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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235273/-current-status-and-challenging-of-direct-target-study-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-complex-system-based-on-solid-coupling-beads
#1
Ke-Wu Zeng, Peng-Fei Tu
Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is a complex system with multiple chemical compositions. The most significant character of TCM is that the chemical compositions interact with each other by multi-target synergism to treat diseases. Previous reports mainly focused on the investigation of single signaling pathway detection or the phenotypic analysis of proteomics difference; however, no studies have been conducted on the identification of direct targets of TCM. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze the molecular mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine from the target source, and it is difficult to explain its traditional efficacy scientifically, thus seriously affecting its clinical application and internationalization...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235172/scaling-up-child-development-centres-in-bangladesh
#2
N Z Khan, R Sultana, F Ahmed, A B Shilpi, N Sultana, G L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: Child Development Centres (CDCs) have been established within government medical college tertiary hospitals across Bangladesh. Services entail a parent-professional partnership in a child and family friendly environment with a focus on assessment, diagnosis, and management of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents 0-16 years of age. Services are provided by a multidisciplinary team of professionals (child health physician, child psychologist, and developmental therapist) who emphasize quality of services over the numbers of children seen...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233806/mobile-health-technology-mdiab-for-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Shruti Muralidharan, Viswanathan Mohan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Sidhant Jena, Nikhil Tandon, Steven Allender, Harish Ranjani
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need for novel methods to tackle the increasing incidence of diabetes. The ubiquity of mobile phone use and access to Internet makes mobile health (mHealth) technology a viable tool to prevent and manage diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to implement and evaluate the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of a reality television-based lifestyle intervention program...
December 12, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233165/the-global-fund-s-paradigm-of-oversight-monitoring-and-results-in-mozambique
#4
Ashley Warren, Roberto Cordon, Michaela Told, Don de Savigny, Ilona Kickbusch, Marcel Tanner
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund is one of the largest actors in global health. In 2015 the Global Fund was credited with disbursing close to 10 % of all development assistance for health. In 2011 it began a reform process in response to internal reviews following allegations of recipients' misuse of funds. Reforms have focused on grant application processes thus far while the core structures and paradigm have remained intact. We report results of discussions with key stakeholders on the Global Fund, its paradigm of oversight, monitoring, and results in Mozambique...
December 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233139/demand-related-factors-influencing-caregivers-awareness-of-malaria-tests-and-health-workers-testing-practices-in-makarfi-nigeria
#5
Olufemi Ajumobi, Kabir Sabitu, IkeOluwapo Ajayi, Patrick Nguku, Joy Ufere, Peter Wasswa, Chinwoke Isiguzo, Jennifer Anyanti, Jenny Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization's recommendation of malaria test-treat strategy, which is the treatment of parasitological confirmed malaria cases with anti-malarials, presumptive diagnosis of malaria remains fairly common in Nigeria. The reasons for this have not been established in Makarfi, Nigeria, despite the high burden of malaria in the area. A study was conducted among caregivers of febrile children less than 5 years presenting for treatment to understand their awareness of malaria diagnostic testing and being offered testing by clinicians, the determinants of these outcomes, and caregivers' perspectives of health workers' testing practices...
December 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233114/exploring-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-non-communicable-diseases-among-village-health-teams-in-eastern-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Temitope Tabitha Ojo, Nicola L Hawley, Mayur M Desai, Ann R Akiteng, David Guwatudde, Jeremy I Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Community health workers are essential personnel in resource-limited settings. In Uganda, they are organized into Village Health Teams (VHTs) and are focused on infectious diseases and maternal-child health; however, their skills could potentially be utilized in national efforts to reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We sought to assess the knowledge of, and attitudes toward NCDs and NCD care among VHTs in Uganda as a step toward identifying their potential role in community NCD prevention and management...
December 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232974/evaluation-influence-the-evaluation-event-and-capital-flow-in-international-development
#7
David A Bell
BACKGROUND: Assessing program effectiveness in human development is central to informing foreign aid policy-making and organizational learning. Foreign aid effectiveness discussions have increasingly given attention to the devaluing effects of aid flow volatility. This study reveals that the external evaluation event influences actor behavior, serving as a volatility-constraining tool. METHOD: A case study of a multidonor aid development mechanism served examining the influence of an evaluation event when considering anticipatory effects...
December 2017: Evaluation Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232936/food-in-security-in-rapidly-urbanising-low-income-contexts
#8
Cecilia Tacoli
Urbanisation in low and middle-income nations presents both opportunities and immense challenges. As urban centres grow rapidly, inadequate housing and the lack of basic infrastructure and services affect a large and growing proportion of their population. There is also a growing body of evidence on urban poverty and its links with environmental hazards. There is, however, limited knowledge of how these challenges affect the ways in which poor urban residents gain access to food and secure healthy and nutritious diets...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230909/histatins-wound-healing-and-cell-migration
#9
Pedro Torres, Martín Castro, Montserrat Reyes, Vicente A Torres
Wounds in the oral mucosa heal faster and more efficiently than those in the skin, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are not completely clear. In the last 10 years, a group of salivary peptides, the histatins, have gained attention on behalf of their ability to improve several phases of the wound healing process. In addition to their roles as antimicrobial agents and in enamel maintenance, histatins elicit other biological effects, namely by promoting the migration of different cell types contained in the oral mucosa and in non-oral tissues...
December 12, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230894/vouchers-for-primary-healthcare-services-in-an-ageing-world-the-perspectives-of-elderly-voucher-recipients-in-hong-kong
#10
Angel Hor-Yan Lai, Zoey Kuang, Carrie Ho-Kwan Yam, Shereen Ayub, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Considering the ageing population in economically advanced regions across the world, measures are necessary to enhance the health of the older population as well as contain public healthcare spending. Hong Kong implements the Elderly Health Care Voucher Scheme (EHCVS), providing older people aged 65 or above an annual subsidy of visiting private healthcare service providers for chronic disease prevention and management. The services also aim at reallocating demand from the public to private sector as well as improve quality of services...
December 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229568/trans-kingdom-rna-silencing-in-plant-fungal-pathogen-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Chenlei Hua, Jian-Hua Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Fungal pathogens represent a major group of plant invaders that are the causative agents of many notorious plant diseases. Large quantities of RNAs, especially small RNAs involved in gene silencing, have been found to transmit bidirectionally between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Although host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology has been developed and applied to protect crops from fungal infections, the mechanisms of RNA transmission, especially small RNAs regulating trans-kingdom RNA silencing in plant immunity, are largely unknown...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229044/the-commercialization-of-patient-related-decision-making-in-hospitals
#12
Karl-Heinz Wehkamp, Heinz Naegler
BACKGROUND: Hospitals must make a profit to ensure their continued existence. The observed rises in case numbers and case-mix indices lead us to suspect that the admission, treatment, and discharge of patients are now being influenced not just by purely medical factors, but also by economic considerations with a view toward making a profit-i.e., that decision-making has become partially commercialized. In this study, we investigated whether doctors and hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) share this perception of their professional environment...
November 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228794/learning-to-breathe-a-pilot-study-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-to-support-marginalized-youth
#13
Amy L Eva, Natalie M Thayer
Mindfulness-based curricular interventions can support adolescents who are at risk of school failure as they negotiate the transition from high school into young adulthood. Researchers hypothesized that a 6-week mindfulness-based intervention would lower participants' perceived stress while increasing their reported levels of self-esteem. Participants (N = 23) ranged in age from 17 to 20 years while the majority were male students of color. Pre- and postintervention survey mean responses revealed statistically significant differences on the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale and 3 items on the Perceived Stress Scale (with small to moderate effect sizes)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228173/group-a-streptococcal-m-like-proteins-from-pathogenesis-to-vaccine-potential
#14
Hannah Frost, Martina Sanderson-Smith, Mark Walker, Anne Botteaux, Pierre Smeesters
M and M-like surface proteins from Group A Streptococcus (GAS) act as virulence factors and have been used in multiple vaccine candidates. While the M protein has been extensively studied, the two genetically and functionally related M-like proteins, Mrp and Enn, although present in most streptococcal strains have been relatively less characterized. We compile the current state of knowledge for these two proteins, from discovery to recent studies on function and immunogenicity, using the M protein for comparison as a prototype of this family of proteins...
December 7, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227948/points-of-attention-in-designing-tools-for-regional-brownfield-prioritization
#15
Elsa Limasset, Lisa Pizzol, Corinne Merly, Annette M Gatchett, Cécile Le Guern, Stanislav Martinát, Petr Klusáček, Stephan Bartke
The regeneration of brownfields has been increasingly recognized as a key instrument in sustainable land management, since free developable land (or so called "greenfields") has become a scare and more expensive resource, especially in densely populated areas. However, the complexity of these sites requires considerable efforts to successfully complete their revitalization projects, thus requiring the development and application of appropriate tools to support decision makers in the selection of promising sites where efficiently allocate the limited financial resources...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227882/kalaban-young-drug-users-engagements-with-law-enforcement-in-the-philippines
#16
Gideon Lasco
BACKGROUND: A violent 'war on drugs' continues to be waged in the Philippines, even as the use of drugs - particular methamphetamine - continues to rise. Furnishing contextual background to the current situation, this paper explores how long-running law enforcement approaches in the Philippines might be viewed by those in their receiving end by presenting findings of an ethnography among marginalized young men. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among 20 young men throughout a 12-month period of participant-observation from December 2011 to September 2013...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227743/the-impact-of-latino-values-and-cultural-beliefs-on-brain-donation-results-of-a-pilot-study-to-develop-culturally-appropriate-materials-and-methods-to-increase-rates-of-brain-donation-in-this-under-studied-patient-group
#17
Ann Choryan Bilbrey, Marika B Humber, Edward D Plowey, Iliana Garcia, Lakshmi Chennapragada, Kanchi Desai, Allyson Rosen, Nusha Askari, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Increasing the number of Latino persons with dementia who consent to brain donation (BD) upon death is an important public health goal that has not yet been realized. This study identified the need for culturally sensitive materials to answer questions and support the decision-making process for the family. METHODS: Information about existing rates of BD was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Several methods of data collection (query NACC database, contacting Centers, focus groups, online survey, assessing current protocol and materials) were used to give the needed background to create culturally appropriate BD materials...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227573/post-gwas-in-psychiatric-genetics-a-developmental-perspective-on-the-other-next-steps
#18
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter B Barr, Seung Bin Cho, Megan E Cooke, Sally I-Chun Kuo, Tenesha J Lewis, Zoe Neale, Jessica E Salvatore, Jeanne Savage, Jinni Su
As psychiatric genetics enters an era where gene identification is finally yielding robust, replicable genetic associations and polygenic risk scores, it is important to consider next steps and delineate how that knowledge will be applied to ultimately ameliorate suffering associated with substance use and psychiatric disorders. Much of the post-GWAS discussion has focused on the potential of genetic information to elucidate the underlying biology and use this information for the development of more effective pharmaceutical treatments...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227390/preparing-clinical-nurses-for-nursing-research-evaluation-of-training-procedures-in-a-palliative-care-pilot-study
#19
Gail Elaine Pittroff, Verna L Hendricks-Ferguson
The importance of academic nurse researchers partnering with clinical nurses for clinical research has been well articulated. A 4-hour training program designed to equip staff nurses to become fully engaged researchers in a palliative care end of life communication-focused research study resulted in enriched human caring skills and professional growth. Results indicate that the training (didactic lecture, group reflection, role-playing) was adequate to prepare the nurses to deliver the study protocol. Relevance for primary investigators, nurses, clinical institutions, those interested in partnered research, and professional growth are discussed...
January 2018: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227132/mental-illness-in-bwindi-uganda-understanding-stakeholder-perceptions-of-benefits-and-barriers-to-developing-a-community-based-mental-health-programme
#20
Kristen L Sessions, Lydia Wheeler, Arya Shah, Deenah Farrell, Edwin Agaba, Yusufu Kuule, Stephen P Merry
BACKGROUND: Mental illness has been increasingly recognised as a source of morbidity in low- and middle-income countries and significant treatment gaps exist worldwide. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of task sharing through community-based treatment models for addressing international mental health issues. AIM: This paper aims to evaluate the perceptions of a wide range of mental health stakeholders in a Ugandan community regarding the benefits and barriers to developing a community-based mental health programme...
November 30, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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