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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761753/against-the-stream-religion-and-mental-health-the-case-for-the-inclusion-of-religion-and-spirituality-into-psychiatric-care
#1
Simon Dein
This paper argues for the inclusion of religion and spirituality in psychiatric care. After discussing the antagonism of psychiatrists and psychologists to religion, I present a critical overview of studies examining the relationships between spirituality, religion and diverse aspects of mental health: depression, suicide, anxiety, delinquency, drug abuse and schizophrenia. The need to assesses the impact of religion in different faith groups is discussed. Measures of religious coping, both positive and negative, may provide a more accurate portrayal as to how individuals deploy religion in their lives than global measures such as belief and attendance...
June 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730045/improving-cognitive-training-for-schizophrenia-using-neuroplasticity-enhancers-lessons-from-decades-of-basic-and-clinical-research
#2
G D Guercio, M E Thomas, J M Cisneros-Franco, P Voss, R Panizzutti, E de Villers-Sidani
Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder that stems from maladaptive plasticity within neural circuits and produces broad cognitive deficits leading to loss of autonomy. A large number of studies have identified abnormalities spanning many neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia, and as a result, a variety of drugs have been developed to attempt to treat these abnormalities and enhance cognition. Unfortunately, positive results have been limited so far. This may be in part because the scope of abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain requires a treatment capable of engaging many different neurotransmitter systems...
May 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628441/the-original-social-network-white-matter-and-social-cognition
#3
REVIEW
Yin Wang, Ingrid R Olson
Social neuroscience has traditionally focused on the functionality of gray matter regions, ignoring the critical role played by axonal fiber pathways in supporting complex social processes. In this paper, we argue that research on white matter is essential for understanding a range of topics in social neuroscience, such as face processing, theory of mind, empathy, and imitation, as well as clinical disorders defined by aberrant social behavior, such as prosopagnosia, autism, and schizophrenia. We provide practical advice on how best to carry out these studies, which ultimately will substantially deepen our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior...
April 5, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606551/patient-perceived-participation-in-decision-making-on-their-antipsychotic-treatment-evidence-of-validity-and-reliability-of-the-comrade-scale-in-a-sample-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#4
José Pérez-Revuelta, José María Villagrán-Moreno, Luisa Moreno-Sánchez, Juan Manuel Pascual-Paño, Francisco González-Saiz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the COMRADE scale (Combined Outcome Measure for Risk communication And treatment Decision making Effectiveness) in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHOD: 150 patients recruited at five mental health centers were assessed using a cross-sectional study design. The COMRADE, WAIS-S (therapeutic alliance) and TSQM (satisfaction with medication) scales were used...
March 23, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605875/the-relationship-of-motivation-and-neurocognition-with-functionality-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analytic-review
#5
Antonia Najas-Garcia, Juana Gómez-Benito, Tania B Huedo-Medina
The role that neurocognition plays in functionality in schizophrenia has been widely examined, although in recent years increasing attention has been paid to the influence of motivation instead. This study provides a review of the relationship of neurocognition and motivation with functionality in schizophrenia, taking into account objective/subjective functionality assessment, demographic variables, and the different terms used when referring to motivation. A search of electronic databases identified 34 studies that met the inclusion criteria for review...
March 31, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575228/herbal-medicines-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-10-year-updated-review
#6
REVIEW
Jerome Sarris
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders...
March 25, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568726/promoting-recovery-from-severe-mental-illness-implications-from-research-on-metacognition-and-metacognitive-reflection-and-insight-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Paul Henry Lysaker, Jay A Hamm, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt
Research indicates that individuals with schizophrenia recover. Recovery, however means different things to different individuals and regardless of what kind of experiences define recovery, the individual diagnosed with the serious mental illness must feel ownership of their recovery. This raises the issue of how mental health services should systematically promote recovery. This paper explores the practical implications for research on metacognition in schizophrenia for this issue. First, we present the integrated model of metacognition, which defines metacognition as the spectrum of activities which allow individual to have available to themselves an integrated sense of self and others as they appraise and respond to the unique challenges they face...
March 22, 2018: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546492/recent-advances-in-the-prevention-of-mental-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
April 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541150/genetic-variants-involved-in-bipolar-disorder-a-rough-road-ahead
#9
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Background: Bipolar Disorder (BD), along with depression and schizophrenia, is one of the most serious mental illnesses, and one of the top 20 causes of severe impairment in everyday life. Recent molecular studies, using both traditional approaches and new procedures such as Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS), have suggested that genetic factors could significantly contribute to the development of BD, with heritability estimates of up to 85%. However, it is assumed that BD is a multigenic and multifactorial illness with environmental factors that strongly contribute to disease development/progression, which means that progress in genetic knowledge of BD might be difficult to interpret in clinical practice...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527766/racial-disparities-in-bipolar-disorder-treatment-and-research-a-call-to-action
#10
REVIEW
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523295/molecular-hypotheses-to-explain-the-shared-pathways-and-underlying-pathobiological-causes-in-catatonia-and-in-catatonic-presentations-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516555/methamphetamine-psychosis-insights-from-the-past
#12
Rebecca McKetin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To review early case reports and experimental inductions of amphetamine and methamphetamine psychosis, prior to the prohibition of these drugs, to gain a better understanding of the nature and aetiology of methamphetamine psychosis. METHODS: Papers considered were historical case reports and case series of psychosis relating to the use and misuse of prescription amphetamine, focusing upon papers by Young & Scoville (1938), Connell (1958), and three subsequent experimental studies published in the early 1970s (Griffith 1972, Angrist & Gershon 1970 and Bell 1973), where psychosis was induced in volunteers using high-dose amphetamine and methamphetamine...
March 8, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503790/mechanisms-underlying-sex-differences-in-cannabis-use
#13
Katina C Calakos, Shivani Bhatt, Dawn W Foster, Kelly P Cosgrove
Purpose of the Review: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. In recent decades, highly concentrated products have flooded the market, and prevalence rates have increased. Gender differences exist in cannabis use, as men have higher prevalence of both cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD), while women progress more rapidly from first use to CUD. This paper reviews findings from preclinical and human studies examining the sex-specific neurobiological underpinnings of cannabis use and CUD, and associations with psychiatric symptoms...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501256/-computer-assisted-therapy-and-video-games-in-psychosocial-rehabilitation-for-schizophrenia-patients
#14
G Brun, H Verdoux, G Couhet, C Quiles
OBJECTIVES: Video games and virtual reality have recently become used by clinicians for training or information media or as therapeutic tools. The purpose is to review the use of these technologies for therapy destined for schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We conducted a review in October 2016 using Pubmed, Scopus and PsychInfo using the following Medical Subject Headings (MESH): "video games", "virtual reality" and "therapy, computer-assisted/methods", each associated with "schizophrenia"...
February 28, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488895/-the-concept-of-urban-resilience-and-its-relation-to-resilience-in-mental-health-prospects-for-research-in-schizophrenia
#15
N G Christodoulou, M L Wassenhoven, S T Rassia
The relationship between schizophrenia and the city is well known and widely documented in the literature, albeit with many questions still unanswered. While it is clear that there is a higher incidence of schizophrenia in cities, there is little known on causality - or its direction - in that relationship. Also, despite the fact that several clinical and epidemiological parameters play a role in the relationship between schizophrenia and the city, this relationship has not been investigated or interpreted holistically...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480322/-differential-indication-for-psychotherapy-in-psychosis-are-there-evidence-based-criteria
#16
REVIEW
S Klingberg, K Hesse
The major objective of this paper is to discuss the available evidence on the question as to which patients benefit most from psychotherapy in psychotic disorders and the question of which kind of psychotherapy. From a methodological perspective, this task can be seen as the question of moderators of treatment success. To answer this question, the status of efficacy research on psychotherapeutic interventions in schizophrenia is summarized in a first step. Secondly, studies comparing different active psychotherapeutic approaches are discussed...
March 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460820/association-between-mental-disorders-cognitive-disturbances-and-vitamin-d-serum-level-current-state
#17
Paul P Lerner, Laura Sharony, Chanoch Miodownik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem. Approximately 14% of the world population has inadequate vitamin D levels. This vitamin has been usually associated with bone disorders such as rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, these disorders present only a small part of all the disturbances which can be induced by its deficiency. Low serum vitamin D is associated with development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancer...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431144/paradigm-shift-purity-progress-and-the-origins-of-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Suze G Berkhout
First-episode psychosis has garnered significant attention and resources within mental health services in North America, Europe and Australia/New Zealand since the 1990s. Despite this widespread embrace, little scholarship exists that examines underlying concepts, ideologies and imagery embedded within the early intervention paradigm. In this paper, I offer a sociohistorical analysis of the emergence of first-episode psychosis and early intervention as entities in psychiatry, drawing on contemporary philosophical thought to explore various concepts embedded in them...
February 3, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423279/physiotherapy-for-people-with-mental-health-problems-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Michel Probst, James Mugisha
Background: There is a need for psychosocial interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Physiotherapists could have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery within the multidisciplinary care of people with mental health problems. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the role of physiotherapists within the current mental health policies of SSA countries and to explore the current research evidence for physiotherapy to improve functional outcomes in people with mental health problems in SSA...
2018: Archives of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410939/bridging-the-measurement-gap-between-research-and-clinical-care-in-schizophrenia-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-6-panss-6-and-other-assessments-based-on-the-simplified-negative-and-positive-symptoms-interview-snapsi
#20
EDITORIAL
Søren D Østergaard, Mark G A Opler, Christoph U Correll
There is currently a "measurement gap" between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The main reason behind this gap is that the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia research, the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), takes so long to administer that it is rarely used in clinical practice. This compromises the translation of research findings into clinical care and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to discuss how this measurement gap can be closed. Specifically, the main points of discussion are 1) the practical problems associated with using the full 30-item PANSS in clinical practice; 2) how the brief, six-item version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) was derived empirically from the full 30-item PANSS and what the initial results obtained with PANSS-6 entail; and 3) how PANSS-6 ratings, guided by the newly developed, 15-25-minute, stand-alone Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI), might help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
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