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schizophrenia,research papers

Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Claudia Lange, Lorenz Deutschenbaur, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Marc Walter, Christian G Huber
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that exposure to social stress plays a crucial role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia; however, the reaction of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) to experimentally induced social stress is not yet fully understood. METHOD: Original research published between January 1993 and August 2015 was included in this systematic literature research. Social stress paradigms, reporting subjective responses to stress measures, plasma or saliva cortisol, or heart rate (HR) in patients with SSD were included...
October 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Simon Gilbody, Anne-Marie Bagnall, Lorna Duggan, Arja Tuunainen
BACKGROUND: Risperidone is one of a number of 'atypical antipsychotics' which are currently being marketed for the treatment of those with schizophrenia, largely on the basis of claims of improved tolerability and effectiveness compared to much cheaper conventional antipsychotics. The efficacy of risperidone has already been compared to conventional drugs, but it remains unclear how risperidone compares with other atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia...
September 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Margaret A Mariano, Kerri Tang, Matthew Kurtz, Wendy R Kates
AIM: Schizophrenia and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) share similar patterns of cognitive deficits. Up to 30% of those with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia during early adulthood. As cognitive decline has recently been found to predict onset of psychosis in adolescents with 22q11DS, early interventions such as cognitive remediation (CR) during adolescence are warranted. This paper investigates the durability of a remote, computerized, CR programme for youth with 22q11DS. Our aim was to determine if the positive effects of CR persisted 6 months beyond intervention completion...
September 15, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Gavin P Reynolds, Joanna C Neill
Here, Reynolds and Neill describe the studies that preceded and followed publication of this paper, which reported a deficit in parvalbumin (PV), a calcium-binding protein found in GABA interneurons known to be reduced in schizophrenia patients, in conjunction with a deficit in reversal learning in an animal model for schizophrenia. This publication resulted from common research interests: Reynolds in the neurotransmitter pathology of schizophrenia, and Neill in developing animal models for schizophrenia symptomatology...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
M C Angermeyer, G Schomerus
AIMS: Population surveys have become a frequently used method to explore stigma, help-seeking and illness beliefs related to mental illness. Methodological quality however differs greatly between studies, and our current knowledge seems heavily biased towards high-income countries. A critical appraisal of advances and shortcomings of psychiatric attitude research is missing. This review summarises and appraises the state of the art in population-based attitude research on mental health...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
John Cromby, Emma Chung, Dimitris Papadopoulos, Chris Talbot
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic research in mental health has grown exponentially during the last decade and holds what some claim are "revolutionary" potentials for the development of new interdisciplinary models of mental ill health. Schizophrenia is the most appropriate diagnosis against which to assess progress in this regard. METHOD: Papers on epigenetics and schizophrenia identified in a systematic literature search are subject to a conceptually-driven narrative review that assesses the relations between schizophrenia and epigenetics; considers some issues associated with empirical studies; and thereby identifies key assumptions guiding this research...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Ciara Close, Anne Kouvonen, Tania Bosqui, Kishan Patel, Dermot O'Reilly, Michael Donnelly
BACKGROUND: First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. METHODS: Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors...
2016: Globalization and Health
Angelica Attard, Michael Larkin
Art therapy enables individuals to use art to creatively express themselves and communicate differently with themselves, others, and their reality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for psychosis and schizophrenia suggest that arts therapies, which include art therapy, are considered to improve negative symptoms of psychosis. We examined the effectiveness of art therapy for people with psychosis and explored whether art therapy is a meaningful and acceptable intervention in this Review...
August 12, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Shuping Tan, Dengtang Liu
Accumulating data have shown that cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has moderate to strong effects on improving cognitive function in patients with psychosis, especially in schizophrenia. In recent years, a number of studies about CRT or computerized CRT (CCRT) have been published; unfortunately, since most of them are written in Chinese, they are not accessible to non-Chinese readers. This review aims to introduce and discuss the research and clinical practice of CRT and CCRT in China. The present review includes eight original papers, six published in Chinese journals and two in English journals...
August 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Mohamed Amine Sayadi, Ons Achour, Asma Ezzaher, Ilham Hellara, Asma Omezzine, Wahiba Douki, Ali Bousslama, Lotfi Gaha, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder with considerable mortality. Death from unnatural causes, largely suicidal or quasi-suicidal, has a particularly high risk for the functional disorders, especially depression and schizophrenia. One of the prospective risk factors for this disease is hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes for a 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase involved in folate metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Carianne M Hunt, Michael Spence, Anne McBride
BACKGROUND: On average, people with schizophrenia and psychosis die 13-30 years sooner than the general population (World Psychiatry 10 (1):52-77, 2011). Mental and physical health care is often provided by different organisations, different practitioners and in different settings which makes collaborative care difficult. Research is needed to understand and map the impact of new collaborative ways of working at the primary/secondary care interface (PloS One 7 (5); e36468). The evaluation presented in this paper was designed to explore the potential of a Community and Physical Health Co-ordinator role (CPHC) (CPHCs were previously Care Co-ordinators within the Community Mental Health Team, Community in the title CPHC refers to Community Mental Health) and Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) meetings across primary and community care, with the aim of improving collaboration of mental and physical health care for service users with Severe Mental Illness (SMI)...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Neil Thomas, Johanna C Badcock, Susan L Rossell
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are known to occur in mood disorders, but there has been scant research in the area. This paper aimed to explore the presence of hallucinations, and AVHs in particular, across affective disorders (with non-affective disorders serving as clinical reference groups). Specific attention was given to i) running commentary, ii) voices conversing, and iii) negative voices. A secondary aim was to examine patterns of associated delusional themes...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M Villani, V Kovess-Masféty
INTRODUCTION: The progressive shifts in the legal and social contexts, along with major changes in information seeking habits with the development of the Internet, have placed patients' information at the core of medical practice. This has to be applied to the psychiatric fields as well, and to questions about how schizophrenic patients are being told their diagnosis nowadays in France. METHODS: This paper is a national and international literature review about schizophrenia diagnosis disclosure practices, from 1972 to 2014, using French and English languages and various psychology and medical databases...
June 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
Judith Pratt, Neil Dawson, Brain J Morris, Tineke Grent-'t-Jong, Frederic Roux, Peter J Uhlhaas
The thalamus has recently received renewed interest in systems-neuroscience and schizophrenia (ScZ) research because of emerging evidence highlighting its important role in coordinating functional interactions in cortical-subcortical circuits. Moreover, higher cognitive functions, such as working memory and attention, have been related to thalamo-cortical interactions, providing a novel perspective for the understanding of the neural substrate of cognition. The current review will support this perspective by summarizing evidence on the crucial role of neural oscillations in facilitating thalamo-cortical (TC) interactions during normal brain functioning and their potential impairment in ScZ...
June 14, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Andrea Schmitt, Dan Rujescu, Micha Gawlik, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenji Hashimoto, Sylvain Iceta, Marek Jarema, Joseph Kambeitz, Siegfried Kasper, Daniel Keeser, Johannes Kornhuber, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Rupert Lanzenberger, Berend Malchow, Mohamed Saoud, Marie Spies, Gerald Stöber, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a group of severe psychiatric disorders with high heritability but only low odds ratios of risk genes. Despite progress in the identification of pathophysiological processes, valid biomarkers of the disease are still lacking. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify genetic underpinnings, clinical and cognitive endophenotypes and symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and presents findings from neuroimaging studies with structural, functional and spectroscopy magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography...
September 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Mitra Hakim Shooshtari, Seyyed Kazem Malakouti, Leili Panaghi, Shohreh Mohseni, Naghmeh Mansouri, Afarin Rahimi Movaghar
CONTEXT: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. STUDY SELECTION: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper...
March 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Jordi Fernández, Suzanne Bliss
How does schizophrenia affect a subject's sense of self? In this paper, we discuss the experience of alienation of mental states and actions that can take place in schizophrenia. We begin by highlighting this experience in delusions of thought insertion and delusions of made feelings, impulses and actions. Next, we offer a proposal about the nature of this experience by utilizing some of the current philosophical research on self-knowledge. The proposal is that the experience of thoughts, feelings, impulses and actions as not being one's own is the experience of regarding those states as not being responsive to reasons...
August 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Martin Jones, Mellissa Kruger, Sandra M Walsh
UNLABELLED: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a life expectancy 10-15 years less than the general population. In rural and remote Australia, there is a shortage of health care professionals to provide physical health care for people living with a serious mental illness (SMI). A large proportion of the care for people living with a SMI is provided by non-government organizations (NGOs), often employing workers without formal qualifications...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Ariel Cariaga-Martinez, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Raúl Alelú-Paz
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that lacks a unifying neuropathology. In the present paper, we will review the current understanding of molecular dysregulation in schizophrenia, including genetic and epigenetic studies. In relation to the latter, basic research suggests that normal cognition is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and its dysfunction occurs upon epigenetic misregulation, providing new insights into missing heritability of complex psychiatric diseases, referring to the discrepancy between epidemiological heritability and the proportion of phenotypic variation explained by DNA sequence difference...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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