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Christopher Gallacher, Russell Thomas, Richard Lord, Robert M Kalin, Chris Taylor
RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds and were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from 5 different production processes...
May 17, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Fangsong Guo, Pengju Yang, Zhiming Pan, Xu-Ning Cao, Zailai Xie, Xinchen Wang
Carbon-based catalysts have recently been demonstrated great potential for aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation reaction (ODH). However, its widespread application is retarded by the unavoidable deactivation due to the appearance of coking or combustion under ODH condition. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of porous structure of BCN nanosheets as well as their application as a novel catalyst for ODH. Such BCN nanosheets consist of hybridized, randomly distributed domains of h-BN and C phases, where C, B, and N were confirmed to covalent bond in the graphene-like layers...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Feihong Guo, Zhaoping Zhong
This work presents studies on the combustion of Composite Biomass Pellets (CBPS) in fluidized bed using bauxite particles as the bed material. Prior to the combustion experiment, cold-flow characterization and thermogravimetric analysis are performed to investigate the effect of air velocity and combustion mechanism of CBPS. The cold-state test shows that CBPs and bauxite particles fluidize well in the fluidized bed. However, because of the presence of large CBPs, optimization of the fluidization velocity is rather challenging...
May 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bijing Xiong, Youchi Zhang, Yanwei Hou, Hans Peter H Arp, Brian J Reid, Chao Cai
The inoculation of rice straw biochar with PAH-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum (1.27 × 10(11) ± 1.24 × 10(10) cell g(-1)), and the subsequent amendment of this composite material to PAHs contaminated (677 mg kg(-1)) coke plant soil, was conducted in order to investigate if would enhance PAHs biodegradation in soils. The microbe-biochar composite showed superior degradation capacity for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Phenanthrene loss in the microbe-biochar composite, free cell alone and biochar alone treatments was, respectively, 62...
May 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Yi Xiao, Deepak Pudasainee, Rajender Gupta, Zhenghe Xu, Yongfa Diao
Activated carbon injection has been proven to be an effective control technology of mercury emission from coal-fired power plants. Petroleum coke is a waste by-product of petroleum refining with large quantities readily available around the world. Due to its high inherent sulfur content, petroleum coke is an attractive raw material for developing mercury capture sorbent, converting a waste material to a value-added product of important environmental applications. In this study, petroleum coke was brominated by chemical-mechanical bromination...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Christopher Gallacher, Russell Thomas, Richard Lord, Robert M Kalin, Chris Taylor
RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds and were produced as a by-product from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The composition of the tar produced varied depending on many factors; these include the temperature of production and the type of retort used. As different production processes produce different tars, a comprehensive database of the compounds present within coal tars from different production processes is a valuable resource. Such a database would help to understand how their chemical properties differ and what hazards the compounds present within these tars might pose...
May 11, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Hanzhong Jia, Song Zhao, Gulimire Nulaji, Kelin Tao, Fu Wang, Virender K Sharma, Chuanyi Wang
This study presents the existence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in soils of past coking sites, mainly contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measurements of EPFRs were conducted by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique with numerous soil samples, which were collected from different distances (0-1000 m) and different depths (0-30 cm) of three contaminant sources. EPR signals with ~ 3×1017 radicals/g of the soil samples were obtained, which are very similar to that generated in PAHs contaminated clays, i...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Alberto Scarselli, Marisa Corfiati, Davide Di Marzi, Sergio Iavicoli
Objectives 1,3-butadiene is classified as carcinogenic to human by inhalation and the association with leukemia has been observed in several epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate data about occupational exposure levels to 1,3-butadiene in the Italian working force. Methods Airborne concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were extracted from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2015. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables...
May 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Christopher Gallacher, Russell Thomas, Richard Lord, Robert M Kalin, Chris Taylor
RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds and were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by 5 distinct production processes...
May 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Katharina Ruppert, Cornelia Geiß, Clare Askem, Rachel Benstead, Rebecca Brown, Maira Coke, Virginie Ducrot, Philipp Egeler, Henrik Holbech, Thomas H Hutchinson, Karin L Kinnberg, Laurent Lagadic, Gareth Le Page, Ailbhe Macken, Peter Matthiessen, Sina Ostermann, Agnes Schimera, Claudia Schmitt, Anne Seeland-Fremer, Andy J Smith, Lennart Weltje, Jörg Oehlmann
Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes...
April 26, 2017: Chemosphere
F P Wang, X N Zhu, Z B Zhang, L P Chen, J L Fan, Q Y Li, S Chen, W Chen
Objective: To investigate the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure on the level of histone H3Ser10 phosphorylation (p-H3S10) and DNA damage degree in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBLCs). Method: 75 coke oven workers from Benxi steel plant in Liaoning Province of China (PAHs-exposed group) and local 50 hot rolling workers (control group) were recruited in this study with age, working years, labor intensity and high temperature for matching factors using cluster sampling method in 2014. HPLC-fluorescence was performed to determine the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), DNA damage and specific histone modification were measured in PBLCs of the subjects through comet assay and ELISA assay, respectively...
May 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Doug Crump, Kim L Williams, Suzanne Chiu, Yifeng Zhang, Jonathan W Martin
Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a granular carbonaceous material produced during the upgrading of heavy crude oils, including bitumen. Petcoke dust was recently reported as an environmental contaminant in the Athabasca oil sands region, but the ecotoxicological hazards posed by this complex bitumen-derived material-including those to avian species-have not been characterized. In this study, solvent extracts (x) of delayed and fluid petcoke (xDP and xFP) were prepared and dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. A water-accommodated fraction of delayed petcoke (waDP) was also prepared...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Carlos A Manzano, Chris Marvin, Derek Muir, Tom Harner, Jonathan Martin, Yifeng Zhang
The aromatic fractions of snow, lake sediment, and air samples collected during 2011-2014 in the Athabasca oil sands region were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography following a nontargeted approach. Commonly monitored aromatics (parent and alkylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes) were excluded from the analysis, focusing mainly on other heterocyclic aromatics. The unknowns detected were classified into isomeric groups and tentatively identified using mass spectral libraries...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tigran Margossian, Kim Larmier, Sung Min Kim, Frank Krumeich, Alexey Fedorov, Peter Chen, Christoph R Müller, Christophe Copéret
Syngas production via the dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a highly endothermic process conducted under harsh conditions; hence, the main difficulty resides in generating stable catalysts. This can, in principle, be achieved by reducing coke formation, sintering, and loss of metal through diffusion in the support. [{Ni(μ(2)-OCHO)(OCHO)(tmeda)}2(μ(2)-OH2)] (tmeda = tetramethylethylenediamine), readily synthesized and soluble in a broad range of solvents, was developed as a molecular precursor to form 2 nm Ni(0) nanoparticles on alumina, the commonly used support in DRM...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Liu Shi, Dong Wang, Di Cao, Chunhong Na, Xie Quan, Ying Zhang
The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process is the commonly used biological wastewater treatment process, especially for the coking wastewater. However, limit is known about its ability in bio-toxicity removal from wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the performance of A/A/O process in bio-toxicity removal from the coking wastewater, using two test species (i.e. crustacean (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio rerio)) in respect of acute toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that the acute toxicity of raw influent was reduced gradually along with A/A/O process and the effluent presented no acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Margarita A Dmitrienko, Pavel A Strizhak
High concentrations of hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides) from solid fuel combustion in coal burning plants cause environmental problems that have been especially pressing over the last 20-30 years. A promising solution to these problems is a switch from conventional pulverized coal combustion to coal-water slurry fuel. In this paper, we pay special attention to the environmental indicators characterizing the combustion of different coal ranks (gas, flame, coking, low-caking, and nonbaking coals) and coal-water slurry fuels based on the coal processing waste - filter cakes...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jili Tao, Qinru Fan, Longhua Ma
A new linear quadratic regulation (LQ) control plus a proportional (P) control system is proposed for the level regulation in an industrial coke fractionation tower. The process is first stabilized using a P controller and then a subsequent LQ controller is designed for the P control system. The P control system is modeled as a generalized first order plus dead time (FOPDT) process using step-response test and the LQ-P controller is designed through a new state space structure. Performance in terms of regulatory and servo issues were investigated...
April 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
Yuefeng He, Jun Qi, Fang He, Yongchang Zhang, Youlian Wang, Ruobing Zhang, Gang Li
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether variations in GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene are associated with the DNA damage level of p53 gene. METHODS: We quantified urinary 1-hydroxypyrene using high-performance liquid chromatography, and examined the DNA damage level of p53 gene by real-time quantitative PCR in 756 coke-oven workers. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the presence or absence of genes. RESULTS: DNA damage levels of p53 gene in the high exposure group and intermediate exposure group were significantly higher than that of p53 gene in the low exposure group (P < 0...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Weifeng Tu, Mireille Ghoussoub, Chandra Veer Singh, Ya-Huei Cathy Chin
This study describes a new C-H bond activation pathway during CH4-CO2 reactions on oxophilic Ni-Co and Co clusters, unlike those established previously on Ni clusters. The initial C-H bond activation remains as the sole kinetically relevant step on Ni-Co, Ni, and Co clusters, but their specific reaction paths vary. On Ni clusters, C-H bond activation occurs via an oxidative addition step that involves a three-center (H3C···*···H)(⧧) transition state, during which a Ni-atom inserts into the C-H bond and donates its electron density into the C-H bond's antibonding orbital...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lingqian Meng, Xiaochun Zhu, Emiel J M Hensen
Fe/ZSM-5 nanosheet zeolites of varying thickness were synthesized with di- and tetraquaternary ammonium structure directing agents and extensively characterized for their textural, structural, and catalytic properties. Introduction of Fe(3+) ions in the framework of nanosheet zeolites was slightly less effective than in bulk ZSM-5 zeolite. Steaming was necessary to activate all catalysts for N2O decomposition and benzene oxidation. The higher the Fe content, the higher the degree of Fe aggregation was after catalyst activation...
April 7, 2017: ACS Catalysis
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