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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928859/mindfulness-interventions-for-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
J Aust, T Bradshaw
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888978/vulnerability-stress-and-support-in-the-disease-trajectory-from-prodrome-to-diagnosed-schizophrenia-diathesis-stress-support-model
#2
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Elaine Walsh, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. The goal of current research is to provide a more comprehensive understanding of prodrome, the initial period before the disease manifests as schizophrenia. Unfortunately, there is little information to comprehensively understand the indicators that later lead to schizophrenia. This has resulted in a lack of scientific knowledge to aid in early identification and intervention by psychiatric nurses or school nurses. Such information could inform nursing assessment and care plan development...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888974/early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. Recently, investigators have witnessed an upsurge in research on the potential benefits of early intervention during the prodromal stage: the sooner people start the treatment at their first psychotic episode, the better outcome on symptom relief and better functioning. This paper aims to critically review and synthesize empirical evidence published between 2005 and 2015 regarding the effectiveness of preemptive interventions on transition rate, symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and function level...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#4
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864083/robust-skull-stripping-using-multiple-mr-image-contrasts-insensitive-to-pathology
#5
Snehashis Roy, John A Butman, Dzung L Pham
Automatic skull-stripping or brain extraction of magnetic resonance (MR) images is often a fundamental step in many neuroimage processing pipelines. The accuracy of subsequent image processing relies on the accuracy of the skull-stripping. Although many automated stripping methods have been proposed in the past, it is still an active area of research particularly in the context of brain pathology. Most stripping methods are validated on T1-w MR images of normal brains, especially because high resolution T1-w sequences are widely acquired and ground truth manual brain mask segmentations are publicly available for normal brains...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860079/perceptions-of-schizophrenia-and-coping-styles-in-caregivers-comparison-between-india-and-switzerland
#6
S Rexhaj, A E Jose, P Golay, J Favrod
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Negative perceptions of illnesses can increase caregivers' use of ineffective coping strategies, which may increase their burdens and distress. Scientific and theoretical framework showed that culture and health organization system influence perception of illnesses and thus also has an impact on the coping strategies used. There is a lack of data on comparative perceptions of illnesses and coping styles between India and Switzerland and that is why this hypothesis needs to be confirmed...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805291/rethinking-the-use-of-neutral-faces-as-a-baseline-in-fmri-neuroimaging-studies-of-axis-i-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Megan M Filkowski, Brian W Haas
Major Axis-I disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia are associated with a host of aberrations in the way social stimuli are processed. Face perception tasks are often used in neuroimaging research of emotion processing in both healthy and patient populations, and to date, there exists a mounting body of evidence, both behavioral and within the brain, indicating that emotional faces compared to neutral faces are processed abnormally by those with Axis-I disorders relative to healthy control (HC) groups...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782767/consensus-paper-of-the-wfsbp-task-force-on-biological-markers-criteria-for-biomarkers-and-endophenotypes-of-schizophrenia-part-iii-molecular-mechanisms
#9
Andrea Schmitt, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Schahram Akbarian, Juliana S Cassoli, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Andre Fischer, Alfred Fonteh, Wagner F Gattaz, Michael Gawlik, Manfred Gerlach, Edna Grünblatt, Tobias Halene, Alkomiet Hasan, Kenij Hashimoto, Yong-Ku Kim, Sophie-Kathrin Kirchner, Johannes Kornhuber, Theo F J Kraus, Berend Malchow, Juliana M Nascimento, Moritz Rossner, Markus Schwarz, Johann Steiner, Leda Talib, Florence Thibaut, Peter Riederer, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite progress in identifying molecular pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia, valid biomarkers are lacking for both the disease and treatment response. METHODS: This comprehensive review summarises recent efforts to identify molecular mechanisms on the level of protein and gene expression and epigenetics, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA expression. Furthermore, it summarises recent findings of alterations in lipid mediators and highlights inflammatory processes...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771201/validation-of-the-tablet-administered-brief-assessment-of-cognition-bac-app
#10
Alexandra S Atkins, Tina Tseng, Adam Vaughan, Elizabeth W Twamley, Philip Harvey, Thomas Patterson, Meera Narasimhan, Richard S E Keefe
Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures and standardized administration instructions. These methods can reduce the potential for rater error. However, especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores...
October 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761599/comorbidity-of-schizophrenia-and-infection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Philip Rising Nielsen, Thomas Munk Laursen, Esben Agerbo
PURPOSE: In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that there is an overlap between infection and schizophrenia. Infections have been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia, but the possible overlap between schizophrenia and infections remains unidentified so far. Here, we describe the use of the comorbidity index, a method for objectively integrating associations into a single measure estimating overlap. METHODS: Data were drawn from three population-based registers, the Civil Registration Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register...
December 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751941/sources-and-implications-of-whole-brain-fmri-signals-in-humans
#12
Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733301/experimentally-induced-psychosocial-stress-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-systematic-review
#13
Claudia Lange, Lorenz Deutschenbaur, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Marc Walter, Christian G Huber
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that exposure to social stress plays a crucial role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia; however, the reaction of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) to experimentally induced social stress is not yet fully understood. METHOD: Original research published between January 1993 and August 2015 was included in this systematic literature research. Social stress paradigms, reporting subjective responses to stress measures, plasma or saliva cortisol, or heart rate (HR) in patients with SSD were included...
October 9, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648956/withdrawn-risperidone-versus-other-atypical-antipsychotic-medication-for-schizophrenia
#14
Simon Gilbody, Anne-Marie Bagnall, Lorna Duggan, Arja Tuunainen
BACKGROUND: Risperidone is one of a number of 'atypical antipsychotics' which are currently being marketed for the treatment of those with schizophrenia, largely on the basis of claims of improved tolerability and effectiveness compared to much cheaper conventional antipsychotics. The efficacy of risperidone has already been compared to conventional drugs, but it remains unclear how risperidone compares with other atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of risperidone compared with other atypical antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia...
September 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629273/examining-the-durability-of-a-hybrid-remote-and-computer-based-cognitive-remediation-intervention-for-adolescents-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#15
Margaret A Mariano, Kerri Tang, Matthew Kurtz, Wendy R Kates
AIM: Schizophrenia and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) share similar patterns of cognitive deficits. Up to 30% of those with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia during early adulthood. As cognitive decline has recently been found to predict onset of psychosis in adolescents with 22q11DS, early interventions such as cognitive remediation (CR) during adolescence are warranted. This paper investigates the durability of a remote, computerized, CR programme for youth with 22q11DS. Our aim was to determine if the positive effects of CR persisted 6 months beyond intervention completion...
September 15, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624147/modelling-the-cognitive-and-neuropathological-features-of-schizophrenia-with-phencyclidine
#16
Gavin P Reynolds, Joanna C Neill
Here, Reynolds and Neill describe the studies that preceded and followed publication of this paper, which reported a deficit in parvalbumin (PV), a calcium-binding protein found in GABA interneurons known to be reduced in schizophrenia patients, in conjunction with a deficit in reversal learning in an animal model for schizophrenia. This publication resulted from common research interests: Reynolds in the neurotransmitter pathology of schizophrenia, and Neill in developing animal models for schizophrenia symptomatology...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573679/state-of-the-art-of-population-based-attitude-research-on-mental-health-a-systematic-review
#17
M C Angermeyer, G Schomerus
AIMS: Population surveys have become a frequently used method to explore stigma, help-seeking and illness beliefs related to mental illness. Methodological quality however differs greatly between studies, and our current knowledge seems heavily biased towards high-income countries. A critical appraisal of advances and shortcomings of psychiatric attitude research is missing. This review summarises and appraises the state of the art in population-based attitude research on mental health...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562238/reviewing-the-epigenetics-of-schizophrenia
#18
John Cromby, Emma Chung, Dimitris Papadopoulos, Chris Talbot
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic research in mental health has grown exponentially during the last decade and holds what some claim are "revolutionary" potentials for the development of new interdisciplinary models of mental ill health. Schizophrenia is the most appropriate diagnosis against which to assess progress in this regard. METHOD: Papers on epigenetics and schizophrenia identified in a systematic literature search are subject to a conceptually-driven narrative review that assesses the relations between schizophrenia and epigenetics; considers some issues associated with empirical studies; and thereby identifies key assumptions guiding this research...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558472/the-mental-health-and-wellbeing-of-first-generation-migrants-a-systematic-narrative-review-of-reviews
#19
REVIEW
Ciara Close, Anne Kouvonen, Tania Bosqui, Kishan Patel, Dermot O'Reilly, Michael Donnelly
BACKGROUND: First generation migrants are reportedly at higher risk of mental ill-health compared to the settled population. This paper systematically reviews and synthesizes all reviews on the mental health of first generation migrants in order to appraise the risk factors for, and explain differences in, the mental health of this population. METHODS: Scientific databases were searched for systematic reviews (inception-November 2015) which provided quantitative data on the mental ill-health of first generation migrants and associated risk factors...
2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528095/art-therapy-for-people-with-psychosis-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#20
Angelica Attard, Michael Larkin
Art therapy enables individuals to use art to creatively express themselves and communicate differently with themselves, others, and their reality. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for psychosis and schizophrenia suggest that arts therapies, which include art therapy, are considered to improve negative symptoms of psychosis. We examined the effectiveness of art therapy for people with psychosis and explored whether art therapy is a meaningful and acceptable intervention in this Review...
August 12, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
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