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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#1
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056994/hexokinase-2-drives-glycogen-accumulation-in-equine-endometrium-at-day-12-of-diestrus-and-pregnancy
#2
Sarah A Bramer, Alysson Macedo, Claudia Klein
BACKGROUND: Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054445/anti-diabetic-activities-of-cis-and-trans-2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-polygonum-multiflorum
#3
Wenping Tang, Shiming Li, Yue Liu, Jia-Ching Wu, Min-Hsiung Pan, Mou-Tuan Huang, Chi-Tang Ho
SCOPE: Functional foods can be used alone or in combination with existing therapies in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). Trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-glucopyranoside (trans-THSG), a dominant bioactive compound from Polygonum multiflorum (PM) - a popular medicinal food in Asia, has attracted increasing research interests due to its strong antioxidant activity. The content of naturally occurring cis-THSG (cis-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-glucopyranoside) was very low in PM root, but was prepared in this research by mimicking the traditional process of PM...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012622/variable-liver-fat-concentration-as-a-proxy-for-body-fat-mobilization-postpartum-has-minor-effects-on-insulin-induced-changes-in-hepatic-gene-expression-related-to-energy-metabolism-in-dairy-cows
#4
C Weber, C T Schäff, U Kautzsch, S Börner, S Erdmann, R M Bruckmaier, M Röntgen, B Kuhla, H M Hammon
The liver plays a central role in adaptation for energy requirements around calving, and changes in the effects of insulin on hepatic energy metabolism contribute to metabolic adaptation in dairy cows. Hepatic insulin effects may depend on body fat mobilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on the hepatic gene expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism and factors related to nutrition partitioning in cows with high and low total liver fat concentration (LFC) after calving...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988613/early-diverging-bumblebees-from-across-the-roof-of-the-world-the-high-mountain-subgenus-i-mendacibombus-i-revised-from-species-gene-coalescents-and-morphology-hymenoptera-apidae
#5
Paul H Williams, Jiaxing Huang, Pierre Rasmont, Jiandong An
The bumblebees of the subgenus Mendacibombus of the genus Bombus are the sister group to all other extant bumblebees and are unusual among bees for specialising in some of the highest elevation habitats with entomophilous plants on Earth. Most named taxa in this group (24 available names, from a total of 49 published names) were described originally from small differences in the colour pattern of the hair, many as parts (e.g. subspecies) of just one species. Subsequent taxonomic treatments recognised multiple species, but have described very few morphological characters, most of which are in the male genitalia...
December 1, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941939/testosterone-supplementation-improves-glucose-homeostasis-despite-increasing-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-male-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
M Pal, S Gupta
Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output...
December 12, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#7
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
November 30, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914869/glycolysis-without-pyruvate-kinase-in-clostridium-thermocellum
#8
Daniel G Olson, Manuel Hörl, Tobias Fuhrer, Jingxuan Cui, Jilai Zhou, Marybeth I Maloney, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Liang Tian, Uwe Sauer, Lee R Lynd
The metabolism of Clostridium thermocellum is notable in that it assimilates sugar via the EMP pathway but does not possess a pyruvate kinase enzyme. In the wild type organism, there are three proposed pathways for conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, which differ in their cofactor usage. One path uses pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), another pathway uses the combined activities of PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODC). Yet another pathway, the malate shunt, uses the combined activities of PEPCK, malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme...
January 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908418/lead-pb-exposure-promotes-diabetes-in-obese-rodents
#9
Jannifer B Tyrrell, Samar Hafida, Paul Stemmer, Angie Adhami, Todd Leff
BACKGROUND: Pb (lead) exposure occurs at elevated frequency in urban inner city populations that also have high rates of obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Pb can promote the development of diabetes in a setting of obesity, we examined the effect of Pb exposure on glucose metabolism in a rodent model of obesity. METHODS: Adult female ZDF rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water for 24 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glucose tolerance were measured at regular intervals...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893760/leaf-extract-from-lithocarpus-polystachyus-rehd-promote-glycogen-synthesis-in-t2dm-mice
#10
Jinfei Wang, Yumin Huang, Kaixiang Li, Yingying Chen, Diana Vanegas, Eric Scott McLamore, Yingbai Shen
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of leaf extract from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. on type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the active ingredients of this effect. In addition, this study determined, for the first time, the underlying molecular and pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on hyperglycemia using long-term double high diet-fed and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type II diabetic mice. In the present study, leaf extract, phloridzin and trilobatin were assessed in vivo (gavage) and in vitro (non-invasive micro-test technique, NMT) in experimental T2DM mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836638/maternal-bisphenol-a-exposure-alters-rat-offspring-hepatic-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-signaling-protein-abundance
#11
Kristina D Galyon, Farnoosh Farshidi, Guang Han, Michael G Ross, Mina Desai, Juanita K Jellyman
BACKGROUND: The obesogenic and diabetogenic effects of the environmental toxin bisphenol A during critical windows of development are well recognized. Liver and skeletal muscle play a central role in the control of glucose production, utilization, and storage. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that maternal bisphenol A exposure disrupts insulin signaling in rat offspring liver and skeletal muscle. We determined the protein expression of hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor beta, its downstream target insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporters (glucose transporter 2, glucose transporter 4), and hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucokinase...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835792/intermittent-fasting-reduces-body-fat-but-exacerbates-hepatic-insulin-resistance-in-young-rats-regardless-of-high-protein-and-fat-diets
#12
Sunmin Park, Kyung Min Yoo, Joo Suk Hyun, Suna Kang
Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834209/metabolite-pools-and-carbon-flow-during-c4-photosynthesis-in-maize-13co2-labeling-kinetics-and-cell-type-fractionation
#13
Stéphanie Arrivault, Toshihiro Obata, Marek Szecówka, Virginie Mengin, Manuela Guenther, Melanie Hoehne, Alisdair R Fernie, Mark Stitt
Worldwide efforts to engineer C4 photosynthesis into C3 crops require a deep understanding of how this complex pathway operates. CO2 is incorporated into four-carbon metabolites in the mesophyll, which move to the bundle sheath where they are decarboxylated to concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO. We performed dynamic (13)CO2 labeling in maize to analyze C flow in C4 photosynthesis. The overall labeling kinetics reflected the topology of C4 photosynthesis. Analyses of cell-specific labeling patterns after fractionation to enrich bundle sheath and mesophyll cells revealed concentration gradients to drive intercellular diffusion of malate, but not pyruvate, in the major CO2-concentrating shuttle...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824128/deletion-of-lkb1-in-adult-mice-results-in-body-weight-reduction-and-lethality
#14
Tizhong Shan, Yan Xiong, Shihuan Kuang
Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) plays crucial roles in development, metabolism and survival. As constitutive knockout of Lkb1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, whether Lkb1 is required for the growth and survival of adult mice is unclear. Here we address this question using a tamoxifen-inducible Lkb1 knockout (KO) mouse model: Rosa26-Cre(ER): Lkb1(flox/flox) (abbreviated as Rosa-Lkb1). The Rosa-Lkb1 mice exhibited body weight reduction and died within 6 weeks after tamoxifen induction. The body weight reduction was due to reduced weight of various tissues but the brown and white adipose tissues underwent much more pronounced weight reduction relative to the overall body weight reduction...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803313/optimizing-human-hepatocyte-models-for-metabolic-phenotype-and-function-effects-of-treatment-with-dimethyl-sulfoxide-dmso
#15
Nikolaos Nikolaou, Charlotte J Green, Pippa J Gunn, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798359/transcriptional-coactivator-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-promotes-gluconeogenic-gene-expression-and-enhances-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#16
Ji Suk Chang, Hee-Jin Jun, Minsung Park
The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796348/metabolomics-reveals-the-protective-of-dihydromyricetin-on-glucose-homeostasis-by-enhancing-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Liang Le, Baoping Jiang, Wenting Wan, Wei Zhai, Lijia Xu, Keping Hu, Peigen Xiao
Dihydromyricetin (DMY), an important flavanone found in Ampelopsis grossedentata, possesses antioxidative properties that ameliorate skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and exert a hepatoprotective effect. However, little is known about the effects of DMY in the context of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were fed a HFD(60% fat) supplemented with DMY for 8 weeks. The administration of DMY to the rats with HFD-induced insulin resistance reduces hyperglycemia, plasma levels of insulin, and steatosis in the liver...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785616/pepck-c-reexpression-in-the-liver-counters-neonatal-hypoglycemia-in-pck1-del-del-mice-unmasking-role-in-non-gluconeogenic-tissues
#18
Jana Semakova, Petra Hyroššová, Andrés Méndez-Lucas, Ernest Cutz, Jordi Bermudez, Shawn Burgess, Soledad Alcántara, José C Perales
Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed. To investigate whether PEPCK-C deletion in the liver was critically responsible for the hypoglycemic phenotype, we reexpress this enzyme in the liver of PEPCK-C KO pups by early postnatal administration of PEPCK-C-expressing adenovirus. This maneuver was sufficient to partially rescue hypoglycemia and allow the pups to survive and identifies the liver as a critical organ, and hypoglycemia as the critical pathomechanism, leading to early postnatal death in the whole-body PEPCK-C knockout mice...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771460/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-fasciola-gigantica-from-nigeria
#19
Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Minami Tokashiki, Maxwell Nwachukwu Opara, Gabriel Iroh, Kei Hayashi, Uday Mohanta Kumar, Tadashi Itagaki
Fasciola gigantica is considered the major pathogen causing fasciolosis in Africa; however, molecular characterization of this fluke has not been adequately elucidated. It is important to scientifically elucidate the dispersal history of F. gigantica by analyzing its genetic diversity. Fasciola flukes from Nigeria were analyzed using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. A total of 172 Fasciola flukes collected from cattle were identified as F. gigantica because they displayed the F. gigantica fragment pattern in multiplex PCR for the nuclear marker, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck)...
February 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742409/entada-phaseoloides-extract-suppresses-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-via-activation-of-the-ampk-signaling-pathway
#20
Tao Zheng, Xincai Hao, Qibin Wang, Li Chen, Si Jin, Fang Bian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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