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Lianbin Xu, Xueyan Lin, Robin R White, Mark D Hanigan, Zhiyong Hu, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Background: Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. Objective: This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. Methods: At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Yanjie Zhang, Qiuyue Guan, Yin Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulong Chen, Jinglu Chen, Yulan Liu, Zhiguang Su
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain the blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Guang Ren, Agnes M Rimando, Suresh T Mathews
Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries and grapes, shows structural similarity to resveratrol, and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, and cholesterol lowering effects. Recent evidence indicates that pterostilbene is an agonist of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). Since PPAR-α agonists induce peroxisomal proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, we examined gene expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1)...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qian Zhang, Hongyue Yu, Xinhua Xiao, Ling Hu, Fengjiao Xin, Xiaobing Yu
Background & Aims: Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats...
2018: PeerJ
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Glen Katsnelson, George Bikopoulos, Ayesha Iqbal, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the molecular and metabolic responses of the liver to cold-induced thermogenesis. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4°C) for 7 days. Livers were then extracted and used for the determination of glucose and fatty acid oxidation, glycogen content, the expression and content of proteins involved in insulin signaling, as well as in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis. Despite being hyperphagic, cold-acclimated rats displayed normoglycemia with reduced insulinemia, which suggests improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Małgorzata Zakłos-Szyda, Nina Pawlik
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a chronic diet-related disease which due to many dangerous complications has become a prominent health problem of the world. The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro activity of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica L., family Rosaceae, JQ) fruit polyphenolic extract as modulator of carbohydrates metabolism. The research was designed to investigate the effect of JQ polyphenolic extract on glucose metabolism in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line cultured under normal non-metabolically changed and hyperglycemic conditions...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Sanu Shameer, Kambiz Baghalian, C Y Maurice Cheung, R George Ratcliffe, Lee J Sweetlove
There is considerable interest in transferring crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to C3 crops to improve their water-use efficiency. However, because the CAM biochemical cycle is energetically costly, it is unclear what impact this would have on yield. Using diel flux balance analysis of the CAM and C3 leaf metabolic networks, we show that energy consumption is three-fold higher in CAM at night. However, this additional cost of CAM can be entirely offset by the carbon-concentrating effect of malate decarboxylation behind closed stomata during the day...
February 26, 2018: Nature Plants
Gopi S Gadupudi, Benjamin A Elser, Fabian A Sandgruber, Xueshu Li, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Larry W Robertson
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB, elicits toxicity through a wide array of non-carcinogenic effects, including metabolic syndrome, wasting, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we reported decreases in the transcription of several enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, before the early onset of lipid accumulation. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of resultant decreases gluconeogenic enzymes on growth, weight and metabolism in the liver, upon extended exposure...
February 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Mingyao Liu, Hongwei Cao, Yuting Hou, Guopeng Sun, Deshan Li, Wenfei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The liver is a vital organ in vertebrates and has a wide range of functions, including glucose absorption, glycogen storage and glucose production. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a metabolic regulator that is primarily produced by the liver. In this paper, we studied the effect of FGF-21 on glucose metabolism in the liver. METHODS: The glucose uptake of cells was detected by 2-Deoxy-d-[3H] glucose; the synergy between insulin and FGF-21 was evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoyi Qi, Yanjing Guo, Yongfeng Song, Chunxiao Yu, Lifang Zhao, Li Fang, Dehuan Kong, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is correlated with fasting hyperglycaemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major cause of fasting hyperglycaemia the present study investigated whether FSH increases hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice. METHODS: Ovariectomised mice supplemented with oestradiol (E2) to maintain normal levels of serum E2 (OVX+E2 mice) were injected with low or high doses of FSH...
February 13, 2018: Diabetologia
Ri-Su Na, Cong Ma, Qiao-Rui Liu, Li-Ming Wu, Xu-Lei Zheng, Zhi-Wen Liu
The primarily metabolic abnormality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the defect in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Itraconazole (ITCZ) is a traditional azole drug with anti-fungal and anticancer properties. However, limited attention has been directed towards the contribution of ITCZ to hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake in T2DM. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of ITCZ on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake as well as the underlying mechanisms. No obvious change in cell viability was detected by MTT assay in HepG2 cells with ITCZ treatment at gradually increasing concentrations...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Amanda R Martins, Amanda R Crisma, Laureane N Masi, Catia L Amaral, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Lucas H M Bomfim, Bruno G Teodoro, André L Queiroz, Tamires D A Serdan, Rosangela P Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Alice C Rodrigues, Tatiana C Alba-Loureiro, Tania C Pithon-Curi, Renata Gorjao, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi, Philip Newsholme, Sandro M Hirabara
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in animal models of insulin resistance, but the involved mechanisms still remain unresolved. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 PUFAs, on obesity, insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57Bl/6 male mice, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups: control diet (C), high-fat diet (H), C+FO (CFO) and H+FO (HFO)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ambarish Nag, Peter C St John, Michael F Crowley, Yannick J Bomble
Succinate is a precursor of multiple commodity chemicals and bio-based succinate production is an active area of industrial bioengineering research. One of the most important microbial strains for bio-based production of succinate is the capnophilic gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus succinogenes, which naturally produces succinate by a mixed-acid fermentative pathway. To engineer A. succinogenes to improve succinate yields during mixed acid fermentation, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the metabolic flux distribution in A...
2018: PloS One
S Yadollah, N Kazemipour, S Bakhtiyari, S Nazifi
HYPOTHESIS: Palmitate causes insulin resistance (IR) in insulin target tissue. Pioglitazone (an anti-hyperglycemic agent) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, a dietary supplement) can be used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, their molecular effects on gluconeogenesis remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Hence, we aimed to investigate the simultaneous effect of these anti-hyperglycemic agents on gluconeogenesis through in vitro experiments. METHODS: HepG2 cells were treated with 0...
October 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
Hongmei Li, Sang Jun Han, Mihwa Kim, Ahyeon Cho, Yewoon Choi, Vivette Denise D'Agati, H Thomas Lee
We previously demonstrated that kidney peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) plays a critical role in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice by promoting renal tubular inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. Although the role of PAD4 in granulocytes including neutrophils is well known, we surprisingly observed profound renal proximal tubular PAD4 induction after renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular PAD4 rather than myeloid cell lineage PAD4 plays a critical role in exacerbating ischemic AKI by utilizing mice lacking PAD4 in renal proximal tubules (PAD4ff PEPCK Cre mice) or in granulocytes (PAD4ff LysM Cre mice)...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Mingchun Ren, Ahmed Mokrani, Hualiang Liang, Ke Ji, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Bo Liu
An 11-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of supplemented chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) on the growth, whole-body composition, and relative mRNA expression related to lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in juvenile blunt snout bream. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with graded Cr supplementation levels were fed to triplicate groups. The final weight (FW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and specific growth rate (SGR) were improved with increasing dietary Cr supplementation levels up to 0...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Meng-Xi Liu, Lei Jin, Si-Jia Sun, Peng Liu, Xu Feng, Zhou-Li Cheng, Wei-Ren Liu, Kun-Liang Guan, Ying-Hong Shi, Hai-Xin Yuan, Yue Xiong
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK or PCK) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis pathway to maintain blood glucose levels. Mammalian cells express two PCK genes, encoding for a cytoplasmic (PCPEK-C or PCK1) and a mitochondrial (PEPCK-M or PCK2) isoforms, respectively. Increased expressions of both PCK genes are found in cancer of several organs, including colon, lung, and skin, and linked to increased anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we report that the expressions of both PCK1 and PCK2 genes are downregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and low PCK expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC...
January 16, 2018: Oncogene
Lorna J Dallas, Andrew Turner, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Awadhesh N Jha
The mechanisms of sublethal toxicity of the antifouling biocide, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), have not been well-studied. This investigation demonstrates that 14-d sublethal exposure to ZnPT (0.2 or 2 μM, alongside inorganic Zn and sea water controls) is genotoxic to mussel haemocytes but suggests that this is not caused by oxidative DNA damage as no significant induction of oxidised purines was detected by Fpg-modified comet assay. More ecologically relevant endpoints, including decreased clearance rate (CR), cessation of attachment and decreased tolerance of stress on stress (SoS), also showed significant response to ZnPT exposure...
December 27, 2017: Chemosphere
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
J J Zhang, Q Liu, L Qiao
Objective: To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and its domains I, II, and III in regulating gluconeogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanism. Methods: A total of 60 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups. Recombinant lentiviral particles with specific expression of full-length NS5A, NS5A domain I, NS5A domain II, or NS5A domain III were injected via the caudal vein to establish a mouse model, and the group without injection and the group with the injection of the lentiviral particles containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were established as negative control...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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