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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912546/phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-maintains-glycolysis-driven-growth-in-drosophila-tumors
#1
Rashid Hussain, Zeeshan Shaukat, Mahwish Khan, Robert Saint, Stephen L Gregory
Tumors frequently fail to pass on all their chromosomes correctly during cell division, and this chromosomal instability (CIN) causes irregular aneuploidy and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Our objective was to test knockdowns of metabolic enzymes in Drosophila to find interventions that could exploit the differences between normal and CIN cells to block CIN tumor growth without harming the host animal. We found that depleting by RNAi or feeding the host inhibitors against phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was able to block the growth of CIN tissue in a brat tumor explant model...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911865/3-2-amino-ethyl-5-3-4-butoxyl-phenyl-propylidene-thiazolidine-2-4-dione-k145-ameliorated-dexamethasone-induced-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-activation-of-akt-foxo1-pathway
#2
Yanan Shi, Jiayun Qiao, Biao Mu, Bingfeng Zuo, Jihong Yuan
3-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-[3-(4-butoxyl-phenyl)-propylidene]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (K145) is identified as a selective SphK2 inhibitor. It was previously reported as an anti-tumor agent, in this study we demonstrated that K145 was able to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and improve glucose intolerance in mice. C57BL/6 mice treated with dexamethasone injection were used as experimental animals, which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and increased gluconeogenetic enzymes. After K145 treatment, we found that the impairment of glucose tolerance and gluconeogenetic genes mRNA expression were improved...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900798/phenotypic-plasticity-in-gene-expression-and-physiological-response-in-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus-exposed-to-a-long-term-freshwater-environment
#3
Mariel Gullian Klanian, Omar Zapata Pérez, Miguel Angel Vela-Magaña
Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is a euryhaline fish commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic coast of North America. Because of high commercial demand and its euryhaline characteristics, aquaculture of this species has diversified from marine to low-salinity aquaculture systems. In recent years, interest in the feasibility of producing red drum in inland freshwater systems has grown and this prompted us to investigate its osmoregulatory capacity after rearing for 8 months in a freshwater aquaculture system...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900165/gcn5l1-modulates-cross-talk-between-mitochondria-and-cell-signaling-to-regulate-foxo1-stability-and-gluconeogenesis
#4
Lingdi Wang, Iain Scott, Lu Zhu, Kaiyuan Wu, Kim Han, Yong Chen, Marjan Gucek, Michael N Sack
The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893177/integrated-application-of-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-provides-insights-into-glycogen-content-regulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#5
Busu Li, Kai Song, Jie Meng, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important marine fishery resource, which contains high levels of glycogen that contributes to the flavor and the quality of the oyster. However, little is known about the molecular and chemical mechanisms underlying glycogen content differences in Pacific oysters. Using a homogeneous cultured Pacific oyster family, we explored these regulatory networks at the level of the metabolome and the transcriptome. RESULTS: Oysters with the highest and lowest natural glycogen content were selected for differential transcriptome and metabolome analysis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888537/a-gtp-dependent-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-from-crassostrea-gigas-involved-in-immune-recognition
#6
Zhao Lv, Limei Qiu, Weilin Wang, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhuang Xue, Zichao Yu, Xiaorui Song, Hao Chen, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is well known as a key enzyme involved in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis in organisms, but the information about its involvement in immune response is still very limited. In the present study, a novel PEPCK homolog named CgPEPCK was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas. The deduced amino acid sequence of CgPEPCK shared 52%-74% similarities with those from other known PEPCKs. There were one conserved guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding site, one substrate binding site, one metal binding site and one active site in CgPEPCK...
September 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871187/prolonged-fasting-elicits-increased-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-rats-born-to-dexamethasone-treated-mothers
#7
Lucas Carminatti Pantaleão, Gilson Murata, Caio Jordão Teixeira, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Daniella Esteves Duque-Guimaraes, Frhancielly S Sodré, Camilo Lellis-Santos, Juliana Camargo Vieira, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Patrícia Rodrigues Gomes, Sandra Campos Rodrigues, Gabriel Forato Anhe, Silvana Bordin
We investigated the effect of dexamethasone during the last week of pregnancy on glucose and lipid metabolism in male offspring. Twelve-week old offspring were evaluated after fasting for 12-hours (physiological) and 60-hours (prolonged). Physiological fasting resulted in glucose intolerance, decreased glucose clearance after pyruvate load and increased PEPCK expression in rats born to dexamethasone-treated mothers (DEX). Prolonged fasting resulted in increased glucose tolerance and increased glucose clearance after pyruvate load in DEX...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870477/a-low-protein-high-carbohydrate-diet-increases-browning-in-perirenal-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#8
Mayara P Pereira, Laís A A Ferreira, Flávia H S da Silva, Marcelo A Christoffolete, George S Metsios, Valéria E Chaves, Suélem A de França, Amílcar S Damazo, Andreas D Flouris, Nair H Kawashita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet. METHODS: LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis...
October 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861731/adaptation-of-intestinal-and-bile-acid-physiology-accompany-the-metabolic-benefits-following-ileal-interposition-in-the-rat
#9
Ping Zhao, Donna Wendt, Sean Z Goodin, Shwetha Ravichandran, Tara E Chouinard, April D Strader
PURPOSE: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries...
August 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861402/ixodes-scapularis-tick-cells-control-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection-by-increasing-the-synthesis-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-from-tyrosine
#10
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pedro J Espinosa, Dasiel A Obregón, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. A. phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing numbers of infected people and animals every year. It is increasingly recognized that intracellular pathogens modify host cell metabolic pathways to increase infection and transmission in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Recent reports have shown that amino acids are central to the host-pathogen metabolic interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816409/genistein-represses-pepck-c-expression-in-an-insulin-independent-manner-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#11
Barilin Dkhar, Kitboklang Khongsti, Daiahun Thabah, Donkupar Syiem, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Bidyadhar Das
Genistein has been reported to exert beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved therein have not been clearly elucidated. To address this question, the effect of the genistein on the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose production in HepG2 cells and in alloxan-induced diabetic mice was investigated. HepG2 cells were exposed to diferrent concentration of genistein in presence or absence of modulators, and the expression of cytosolic PEPCK (PEPCK-C) and the signalling pathways was studied...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802581/pkm2-aggravates-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepg2-cells-via-stat3-pathway
#12
Ling Chen, Zhuqi Tang, Xiaohua Wang, Hong Ma, Dandan Shan, Shiwei Cui
Studies have identified that PKM2 is related to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that PKM2 expression was significantly elevated in insulin-resistant hepatic tissues and hepatocytes, implicating an association between PKM2 expression and hepatic insulin resistance (IR). In vitro study revealed that overexpression of PKM2 impaired the insulin signaling pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801592/dietary-arginine-affects-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#13
Hualiang Liang, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Jun Xie, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin, Wenjing Pan
This study evaluated the mechanisms governing insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in juvenile fish fed with graded levels of dietary arginine. The results showed that, compared with the control group (0.87%), 2.31% dietary arginine level resulted in the upregulation of the relative gene expression of IRS-1, PI3K and Akt in the insulin signaling pathway, while 2.70% dietary arginine level led to inhibition of these genes. 1.62% dietary arginine level upregulated glycolysis by increasing GK mRNA level; 2...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797792/specific-status-of-echinococcus-canadensis-cestoda-taeniidae-inferred-from-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-gene-sequences
#14
Tetsuya Yanagida, Antti Lavikainen, Eric P Hoberg, Sergey Konyaev, Akira Ito, Marcello Otake Sato, Vladimir A Zaikov, Kimberlee Beckmen, Minoru Nakao
The specific status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial lineages G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain) with sylvatic or semi-domestic cycles. There is an argument whether the mitochondrial lineages should be recognised as separate species which correspond to the biological or epidemiological aggregation. In the present study, the specific status of E...
August 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778020/long-term-effect-of-dietary-overload-lithium-on-the-glucose-metabolism-in-broiler-chickens
#15
Shiping Bai, Shuqin Pan, Keying Zhang, Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Yue Xuan, Zuowei Su
Lithium, like insulin, activates glycogen synthase and stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes. To investigate the effect of dietary overload lithium on glucose metabolism in broiler chickens, one-day-old chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg (overload lithium) for 35days. Compared to controls, glucose disappearance rates were lower (p=0.035) 15-120min after glucose gavage, and blood glucose concentrations were lower (p=0.038) 30min after insulin injection in overload lithium broilers...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751144/interplay-between-h6pdh-and-11%C3%AE-hsd1-implicated-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Fan Yao, Li Chen, Zheng Fan, Fei Teng, Yali Zhao, Fengying Guan, Ming Zhang, Yanjun Liu
Extensive studies have been performed on the role of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic diseases. Our previous study reported glucose could directly regulate hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and 11β-HSD1. Recently, we further investigated the interplay of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 and their roles in hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance to elucidate the importance of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM rats model and H6PDH or 11β-HSD1 siRNA transfected in CBRH-7919 cells were used to explore the effect of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 in T2DM...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743985/loss-of-er%C3%AE-partially-reverses-the-effects-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-on-energy-homeostasis-in-female-mice
#17
Troy A Roepke, Ali Yasrebi, Alejandra Villalobos, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Kyle J Mamounis
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) alters hypothalamic developmental programming and disrupts offspring energy homeostasis in rodents. 17β-estradiol (E2) also influences hypothalamic programming through estrogen receptor (ER) α. Therefore, we hypothesized that females lacking ERα would be more susceptible to maternal HFD. To address this question, heterozygous ERα knockout (WT/KO) dams were fed a control breeder chow diet (25% fat) or a semi-purified HFD (45% fat) 4 weeks prior to mating with WT/KO males or heterozygous males with an ERα DNA-binding domain mutation knocked in (WT/KI) to produce WT, ERα KO, or ERα KIKO females lacking ERE-dependent ERα signaling...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736082/differential-proteome-expression-analysis-of-androgen-dependent-and-independent-pathways-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Seho Cha, Dong Hoon Shin, Jun Ryeong Seok, Jae Kyung Myung
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. It commonly develops in older males, but the number of younger men diagnosed with the disease has increased in recent years. Hormone therapies, such as chemical and surgical methods that inhibit androgen synthesis or androgen receptor (AR) activation, have been used for advanced disease. However, castration-resistant PC (CRPC), which exhibits androgen-independent mechanisms for activating AR, develops after a few years of such treatment and no therapy is available...
July 20, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726641/a-plant-fungal-type-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-located-in-the-parasite-mitochondrion-ensures-glucose-independent-survival-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
Richard Nitzsche, Özlem Günay-Esiyok, Maximilian Tischer, Vyacheslav Zagoriy, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is considered as one of the most successful intracellular pathogens, because it can reproduce in varied nutritional milieus, encountered in diverse host-cell types of essentially any warm-blooded organism. Our earlier work has demonstrated that the acute (tachyzoite) stage of T. gondii depends on cooperativity of glucose and glutamine catabolism to meet biosynthetic demands. Either of these two nutrients can sustain the parasite survival; however, what determines the metabolic plasticity has not been resolved yet...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711683/anti-obesogenic-effects-of-wy14643-ppar-alpha-agonist-hepatic-mitochondrial-enhancement-and-suppressed-lipogenic-pathway-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Flavia Maria Silva Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Aline Barcellos Barreto, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks...
September 2017: Biochimie
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