve its catalytic performance. However, unlike Pt-based catalysts, the nature of the active site and surface structure of supported vanadium catalysts under reductive reaction condition still remain elusive. This paper describes the surface structure and the important role of surface-bound hydroxyls of VOx/Al2O3 catalysts under reaction conditions employing in situ DRIFTS experiments and DFT calculations...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ibrahim Alhroub, Evguenii Kozliak, Alena Kubatova, Mark Sulkes
There has been a limited understanding of high MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) product chemistry in the pyrolysis of triglycerides (TGs), though the subject has important implications for both fuel production from TGs and food science. Previous TG pyrolysis studies have been able to identify only relatively low MW GC-elutable aromatics occurring in the bulk liquid phase; products occurring in the solid phase have remained inaccessible to chemical analysis. In contrast, cold gas expansion molecular beam methods, where pyrolysis products are analyzed in real time as they are entrained in gas expansions, remove product collection difficulties, thereby allowing for analysis of coke/tar PAH precursors...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Po-Hsun Lin, Ren-Yang Horng, Shu-Fang Hsu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Chia-Hua Ho
More than 80% of ammonia (NH₃) in the steel manufacturing process wastewater is contributed from the coking wastewater, which is usually treated by biological processes. However, the NH₃ in the coking wastewater is typically too high for biological treatment due to its inhibitory concentration. Therefore, a two-stage process including a hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC) and a modified membrane distillation (MD) system was developed and applied to reduce and recover NH₃ from coking wastewater. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate different membrane materials, receiving solutions, and operation parameters for the system, remove NH₃ from the coking wastewater to less than 300 mg N/L, which is amenable to the biological process, and recover ammonia solution for reuse...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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