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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452365/indigenous-medicine-and-biomedical-health-care-in-fragile-settings-insights-from-burundi
#1
Jean-Benoît Falisse, Serena Masino, Raymond Ngenzebuhoro
This study contributes to the health policy debate on medical systems integration by describing and analysing the interactions between health-care users, indigenous healers, and the biomedical public health system, in the so far rarely documented case of post-conflict Burundi. We adopt a mixed-methods approach combining (1) data from an existing survey on access to health-care, with 6,690 individuals, and (2) original interviews and focus groups conducted in 2014 with 121 respondents, including indigenous healers, biomedical staff, and health-care users...
February 14, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451406/cancer-costs-and-outcomes-for-common-cancer-sites-in-the-finnish-population-between-2009-2014
#2
Paulus Torkki, Riikka-Leena Leskelä, Miika Linna, Suvi Mäklin, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Petri Bono, Vesa Kataja, Sakari Karjalainen
BACKGROUND: The cost of cancer and outcomes of cancer care have been discussed a lot since cancer represents 3-6% of total healthcare costs and cost estimations have indicated growing costs. There are studies considering the cost of all cancers, but studies focusing on the cost of disease and outcomes in most common cancer sites are limited. The objective of this study was to analyze the development of the costs and outcomes in Finland between 2009 and 2014 per cancer site. METHODS: The National cost, episode and outcomes data were obtained from the National register databases based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes...
February 16, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451034/cytochrome-p450-in-the-central-nervous-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Cynthia Navarro-Mabarak, Rafael Camacho-Carranza, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) constitute a family of enzymes that can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria or the cell surface of the cells. CYPs are characterized by carrying out the oxidation of organic compounds and they are mainly recognized as mediators of the biotransformation of xenobiotics to polar hydrophilic metabolites that can be eliminated from the organism. However, these enzymes play a key role in many other physiological processes, being involved in diverse indispensable metabolic pathways since they metabolize many endogenous substrates...
February 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450918/nanoalloy-materials-for-chemical-catalysis
#4
REVIEW
Hao Fang, Jinhu Yang, Ming Wen, Qingsheng Wu
Nanoalloys (NAs), which are distinctly different from bulk alloys or single metals, take on intrinsic features including tunable components and ratios, variable constructions, reconfigurable electronic structures, and optimizable performances, which endow NAs with fascinating prospects in the catalysis field. Here, the focus is on NA materials for chemical catalysis (except photocatalysis or electrocatalysis). In terms of composition, NA systems are divided into three groups, noble metal, base metal, and noble/base metal mixed NAs...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450221/drinking-game-participation-gender-performance-and-normalization-of-intoxication-among-nigerian-university-students
#5
Emeka Dumbili, Clare Williams
Background: Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Methods: Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450196/recruitment-and-lessons-learned-from-a-community-based-intervention-program-the-learning-families-project-in-hong-kong
#6
Joanna T W Chu, Alice Wan, Sunita M Stewart, Kwok Tung Ng, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia S Chan
Background: Recruitment is central to any research project, and recruitment itself should be well documented and researched. We describe our recruitment efforts for a community-based research project-entitled the Learning Families Project-conducted in Hong Kong. Methods: In collaboration with community stakeholders, residents from a public housing estate were recruited to participate in family programs aimed at enhancing family well-being. Various recruitment strategies were employed including the distribution of 19,200 leaflets, 688 posters, a banner, a kick-off ceremony, 10 promotion activities, 1,000 direct calls, word of mouth, 51 mobile counters, and 10 door-to-door visits...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449202/a-web-based-psychoeducational-intervention-for-adolescent-depression-design-and-development-of-moodhwb
#7
Rhys Bevan Jones, Anita Thapar, Frances Rice, Harriet Beeching, Rachel Cichosz, Becky Mars, Daniel J Smith, Sally Merry, Paul Stallard, Ian Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Sharon A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in adolescence and leads to distress and impairment in individuals, families and carers. Treatment and prevention guidelines highlight the key role of information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions not only for individuals but also for their families and carers. Engaging young people in prevention and early intervention programs is a challenge, and early treatment and prevention of adolescent depression is a major public health concern. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions to provide accurate information about health issues and to enhance and develop self-management skills...
February 15, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449119/violence-against-health-care-providers-a-mixed-methods-study-from-karachi-pakistan
#8
Lubna Ansari Baig, Shiraz Shaikh, Maciej Polkowski, Syeda Kausar Ali, Seemin Jamali, Lubna Mazharullah, Marium Soomro, Bhavita Kumari, Sobia Memon, Greesh Maheshwari, Saleema Arif
BACKGROUND: Violence against health care providers (HCPs) remains a significant public health problem in developing countries, affecting their performance and motivation. OBJECTIVES: To report the quantity and perceived causes of violence committed upon HCPs and identify strategies intended to prevent and de-escalate it. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods concurrent study design (QUAN-QUAL). A structured questionnaire was filled in on-site by trained data collectors for quantitative study...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447478/dendritic-platforms-for-biomimicry-and-biotechnological-applications
#9
Kalpana Nagpal, Anand Mohan, Sourav Thakur, Pradeep Kumar
Dendrimers, commonly referred to as polymeric trees, offer endless opportunities for biotechnological and biomedical applications. By controlling the type, length, and molecular weight of the core, branches and end groups, respectively, the chemical functionality and topology of dendrimeric archetypes can be customized which further can be applied to achieve required solubility, biodegradability, diagnosis and other applications. Given the physicochemical variability of the dendrimers and their hybrids, this review attempts to discuss a full spectrum of recent advances and strides made by these "perfectly designed structures"...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447397/barriers-and-facilitators-of-diabetes-services-in-nepal-a-qualitative-evaluation
#10
Nicole Ide, James P LoGerfo, Biraj Karmacharya
For the past three decades, the burden of diabetes in Nepal has been steadily increasing, with an estimated 3% annual increase since the year 2000. Although the burden is increasing, the methods of addressing the challenge have remained largely unchanged. This study sought to assess the current state of diabetes services provided by health facilities and to identify the major barriers that people with diabetes commonly face in Nepal. For this qualitative study, we selected five health facilities of varying levels and locations...
February 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447122/-18-f-fdg-production-procedures-as-a-source-of-eye-lens-exposure-to-radiation
#11
Małgorzata Wrzesień
Decreasing the individual dose limit of exposure to ionizing radiation to the eye lenses means verifying the need for routine monitoring of the eye lenses of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, including those employed in facilities producing radiopharmaceuticals based on short-lived isotopes. This work analyzes the exposure of the eye lenses of employees of centers that produce the isotopes for positron emission tomography, in particular fluorine-18. It takes into account the employment structure and work system of the discussed centers, including in terms of changing the dose limit of exposure to the eye lenses...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446534/habitat-maintenance-and-local-economic-ethics-in-rural-atlantic-canada
#12
Karen Foster
Inspired by Jane Jacobs's writing on "habitat maintenance," this paper seeks to identify the ethics that sometimes compel rural residents to act in ways that preserve their communities in the long run, despite short-term incentives to do otherwise. Data from focus groups in four rural Atlantic Canadian communities suggest shared ethics around entrepreneurship, market competition, buying local, and subsistence, some of which underlie the rural practices and perspectives that appear, to some outsiders, as irrational and "backwards...
February 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446236/help-me-if-you-can-psychological-distance-and-help-seeking-intentions-in-employee-supervisor-relations
#13
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Social support at work is considered useful in treating job-related stress, and supervisors' emotional support has been found to be the most effective source of support at work. But an understanding of what elements make employees use supervisors as a source of emotional support is lacking. The present qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 24 teachers and 12 principals and a focus group with 12 school counsellors. The findings pointed at 2 groups of determinants of subordinates' intentions of asking socioemotional help from supervisors...
February 15, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445842/-rare-diseases-in-dentistry-and-oral-medicine-report-on-the-2017-first-national-congress
#14
Marcel Hanisch, Susanne Jung, Johannes Kleinheinz
On November 25, the first national congress for rare diseases in dentistry and oral medicine under the auspices of ACHSE e. V. and Orphanet was held in Muenster. With speakers from the field of medicine, dentistry, politics, patient advocacy groups, self-help groups and persons concerned, a platform for exchange between physicians and patients on an equal footing was offered to the participants. At the end of each of the 12 lectures, more than 300 national and international guests discussed the various issues and perspectives related to the topic of rare diseases in dentistry and oral medicine...
February 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445635/implementing-health-impact-assessment-at-national-level-an-experience-in-iran
#15
Behzad Damari, Abbas Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Sahand Riazi-Isfahani
Background: According to the general health policies issued in 2014, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) or Health Annex should be implemented in Iran. The present study provided a model for executing HIA in the Iranian context as a developing country. Methods: This is a system design study with the qualitative approach. The data on the system components were gathered via reviews of the literature, in-depth interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) with experts...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444680/experiences-from-ten-years-of-incident-reporting-in-health-care-a-qualitative-study-among-department-managers-and-coordinators
#16
Siw Carlfjord, Annica Öhrn, Anna Gunnarsson
BACKGROUND: Incident reporting (IR) in health care has been advocated as a means to improve patient safety. The purpose of IR is to identify safety hazards and develop interventions to mitigate these hazards in order to reduce harm in health care. Using qualitative methods is a way to reveal how IR is used and perceived in health care practice. The aim of the present study was to explore the experiences of IR from two different perspectives, including heads of departments and IR coordinators, to better understand how they value the practice and their thoughts regarding future application...
February 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444650/designing-a-behavioral-intervention-using-the-com-b-model-and-the-theoretical-domains-framework-to-promote-gas-stove-use-in-rural-guatemala-a-formative-research-study
#17
Lisa M Thompson, Anaité Diaz-Artiga, John R Weinstein, Margaret A Handley
BACKGROUND: Three billion people use solid cooking fuels, and 4 million people die from household air pollution annually. Shifting households to clean fuels, like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may protect health only if stoves are consistently used. Few studies have used an implementation science framework to systematically assess "de-implementation" of traditional stoves, and none have done so with pregnant women who are more likely to adopt new behaviors. We evaluated an introduced LPG stove coupled with a phased behavioral intervention to encourage exclusive gas stove use among pregnant women in rural Guatemala...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444213/systematic-review-methodological-flaws-in-racial-ethnic-reporting-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#18
M R Craven, L Kia, L C O'Dwyer, E Stern, T H Taft, L Keefer
Health care disparities affecting the care of multiple disease groups are of growing concern internationally. Research guidelines, governmental institutions, and scientific journals have attempted to minimize disparities through policies regarding the collection and reporting of racial/ethnic data. One area where shortcomings remain is in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review, which adheres to the PRISMA statement, focuses on characterizing existing methodological weaknesses in research focusing on studies regarding the assessment, prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of GERD patients...
February 9, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443561/building-bridges-to-a-brighter-tomorrow-a-systematic-evidence-review-of-interventions-that-prepare-adolescents-for-adulthood
#19
Barri B Burrus, Kathleen Krieger, Regina Rutledge, Alexander Rabre, Sarah Axelson, Audra Miller, LeBretia White, Christine Jackson
BACKGROUND: Data suggest that adverse social determinants during adolescence can set in motion a lifetime of poor social and health outcomes. Vulnerable youths are at particularly high risk in this regard. OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the current evidence base for adolescent-focused interventions designed to influence adulthood preparation that could affect longer-term social determinants. SEARCH METHODS: Using a systematic review methodology, we conducted an initial assessment of intervention evaluations targeting 6 adulthood preparation subject (APS) areas to assess the quality and character of the evidence base...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443390/tolerance-limits-and-methodologies-for-imrt-measurement-based-verification-qa-recommendations-of-aapm-task-group-no-218
#20
Moyed Miften, Arthur Olch, Dimitris Mihailidis, Jean Moran, Todd Pawlicki, Andrea Molineu, Harold Li, Krishni Wijesooriya, Jie Shi, Ping Xia, Nikos Papanikolaou, Daniel A Low
PURPOSE: Patient-specific IMRT QA measurements are important components of processes designed to identify discrepancies between calculated and delivered radiation doses. Discrepancy tolerance limits are neither well defined nor consistently applied across centers. The AAPM TG-218 report provides a comprehensive review aimed at improving the understanding and consistency of these processes as well as recommendations for methodologies and tolerance limits in patient-specific IMRT QA. METHODS: The performance of the dose difference/distance-to-agreement (DTA) and γ dose distribution comparison metrics are investigated...
February 14, 2018: Medical Physics
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