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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736082/differential-proteome-expression-analysis-of-androgen-dependent-and-independent-pathways-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Seho Cha, Dong Hoon Shin, Jun Ryeong Seok, Jae Kyung Myung
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. It commonly develops in older males, but the number of younger men diagnosed with the disease has increased in recent years. Hormone therapies, such as chemical and surgical methods that inhibit androgen synthesis or androgen receptor (AR) activation, have been used for advanced disease. However, castration-resistant PC (CRPC), which exhibits androgen-independent mechanisms for activating AR, develops after a few years of such treatment and no therapy is available...
July 20, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711683/anti-obesogenic-effects-of-wy14643-ppar-alpha-agonist-hepatic-mitochondrial-enhancement-and-suppressed-lipogenic-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Flavia Maria Silva Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Aline Barcellos Barreto, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708429/effects-of-altered-photoperiod-on-circadian-clock-and-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#4
Xiaoxian Xie, Binggong Zhao, Liangfeng Huang, Qichen Shen, Lingyan Ma, Yangyang Chen, Tao Wu, Zhengwei Fu
Disruption of circadian clock timekeeping due to changes in the photoperiod enhances the risk of lipid metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome. However, the effects of altered photoperiods on the circadian clock and lipid metabolism are not well understood. To explore the effects of altered photoperiods, we developed a rat model where rats were exposed to either short-day or long-day conditions. Our findings demonstrated that altered photoperiods mediated circadian clocks by partly disrupting rhythmicity and shifting phase values of clock genes...
July 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705662/transcriptional-response-of-the-extremophile-red-alga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae-to-changes-in-co2-concentrations
#5
Nadine Rademacher, Thomas J Wrobel, Alessandro W Rossoni, Samantha Kurz, Andrea Bräutigam, Andreas P M Weber, Marion Eisenhut
Cyanidioschyzon merolae (C. merolae) is an acidophilic red alga growing in a naturally low carbon dioxide (CO2) environment. Although it uses a ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase with high affinity for CO2, the survival of C. merolae relies on functional photorespiratory metabolism. In this study, we quantified the transcriptomic response of C. merolae to changes in CO2 conditions. We found distinct changes upon shifts between CO2 conditions, such as a concerted up-regulation of photorespiratory genes and responses to carbon starvation...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699662/effects-of-calycosin-against-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#6
Xingping Duan, Qiang Meng, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Jinyong Peng, Kexin Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major health concern worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calycosin against high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed with HFD to induce NAFLD model and treated with or without calycosin for 12 weeks. The levels of ALT, AST, insulin and adiponectin were measured using biochemical methods. H&E staining and Oil Red O staining were used to determine the liver histopathology changes and measure the degree of lipid accumulation respectively...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684700/proteomics-analysis-reveals-an-important-role-for-the-ppar-signaling-pathway-in-dbdct-induced-hepatotoxicity-mechanisms
#7
Yunlan Li, Xinxin Liu, Lin Niu, Qingshan Li
A patented organotin di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin (DBDCT) with high a antitumor activity was designed, however, its antitumor and toxic mechanisms have not yet been clearly illustrated. Hepatic proteins of DBDCT-treated rats were identified and analyzed using LC-MS/MS with label-free quantitative technology. In total, 149 differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified. Five protein and mRNA expressions were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, including a scavenger receptor (CD36), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), enoyl-CoA hydratase (EHHADH), acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 (ACAA1), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in DBDCT-treated Rat Liver (BRL) cells...
July 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678435/molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-styrene-toxicity-in-blood-plasma-and-liver
#8
Kamal Niaz, Faheem Mabqool, Fazlullah Khan, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Maryam Baeeri, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Shokoufeh Hassani, Mahdi Gholami, Mohammad Abdollahi
Styrene is an aromatic colorless hydrocarbon available in liquid form and highly volatile. In its pure form, it gives a sweet smell. The primary source of exposure in the environment is from plastic materials, rubber industries, packaging materials, insulations, and fiber glass and carpet industry. Natural sources of styrene include: few metabolites in plants which are transferred through food chain. The current study was designed to evaluate styrene toxicity, including: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and protein carbonyl, oxidative stress, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ratio, and changes in gene expressions such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and glucokinase (GCK) in the rat liver tissue...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665324/diosmin-a-citrus-nutrient-activates-imidazoline-receptors-to-alleviate-blood-glucose-and-lipids-in-type-1-like-diabetic-rats
#9
Chia-Chen Hsu, Mang Hung Lin, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ming Chang Wu
Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion were unclear. Therefore, we focused on the secretion of opioids from isolated adrenal glands induced by diosmin. The changes in the released β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) were determined using ELISA. Diosmin increased the BER level in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium ions...
June 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659287/reduced-scd1-activity-alters-markers-of-fatty-acid-re-esterification-glyceroneogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-murine-white-adipose-tissue-and-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#10
Steven M Dragos, Karl F Bergeron, Frederik Desmarais, Katherine Suitor, David C Wright, Catherine Mounier, David M Mutch
White adipose tissue (WAT) has a critical role in lipid handling. Previous work demonstrated that SCD1 is an important regulator of WAT fatty acid (FA) composition; however, its influence on the various interconnected pathways influencing WAT lipid handling remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the role of SCD1 on WAT lipid handling using Scd1 knock-out (KO) mice and SCD1-inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring gene, protein, and metabolite markers related to FA re-esterification, glyceroneogenesis, and lipolysis...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638873/protective-effect-of-camel-milk-as-anti-diabetic-supplement-biochemical-molecular-and-immunohistochemical-study
#11
Ahmed A Mansour, Mohammed A Nassan, Osama M Saleh, Mohamed M Soliman
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627440/microrna-21-regulates-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-foxo1
#12
Ailing Luo, Haibo Yan, Jichao Liang, Chunyuan Du, Xuemei Zhao, Lijuan Sun, Yong Chen
Abnormal activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes; however, the potential role of microRNAs in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that hepatic expression levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) were decreased in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-21 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and inhibited glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620582/physicochemical-and-nutritional-requirements-for-axenic-replication-suggest-physiological-basis-for-coxiella-burnetii-niche-restriction
#13
Eduardo Vallejo Esquerra, Hong Yang, Savannah E Sanchez, Anders Omsland
Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611150/effects-of-stress-during-pregnancy-on-hepatic-glucogenic-capacity-in-rat-dams-and-their-fetuses
#14
Kathryn L Franko, Alison J Forhead, Abigail L Fowden
Stress during pregnancy is associated with metabolic dysfunction in the adult offspring in human and other animals. However, little is known about the metabolic effects of pregnancy stress on the mothers and fetuses during pregnancy itself. This study aimed to determine the consequences of the common experimental procedures of injection and single housing in pregnant rats on fetal and maternal hepatic glucogenic capacities. On day (D) 20 of pregnancy, feto-placental weights and the glycogen content and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) of fetal and maternal liver were measured in rats pair or single housed from D1 with or without saline injection from D15 to D19...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607575/spatholobus-suberectus-exhibits-antidiabetic-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-activation-of-akt-ampk-pathway
#15
Peijun Zhao, Md Badrul Alam, Seok-Hyun Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Seul Lee, Hongyan An, Hee-Jeong Choi, Hyeong-U Son, Chul-Hong Park, Hyo-Hyun Kim, Sang-Han Lee
Glucose deposition in peripheral tissue is an important parameter for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus (Ss) on glucose disposal in skeletal muscle cells and additionally explore its in vivo antidiabetic potential. Treatment of ethanolic extract of S. suberectus (EeSs) significantly enhanced the glucose uptake, mediated through the enhanced expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle via the stimulation of AKT and AMPK pathways in C2C12 cells...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589315/effect-of-blood-glucose-level-on-acute-stress-response-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#16
Danli Jiang, Yubo Wu, Di Huang, Xing Ren, Yan Wang
Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g(-1) body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level...
June 6, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586124/shp-deletion-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-when-combined-with-fxr-loss-protects-against-type-2-diabetes
#17
Oludemilade Akinrotimi, Ryan Riessen, Philip VanDuyne, Jung Eun Park, Yoon Kwang Lee, Lee-Jun Wong, Ann M Zavacki, Kristina Schoonjans, Sayeepriyadarshini Anakk
Nuclear receptors Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) are important regulators of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Here we show that global Fxr (-/-) Shp(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice are refractory to weight gain, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis when challenged with high-fat diet. DKO mice display an inherently increased capacity to burn fat and suppress de novo hepatic lipid synthesis. Moreover, DKO mice are also very active and that correlates well with the observed increase in Pepck expression, type IA fibers and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle...
June 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565878/ginsenoside-rb3-strengthens-the-hypoglycemic-effect-through-ampk-for-inhibition-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#18
Fanli Meng, Xiaotian Su, Wei Li, Yinan Zheng
Ginsenoside Rb3 is one of the major active components in protopanaxdiol type ginsenosides, and has demonstrated anti-diabetic activity. However, the mechanism of this action has yet to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb3 on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) gluconeogenesis pathway. The present study involved the use of HepG2 cells and western blot analysis to systematically evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on AMPK signaling proteins and key factors of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase, forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) and hepatic nuclear receptor 4α (HNF4α)]...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564652/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-improves-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-involving-down-regulation-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-in-obese-rats
#19
Song Mu, Jiayu Liu, Wei Guo, Shuping Zhang, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Zhihong Wang, Jun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was initiated to investigate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on hepatic glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in obese rats. METHODS: Body weight, glucose, intraperitoneal glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed pre- and postoperatively, and plasma lipid, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured. The mRNA levels of G6Pase, Pepck, Gsk-3β and Gys-2, and the expression levels of PTP1B mRNA, protein, and other components of the insulin signaling pathway were measured by using RT-PCR and western blotting...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555305/differential-regulation-of-glyceroneogenesis-by-glucocorticoids-in-epididymal-and-retroperitoneal-white-adipose-tissue-from-rats
#20
Graziella Nascimento Ferreira, Rafael Rossi-Valentim, Samyra Lopes Buzelle, Sílvia Paula-Gomes, Neusa Maria Zanon, Maria Antonieta Rissato Garófalo, Danúbia Frasson, Luiz Carlos Carvalho Navegantes, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
PURPOSE: Investigate the glycerol-3-phosphate generation pathways in epididymal (EPI) and retroperitoneal (RETRO) adipose tissues from dexamethasone-treated rats. METHODS: Rats were treated with dexamethasone for 7 days. Glycerol-3-phosphate generation pathways via glycolysis, glyceroneogenesis and direct phosphorylation of glycerol were evaluated, respectively, by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) activity and pyruvate incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG)-glycerol, and glycerokinase activity and glycerol incorporation into TAG-glycerol...
August 2017: Endocrine
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