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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213300/experiences-of-stigma-and-discrimination-faced-by-family-caregivers-of-people-with-schizophrenia-in-india
#1
Mirja Koschorke, R Padmavati, Shuba Kumar, Alex Cohen, Helen A Weiss, Sudipto Chatterjee, Jesina Pereira, Smita Naik, Sujit John, Hamid Dabholkar, Madhumitha Balaji, Animish Chavan, Mathew Varghese, R Thara, Vikram Patel, Graham Thornicroft
Stigma associated with schizophrenia significantly affects family caregivers, yet few studies have examined the nature and determinants of family stigma and its relationship to their knowledge about the condition. This paper describes the experiences and determinants of stigma reported by the primary caregivers of people living with schizophrenia (PLS) in India. The study used mixed methods and was nested in a randomised controlled trial of community care for people with schizophrenia. Between November 2009 and October 2010, data on caregiver stigma and functional outcomes were collected from a sample of 282 PLS-caregiver dyads...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212174/categorizing-and-assessing-negative-symptoms
#2
Paola Bucci, Silvana Galderisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review on studies published in the last year relevant to the categorization and assessment of negative symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research supported the validity of the 'deficit/non-deficit schizophrenia' categorization. Few studies confirmed the validity of the category 'persistent negative symptoms', whereas no recent study explored the validity of the category 'predominant negative symptoms'. The two-factor structure of the negative dimension is supported by studies reporting different correlates for the two subdomains: diminished expression and avolition/apathy...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#3
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196359/language-on-the-phenomenology-of-linguistic-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-4
#4
Elizabeth Pienkos, Louis Sass
Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances...
February 15, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127915/the-current-conceptualization-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#5
Stephen R Marder, Silvana Galderisi
Negative symptoms have long been conceptualized as a core aspect of schizophrenia. They play a key role in the functional outcome of the disorder, and their management represents a significant unmet need. Improvements in definition, characterization, assessment instruments and experimental models are needed in order to foster research aimed at developing effective interventions. A consensus has recently been reached on the following aspects: a) five constructs should be considered as negative symptoms, i.e...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104068/measuring-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-an-integrative-review
#6
Cordellia E Bright
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to assess the validity, reliability and levels of evidence of existing instruments for measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is estimated to affect approximately 7 individuals out of 1000 in their lifetimes, with fifty percent of patients attempting suicide. However studies have shown that measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia is difficult and no gold standard currently exists...
February 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073112/space-and-objects-on-the-phenomenology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-of-anomalous-perception-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-1
#7
Steven M Silverstein, Docia Demmin, Borut Škodlar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perception of space and objects is a traditional focus within phenomenology, and disturbances in these aspects of perception among people with schizophrenia have long been discussed within phenomenological psychiatry. Despite this, there has been little empirical work on the causes and effects of most of these perceptual alterations in people with schizophrenia. Progress towards this goal can be accelerated by the use of EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience), an interview-based tool to elicit, categorize, and quantify abnormal perceptual and other experiential phenomena...
January 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049620/how-do-people-experiencing-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-or-other-psychotic-disorders-use-the-internet-to-get-information-on-their-mental-health-literature-review-and-recommendations
#8
Murielle Villani, Viviane Kovess-Masfety
BACKGROUND: Studies show that the Internet has become an influential source of information for people experiencing serious psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders or other psychotic disorders, among which the rate of Internet users is growing, with rates ranging from 33.3% to 79.5% given the country. Between 20.5% and 56.4% of these Internet users seek mental health information. OBJECTIVE: Focusing on this population's Web searches about their mental health, this paper examines what type of content they look for and what could be the benefits and disadvantages of this navigation...
January 3, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#9
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993603/the-neural-diathesis-stress-model-of-schizophrenia-revisited-an-update-on-recent-findings-considering-illness-stage-and-neurobiological-and-methodological-complexities
#10
REVIEW
Marita Pruessner, Alexis E Cullen, Monica Aas, Elaine F Walker
Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974056/a-pilot-study-using-apps-as-a-novel-strategy-for-the-management-of-challenging-behaviors-seen-in-people-living-in-residential-care
#11
Samantha M Loi, Angela Mazur, David Huppert, Bernadette Hoy, Jodie Swan, Nicola T Lautenschlager
BACKGROUND: Many adults living in residential care will demonstrate challenging behaviors. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatment. Using applications (apps) is a novel approach to managing these behaviors, and has yet to be assessed in this group. This paper describes a pilot study to test apps as a novel non-pharmacological strategy to manage challenging behaviors in adults living in residential care. METHODS: A non-blinded, non-randomized crossover trial design was implemented which compared apps to a control situation and usual care to determine whether apps were able to decrease challenging behaviors...
December 15, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928859/mindfulness-interventions-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
J Aust, T Bradshaw
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e...
February 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888978/vulnerability-stress-and-support-in-the-disease-trajectory-from-prodrome-to-diagnosed-schizophrenia-diathesis-stress-support-model
#13
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Elaine Walsh, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. The goal of current research is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of prodrome, the initial period before the disease manifests as schizophrenia. Unfortunately, there is little information to comprehensively understand the indicators that later lead to schizophrenia. This has resulted in a lack of scientific knowledge to aid in early identification and intervention by psychiatric nurses or school nurses. Such information could inform nursing assessment and care plan development...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888974/early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-a-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. Recently, investigators have witnessed an upsurge in research on the potential benefits of early intervention during the prodromal stage: the sooner people start the treatment at their first psychotic episode, the better outcome on symptom relief and better functioning. This paper aims to critically review and synthesize empirical evidence published between 2005 and 2015 regarding the effectiveness of preemptive interventions on transition rate, symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and function level...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#15
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864083/robust-skull-stripping-using-multiple-mr-image-contrasts-insensitive-to-pathology
#16
Snehashis Roy, John A Butman, Dzung L Pham
Automatic skull-stripping or brain extraction of magnetic resonance (MR) images is often a fundamental step in many neuroimage processing pipelines. The accuracy of subsequent image processing relies on the accuracy of the skull-stripping. Although many automated stripping methods have been proposed in the past, it is still an active area of research particularly in the context of brain pathology. Most stripping methods are validated on T1-w MR images of normal brains, especially because high resolution T1-w sequences are widely acquired and ground truth manual brain mask segmentations are publicly available for normal brains...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860079/perceptions-of-schizophrenia-and-coping-styles-in-caregivers-comparison-between-india-and-switzerland
#17
S Rexhaj, A E Jose, P Golay, J Favrod
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Negative perceptions of illnesses can increase caregivers' use of ineffective coping strategies, which may increase their burdens and distress. Scientific and theoretical framework showed that culture and health organization system influence perception of illnesses and thus also has an impact on the coping strategies used. There is a lack of data on comparative perceptions of illnesses and coping styles between India and Switzerland and that is why this hypothesis needs to be confirmed...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805291/rethinking-the-use-of-neutral-faces-as-a-baseline-in-fmri-neuroimaging-studies-of-axis-i-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Megan M Filkowski, Brian W Haas
Major Axis-I disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia are associated with a host of aberrations in the way social stimuli are processed. Face perception tasks are often used in neuroimaging research of emotion processing in both healthy and patient populations, and to date, there exists a mounting body of evidence, both behavioral and within the brain, indicating that emotional faces compared to neutral faces are processed abnormally by those with Axis-I disorders relative to healthy control (HC) groups...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782767/consensus-paper-of-the-wfsbp-task-force-on-biological-markers-criteria-for-biomarkers-and-endophenotypes-of-schizophrenia-part-iii-molecular-mechanisms
#20
Andrea Schmitt, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Schahram Akbarian, Juliana S Cassoli, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Andre Fischer, Alfred Fonteh, Wagner F Gattaz, Michael Gawlik, Manfred Gerlach, Edna Grünblatt, Tobias Halene, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenij Hashimoto, Yong-Ku Kim, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Johannes Kornhuber, Theo F J Kraus, Berend Malchow, Juliana M Nascimento, Moritz Rossner, Markus Schwarz, Johann Steiner, Leda Talib, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in identifying molecular pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, valid biomarkers are lacking for both the disease and treatment response. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify molecular mechanisms on the level of protein and gene expression and epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA expression. Furthermore, it summarises recent findings of alterations in lipid mediators and highlights inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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