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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429899/neurotransmitter-systems-neuroanatomical-pathology-and-cell-death-in-schizophrenia-update-and-perspectives
#1
Hazael Avila-Rojas, Hugo Sandoval-Zamora, Iván Pérez-Neri
Schizophrenia is a thought disorder characterized by delusional thinking which may be accompanied by hallucinations involving any sensory modality. Schizophrenia may be associated with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Also, it may be induced by drugs. In spite of the similarity in psychoses symptomatology, it is unknown if it involves the same underlying neurobiologic mechanisms in those cases. Schizophrenic patients exhibit not only neuroanatomical alterations, but also, distortion of several neurotransmitter systems...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428048/multi-center-machine-learning-in-imaging-psychiatry-a-meta-model-approach
#2
Petr Dluhoš, Daniel Schwarz, Wiepke Cahn, Neeltje van Haren, René Kahn, Filip Španiel, Jiří Horáček, Tomáš Kašpárek, Hugo Schnack
One of the biggest problems in automated diagnosis of psychiatric disorders from medical images is the lack of sufficiently large samples for training. Sample size is especially important in the case of highly heterogeneous disorders such as schizophrenia, where machine learning models built on relatively low numbers of subjects may suffer from poor generalizability. Via multicenter studies and consortium initiatives researchers have tried to solve this problem by combining data sets from multiple sites. The necessary sharing of (raw) data is, however, often hindered by legal and ethical issues...
April 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419656/cannabis-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-unravelling-a-complex-interaction
#3
Ian Hamilton
The relationship between cannabis and psychosis and schizophrenia has tested the field of addiction for decades, and in some ways serves as measure of our ability to provide a credible contribution to public health. As cannabis is used widely, many people are interested in the risks the drug poses to mental health. This paper focuses upon a seminal study examining this, the trajectory of subsequent research findings and what this has meant for understanding and communicating risk factor information. These studies provided evidence of a dose-response relationship between cannabis and psychosis, and that for those individuals with schizophrenia cannabis exacerbated their symptoms...
April 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418288/immunopsychiatry-important-facts
#4
G M Khandaker, R Dantzer, P B Jones
Accumulating evidence indicate a role for the immune system particularly inflammation and autoimmunity in the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, we discuss some of the key advances in immunopsychiatry in order to highlight to psychiatrists and other health professionals how an increased understanding of this field might enhance our knowledge of illness mechanism and approaches to treatment. We present a brief overview of clinical research that link inflammation and autoimmunity with depression and psychosis, including potential role of inflammation in treatment response, current evidence for the effectiveness of immune-modulating treatment for depression and psychosis, and possible role of inflammation in common physical comorbidities for these disorders such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus...
April 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408348/design-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticulate-systems-of-olanzapine-for-acute-phase-schizophrenia-treatment-investigations-on-antipsychotic-potential-and-adverse-effects
#5
Emil Joseph, Satish Reddi, Vibhu Rinwa, Garima Balwani, Ranendra Saha
The present paper discusses the design, characterization and in vivo evaluation of glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles of Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug for acute schizophrenia treatment, during which hospitalization is mandatory and adverse effects are at its peak. The solid lipid nanoparticulate system was obtained by emulsification-ultra sonication technique wherein three factors such as solid lipid content, concentration of surfactant and drug: solid lipid ratio were selected at three different levels in order to study their influence on significant characteristic responses such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency and drug content...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396643/do-family-interventions-improve-outcomes-in-early-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Melanie Claxton, Juliana Onwumere, Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo
Family interventions for psychosis (FIp) are effective in reducing service user relapse and carer distress in people with schizophrenia-spectrum conditions. Several treatment and best practice guidelines recommend FIp for all people with schizophrenia. However, outcome findings in relation to early psychosis groups have been inconsistent. The current paper reports a systematic review and meta-analyses of articles that evaluated FIp in early psychosis with a clearly defined comparison group. A combination of electronic database searches (using PsychINFO, Medline, and CENTRAL), citation searches and hand searches of key journals and reviews was conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367128/the-role-of-norepinephrine-and-its-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir Maletic, Anna Eramo, Keva Gwin, Steve J Offord, Ruth A Duffy
Norepinephrine (NE) is recognized as having a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia, although its distinct actions via α-adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) are not well defined. We performed a systematic review examining the roles of NE and α-ARs in MDD and schizophrenia. PubMed and ProQuest database searches were performed to identify English language papers published between 2008 and 2015. In total, 2,427 publications (PubMed, n = 669; ProQuest, n = 1,758) were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341942/integrating-nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-into-ptsd-research
#8
Ulrike Schmidt, Eric Vermetten
Three and a half decades of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has produced substantial knowledge on the pathobiology of this frequent and debilitating disease. However, despite all research efforts, so far no drug that has specifically targeted PTSD core symptoms progressed to clinical use. Instead, although not overly efficient, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors continue to be considered the gold standard of PTSD pharmacotherapy. The psychotherapeutic treatment and symptom-oriented drug therapy options available for PTSD treatment today show some efficacy, although not in all PTSD patients, in particular not in a substantial percent of those suffering from the detrimental sequelae of repeated childhood trauma or in veterans with combat related PTSD...
March 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318837/innovations-in-first-episode-psychosis-interventions-the-case-for-a-raise-plus-approach
#9
Emily Kline, Matcheri Keshavan
Several papers in the current issue of Schizophrenia Research show evidence supporting interventions that are not yet grouped with standard care practices in FEP. Taken together, these studies make the case for a more inclusive approach for early psychosis care than what is embodied in RAISE. Although providing all interventions to all patients, however, will be impractical and expensive, a personalized approach to such interventions, whereby the appropriate interventions are implemented in a phase specific and individually tailored manner after a careful assessment of each person's core deficits within a coordinated specialty care model, is likely to improve lives and be cost-effective...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288547/neuropsychological-correlates-of-schizotypy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cross-sectional-studies
#10
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Antonio Preti
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive deficits can precede the onset of psychotic episodes and predict the onset of the illness in individuals with schizotypy traits. In some studies, high levels of schizotypy were associated with impairments in memory, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. This review provides a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive impairments related to schizoytpy. METHODS:  A systematic review of "schizotypy and neuropsychological measures" was conducted, and it retrieved 67 studies...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273660/other-persons-on-the-phenomenology-of-interpersonal-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-3
#11
Giovanni Stanghellini, Massimo Ballerini, Milena Mancini
In this paper, we discuss the philosophical and psychopathological background of Domain 3, Other persons, of the Examination of Anomalous World Experiences (EAWE). The EAWE interview aims to describe the manifold phenomena of the schizophrenic lifeworld in all of their concrete and distinctive features, thus complementing a more abstract, symptom-focused approach. Domain 3, Other persons, focuses specifically on subjectively experienced interpersonal disturbances that may be especially common in schizophrenia...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265714/a-short-history-of-the-5-ht2c-receptor-from-the-choroid-plexus-to-depression-obesity-and-addiction-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Jose M Palacios, Angel Pazos, Daniel Hoyer
This paper is a personal account on the discovery and characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor (first known as the 5-HT1C receptor) over 30 years ago and how it translated into a number of unsuspected features for a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a diversity of clinical applications. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the most intriguing members of the GPCR superfamily. Initially referred to as 5-HT1CR, the 5-HT2CR was discovered while studying the pharmacological features and the distribution of [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites, primarily in the brain using radioligand binding and slice autoradiography...
March 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237133/reward-processing-and-mood-related-symptoms-an-rdoc-and-translational-neuroscience-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Robin Nusslock, Lauren B Alloy
BACKGROUND: Two objectives of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative are to identify (a) mechanisms that are common to multiple psychiatric disorders, and (b) mechanisms that are unique to specific psychiatric symptoms, and that reflect markers of differential risk for these symptoms. With respect to these objectives, a brain-behavior dimension that has received considerable attention and that is directly relevant to the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC initiative involves reward processing...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231044/original-research-paper-switching-antipsychotics-results-of-16-month-non-interventional-prospective-observational-clinical-research-of-inpatients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Cvetka Bačar Bole, Mitja Pišlar, Metka Šen, Rok Tavčar, Aleš Mrhar
The study aims to identify prescribing and switching patterns of antipsychotics in clinical practice. A 16-month, prospective study was conducted at the Psychiatric Hospital Idrija, Slovenia. Inpatients (N = 311) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were observed. The causes for switching antipsychotics and switching strategies were analyzed. Analyzing a total of 3954 prescriptions, the collected data confirmed that treatment strategies in this psychiatric hospital are very complex. It was found that 37 percent of inpatients had at least one switch...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226318/existential-orientation-on-the-phenomenology-of-values-attitudes-and-worldviews-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-6
#15
Elizabeth Pienkos, Louis Sass
Since the appearance of schizophrenia as a distinct diagnosis, various researchers and clinicians, particularly those in the phenomenological and existential tradition, have noted the unique contribution of attitudinal and characterological factors to the illness. There has been a notable lack of attention paid to these features in most recent research on the disorder; still, understanding the values, attitudes, and worldviews - what might be termed the "existential orientation" - of persons with schizophrenia may be essential for comprehending the illness and developing effective approaches to treatment...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213300/experiences-of-stigma-and-discrimination-faced-by-family-caregivers-of-people-with-schizophrenia-in-india
#16
Mirja Koschorke, R Padmavati, Shuba Kumar, Alex Cohen, Helen A Weiss, Sudipto Chatterjee, Jesina Pereira, Smita Naik, Sujit John, Hamid Dabholkar, Madhumitha Balaji, Animish Chavan, Mathew Varghese, R Thara, Vikram Patel, Graham Thornicroft
Stigma associated with schizophrenia significantly affects family caregivers, yet few studies have examined the nature and determinants of family stigma and its relationship to their knowledge about the condition. This paper describes the experiences and determinants of stigma reported by the primary caregivers of people living with schizophrenia (PLS) in India. The study used mixed methods and was nested in a randomised controlled trial of community care for people with schizophrenia. Between November 2009 and October 2010, data on caregiver stigma and functional outcomes were collected from a sample of 282 PLS-caregiver dyads...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212174/categorizing-and-assessing-negative-symptoms
#17
Paola Bucci, Silvana Galderisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review on studies published in the last year relevant to the categorization and assessment of negative symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research supported the validity of the 'deficit/non-deficit schizophrenia' categorization. Few studies confirmed the validity of the category 'persistent negative symptoms', whereas no recent study explored the validity of the category 'predominant negative symptoms'. The two-factor structure of the negative dimension is supported by studies reporting different correlates for the two subdomains: diminished expression and avolition/apathy...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210217/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-a-quantitative-review-of-cognitive-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
Joshua E Mervis, Riley J Capizzi, Elias Boroda, Angus W MacDonald
Cognitive deficits are a core and disabling feature of psychotic disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Current treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia remain insufficient. Recent research suggests transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can potentiate cognitive improvements in healthy individuals and those with psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. However, this burgeoning literature has not been quantitatively evaluated. Through a literature search and quantitative review, we identified 194 papers on tDCS, psychosis, and cognition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196359/language-on-the-phenomenology-of-linguistic-experience-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-4
#19
Elizabeth Pienkos, Louis Sass
Anomalies of language use and comprehension are common in schizophrenia. However, they are typically studied only from a diagnostic or behavioral perspective and viewed simply as deficits or disruptions of normal functioning. Such approaches ignore what it is like to experience language, and thus are at risk of missing aspects of these linguistic anomalies that may be crucial for understanding them. The Examination of Anomalous World Experience (EAWE) provides one way to inquire into the experiential changes related to and underlying these disturbances...
2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127915/the-current-conceptualization-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#20
Stephen R Marder, Silvana Galderisi
Negative symptoms have long been conceptualized as a core aspect of schizophrenia. They play a key role in the functional outcome of the disorder, and their management represents a significant unmet need. Improvements in definition, characterization, assessment instruments and experimental models are needed in order to foster research aimed at developing effective interventions. A consensus has recently been reached on the following aspects: a) five constructs should be considered as negative symptoms, i.e...
February 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
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