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Tao Zheng, Xincai Hao, Qibin Wang, Li Chen, Si Jin, Fang Bian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
P G F Quaresma, L Weissmann, T M Zanotto, A C Santos, A H B de Matos, I C Furigo, F M Simabuco, J D Junior, J C Bittencourt, I Lopes-Cendes, P O Prada
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Cdc2-like Kinase 2 (CLK2) is expressed in hypothalamic neurons and if it is, whether the hypothalamic CLK2 has a role in the regulation of energy balance. SUBJECTS: Swiss mice on chow or high fat diet (HFD) and db/db mice on chow diet were used to address the role of CLK2 in the hypothalamus. RESULTS: Hypothalamic CLK2(Thr343) phosphorylation, which induces CLK2 activity, is regulated in vivo by refeeding, insulin and leptin, in a PI3K dependent manner...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Inês M Luís, Bruno M Alexandre, M Margarida Oliveira, Isabel A Abreu
Often plant tissues are recalcitrant and, due to that, methods relying on protein precipitation, such as TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, are usually the methods of choice for protein extraction in plant proteomic studies. However, the addition of precipitation steps to protein extraction methods may negatively impact protein recovery, due to problems associated with protein re-solubilization. Moreover, we show that when working with non-recalcitrant plant tissues, such as young maize leaves, protein extraction methods with precipitation steps compromise the maintenance of some labile post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphorylation...
2016: PloS One
Ryo Mitsugi, Tomoo Itoh, Ryoichi Fujiwara
Trovafloxacin develops severe hepatotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanism of the trovafloxacin-induced liver injury has not been cleared. It has been shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can be involved in the development of drug-induced liver injuries. We performed a miRNA microarray analysis to identify hepatic miRNAs that were induced or reduced by trovafloxacin in mice. It was demonstrated that miR-877-5p was the most increased miRNA in the mouse liver 24hours after the trovafloxacin administration. To investigate the role of miR-877-5p in the liver, we established miR-877-5p-overexpressed HepG2 cells...
October 3, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) has already been applied in practice for the treatment of different disorders and is available to access without the provision of a medical prescription. The present study aims at investigating the effect of bioactive compounds isolated from AP on the improvement of insulin resistance, figuring out the mechanism in insulin-responsive cell lines. Five compounds were isolated from AP using column chromatography, including agrimonolide (K1), desmethylagrimonolide (K2), tormentic acid (K3), ursolic acid (K4), and quercetin (K5)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
M Balakumar, L Raji, D Prabhu, C Sathishkumar, P Prabu, V Mohan, M Balasubramanyam
In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Kalathookunnel Antony Antu, Mariam Philip Riya, Anupama Nair, Arvind Mishra, Arvind K Srivastava, Kozhiparambil Gopalan Raghu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This plant has been utilized in Indian system of medicine for treatment of diabetes. This is clearly evident from the composition of Ayurvedic preparation for diabetes 'Nisakathakadi Kashayam' where this is one of the main ingredients of this preparation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aims in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin sensitizing effects of Symplocos cochinchinensis ethanol extract (SCE) using a high fructose and saturated fat (HFS) fed insulin resistant rat model...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Adchara Padermshoke, Takumi Ogawa, Kazuki Nishio, Masami Nakazawa, Masatoshi Nakamoto, Atsushi Okazawa, Shigehiko Kanaya, Masanori Arita, Daisaku Ohta
Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation...
2016: PloS One
Hiroshi Tsuneki, Kanta Kon, Hisakatsu Ito, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Satoyuki Takahara, Naoki Toyooka, Yoko Ishii, Masakiyo Sasahara, Tsutomu Wada, Masashi Yanagisawa, Takeshi Sakurai, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Sleep disturbances are associated with type 2 diabetes; therefore, the amelioration of sleep may improve metabolic disorders. To investigate this possibility, we herein examined the effects of suvorexant, an anti-insomnia drug targeting the orexin system, on sleep and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db mice had a longer wakefulness time during the resting period, as compared to non-diabetic db/m+ control mice. The single or 7-day administration of suvorexant at lights-on (i.e., the beginning of the resting phase) increased non-rapid eye movement sleep time during the resting phase and, as a consequence, reduced awake time...
September 15, 2016: Endocrinology
Jiao Li, Liwei Liu, Xu-Fang Liang, Xiaochen Yuan, Jie Li, Bin Li, Qingchao Wang, Jinguang Fang, Min Xue, Jia Wang
This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg(-1), named P1, P2 and P3, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Shengnan Wei, Ming Zhang, Yang Yu, Huan Xue, Xiaoxin Lan, Shuping Liu, Grant Hatch, Li Chen
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α) is a key nuclear receptor protein required for liver development. miR-122 is a predominant microRNA expressed in liver and is involved in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. HNF-4α is know to regulate expression of miR-122 in liver. We examined how HNF-4α regulated gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism through miR-122 in vivo and in vitro. Expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), sterol response elementary binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCα) were determined in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in insulin resistant palmitate-treated HepG2 cells...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Lykke Sylow, Jonathan Long, Isha A Lokurkar, Xing Zeng, Erik A Richter, Bruce M Spiegelman
Dasatinib (Sprycel) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study we identify dasatinib as a potent inducer of PGC-1α mRNA. Dasatinib increased PGC-1α mRNA expression up to 6-fold in 3T3-F442A adipocytes, primary adipocytes, and epididymal white adipose tissue from lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Importantly, gene expression translated into increased PGC-1α protein content analyzed in melanoma cells and isolated mitochondria from adipocytes...
September 2, 2016: Endocrinology
Fujie Yan, Guanhai Dai, Xiaodong Zheng
This study evaluated the capacity of mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) on insulin resistance amelioration in HepG2 cells induced by high glucose and palmitic acid and diabetes-related metabolic changes in type 2 diabetic mice. In vitro, MAE alleviated insulin resistance in HepG2 cells and increased glucose consumption, glucose uptake and glycogen content. Enzyme activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were decreased due to PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) inhibition...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Adrien Moya, Nathanaël Larochette, Joseph Paquet, Mickael Deschepper, Morad Bensidhoum, Valentina Izzo, Guido Kroemer, Hervé Petite, Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou
A major impediment to the development of therapies with mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSC) is the poor survival and engraftment of MSCs at the site of injury. We hypothesized that lowering the energetic demand of MSCs by driving them into a quiescent state would enhance their survival under ischemic conditions. Human MSCs were induced into quiescence by serum deprivation (SD) for 48h. Such preconditioned cells (SD-hMCs) exhibited reduced nucleotide and protein syntheses compared to unpreconditioned hMSCs...
August 31, 2016: Stem Cells
Sobia Manzoor, Umair Akhtar, Sidrah Naseem, Madiha Khalid, Misha Mazhar, Fahed Parvaiz, Saba Khaliq
Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane bound, ATP-gated ion channels that are expressed on wide range of cells and respond to varying ATP concentrations in extracellular environment. Upon activation they increase membrane permeability for Ca(2+) ions and trigger a cascade of signaling complexes. During the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, ATP is released from the infected hepatocyte, which binds with Purinergic receptors (P2X) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and initiate downstream signaling pathways by disturbing the ionic balance of the cell...
September 2016: Viral Immunology
Jiao Meng, Baiyun Wang, Dingyu Liu, Tao Chen, Zhiwen Wang, Xueming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Succinate has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy as one of the top 12 building block chemicals, which can be used as a specialty chemical in the agricultural, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Escherichia coli are now one of the most important succinate producing candidates. However, the stoichiometric maximum succinate yield under anaerobic conditions through the reductive branch of the TCA cycle is restricted by NADH supply in E. coli. RESULTS: In the present work, we report a rational approach to increase succinate yield by regulating NADH supply via pentose phosphate (PP) pathway and enhancing flux towards succinate...
2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Abdul Soofi, Katherine I Wolf, Egon J Ranghini, Mohammad A Amin, Gregory R Dressler
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic liver disease and is increasing with the rising rate of obesity in the developed world. Signaling pathways known to influence the rate of lipid deposition in liver, known as hepatic steatosis, include the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily, which function through the SMAD second messengers. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a large secreted protein that can enhance bone morphogenetic protein signaling while suppressing TGF-β signaling in cells and in genetically modified mice...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jia-Jia Song, Qian Wang, Min Du, Tian-Ge Li, Bin Chen, Xue-Ying Mao
SCOPE: Recently, casein glycomacropeptide (GMP)-derived peptide was found to possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, the improvement effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of GMP-derived peptide on hepatic insulin resistance were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The peptide IPPKKNQDKTE was identified from GMP papain hydrolysates by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Effects of IPPKKNQDKTE on glucose metabolism and expression levels of the hepatic insulin signaling proteins in high glucose-induced insulin-resistant HepG2 cells were evaluated...
August 9, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Robert P Walker, Andrea Paoletti, Richard C Leegood, Franco Famiani
This study determined whether phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) are phosphorylated in the flesh of a range of fruits. This was done by incubating fruit flesh with (32)P[P] (where (32)P[P] = (32)PO4(3-)), then PEPCK and PEPC were immunoprecipitated from extracts using specific antisera. The incorporation of (32)P[P] into these enzymes was then determined by autoradiography of SDS-PAGE gels. Both enzymes were subject to phosphorylation in vivo in the flesh of grape, tomato, cherry and plum...
July 21, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Shu Zhuo, Mengmei Yang, Yanan Zhao, Xiaofang Chen, Feifei Zhang, Na Li, Pengle Yao, Tengfei Zhu, Hong Mei, Shanshan Wang, Yu Li, Shiting Chen, Yingying Le
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of regulatory molecules implicated in type 2 diabetes which is characterized by insulin resistance and hepatic glucose overproduction. Here, we show that microRNA-451 (miR-451) is elevated in the liver tissues of dietary and genetic mouse models of diabetes. Through adenovirus mediated gain- and loss- of function study, we find that miR-451 negatively regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and blood glucose levels in normal mice, and identify glycerol kinase (Gyk) as a direct target of miR-51...
August 5, 2016: Diabetes
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