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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522991/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-and-b-pilosicoli-proteins-recognized-by-sera-of-challenged-pigs
#1
Vanessa Casas, Arantza Rodríguez-Asiain, Roberto Pinto-Llorente, Santiago Vadillo, Montserrat Carrascal, Joaquin Abian
The spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are pig intestinal pathogens that are the causative agents of swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal spirochaetosis (PIS), respectively. Although some inactivated bacterin and recombinant vaccines have been explored as prophylactic treatments against these species, no effective vaccine is yet available. Immunoproteomics approaches hold the potential for the identification of new, suitable candidates for subunit vaccines against SD and PIS. These strategies take into account the gene products actually expressed and present in the cells, and thus susceptible of being targets of immune recognition...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515141/glucagon-induced-extracellular-camp-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#2
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhenning Zhang, Bing Luan
Hormonal signals help to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver during periods of fasting. Glucagon, a pancreas-derived hormone induced by fasting, promotes gluconeogenesis through induction of intracellular cAMP production. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation but the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Here we reported that following the acute induction of gluconeogenic genes Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression through CREB, glucagon triggers a second delayed phase of fatty acid oxidation genes Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Aox) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) expression via extracellular cAMP...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500893/glucagon-receptor-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-acute-olanzapine-induced-hyperglycemia
#3
Laura N Castellani, Willem T Peppler, Charles D Sutton, Jamie Whitfield, Maureen J Charron, David C Wright
OBJECTIVES: To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr(-/-)) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined...
May 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499851/effects-of-nutritional-status-on-physiological-stress-response-in-prussian-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-and-largemouth-bass-micropterus-salmoides
#4
Danli Jiang, Yubo Wu, Di Huang, Xing Ren, Yan Wang
Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were fed to satiation or fasted for 28 days, and then subjected to an acute handling stress. Following the feeding and fasting periods, hepatosomatic index (HSI) and proximate composition was analyzed. Plasma biochemical factors, contents of brain energy substrates, liver glycogen content and enzyme activities of liver glucose metabolism were analyzed after stress during a 24 h cycle. Prussian carp had lower crude lipid and higher ash, but largemouth bass only displayed lower HSI after fasting...
May 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487991/blood-glycemia-modulating-effects-of-melanian-snail-protein-hydrolysates-in-mice-with-type%C3%A2-ii-diabetes
#5
Jae-Suk Choi, Joo-Wan Kim, Jeong Been Park, Sang Eun Pyo, Yong-Ki Hong, Sae Kwang Ku, Mi-Ryung Kim
Freshwater animal proteins have long been used as nutrient supplements. In this study, melanian snail (Semisulcospira libertina) protein hydrolysates (MPh) were found to exert anti-diabetic and protective effects against liver and kidney damage in mice with type II diabetes adapted to a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD). The hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of MPh were analyzed after 12 weeks of the continuous oral administration of MPh at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Diabetic control mice exhibited an increase in body weight, and blood glucose and insulin levels, with a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485262/biological-significance-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-in-a-cestode-parasite-raillietina-echinobothrida-and-effect-of-phytoestrogens-on-the-enzyme-from-the-parasite-and-its-host-gallus-domesticus
#6
Ramnath, Asim Kumar Dutta, Barilin Dkhar, Veena Tandon, Bidyadhar DAS
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is involved in glycolysis in the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida; whereas, it executes a gluconeogenic role in its host, Gallus domesticus. Because of its differing primary function in the cestode parasite and its host, this enzyme is regarded as a plausible anthelmintic target. Hence, the biological significance of PEPCK in the parasite was analysed using siRNA against PEPCK from R. echinobothrida (RePEPCK). In order to find out the functional differences between RePEPCK and GdPEPCK (PEPCK from its host, G...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483667/effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-on-hepatocyte-metabolism
#7
Yoni Genzer, Nava Chapnik, Oren Froy
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, plasticity and homeostasis of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbing BDNF signaling in mouse brain results in hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Currently, little is known whether BDNF affects liver tissue directly. Our aim was to determine the metabolic signaling pathways activated after BDNF treatment in hepatocytes. Unlike its effect in the brain, BDNF did not lead to activation of the liver AKT pathway...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477305/long-term-obestatin-treatment-of-mice-type-2-diabetes-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-improves-liver-function
#8
Paweł A Kołodziejski, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Mathias Z Strowski, Krzysztof W Nowak
PURPOSE: Obestatin and ghrelin are peptides encoded by the preproghrelin gene. Obestatin inhibits food intake, in addition to regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we test the ability of obestatin at improving metabolic control and liver function in type 2 diabetic animals (type 2 diabetes mellitus). METHODS: The effects of chronic obestatin treatment of mice with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on serum levels of glucose and lipids, and insulin sensitivity are characterized...
May 5, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473467/hepatic-protein-phosphatase-1-regulatory-subunit-3b-ppp1r3b-promotes-hepatic-glycogen-synthesis-and-thereby-regulates-fasting-energy-homeostasis
#9
Minal B Mehta, Swapnil V Shewale, Raymond N Sequeira, John S Millar, Nicholas J Hand, Daniel J Rader
Maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis is critical to glycemic function. Genetic variants mapping to chromosome 8p23.1 in genome-wide association studies have been linked to glycemic traits in humans. The gene of known function closest to the mapped region, PPP1R3B (protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B), encodes a protein (GL) that regulates glycogen metabolism in the liver. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that hepatic PPP1R3B is associated with glycemic traits. We generated mice with either liver-specific deletion (Ppp1r3bΔhep) or liver-specific overexpression of Ppp1r3b...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431276/enzymatic-activity-gene-expression-and-posttranslational-modifications-of-photosynthetic-and-non-photosynthetic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-in-ammonium-stressed-sorghum-plants
#10
Cirenia Arias-Baldrich, Clara de la Osa, Nadja Bosch, Isabel Ruiz-Ballesta, José A Monreal, Sofía García-Mauriño
Sorghum plants grown with 5mM (NH4)2SO4 showed symptoms of stress, such as reduced growth and photosynthesis, leaf chlorosis, and reddish roots. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, by supplying carbon skeletons for ammonium assimilation, plays a pivotal role in tolerance to ammonium stress. This work investigated the effect of ammonium nutrition on PPC and PPCK gene expression, on PEPC activity, and on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PEPC in leaves and roots of sorghum plants. Ammonium increased PEPC kinase (PEPCk) activity and the phosphorylation state of PEPC in leaves, both in light and in the dark, due to increased PPCK1 expression in leaves...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429187/curcumin-reverses-the-depressive-like-behavior-and-insulin-resistance-induced-by-chronic-mild-stress
#11
Ji-Duo Shen, Yu Wei, Yu-Jie Li, Jing-Yi Qiao, Yu-Cheng Li
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that patients with depression have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance has been identified as the key mechanism linking depression and diabetes. The present study established a rat model of depression complicated by insulin resistance using a 12-week exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS) and investigated the therapeutic effects of curcumin. Sucrose intake tests were used to evaluate depressive-like behaviors, and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests (IPITT) were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414056/protective-effects-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#12
Xue Sun, Xingping Duan, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaodong Ma, Huijun Sun, Kexin Liu, Qiang Meng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403934/a-synthetic-nitraria-alkaloid-isonitramine-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-and-attenuates-postprandial-hyperglycemia
#13
So Jung Kwon, Su Jung Hwang, Yeonghun Jung, Hyeung-Geun Park, Mi-Hyun Kim, Yohan Park, Hyo-Jong Lee
OBJECTIVE: The extracts of Nitraria genus are composed of Nitraria alkaloids and have been used traditionally as a hypoglycemic medicine. However, the efficacy and precise mechanism of Nitraria alkaloids remain largely unknown. METHODS: Previously, we reported the total synthesis of (+)-isonitramine, one of Nitraria alkaloids. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of isonitramine in diabetes mellitus and its underlying molecular mechanism in carbohydrate catabolism in vitro and in vivo...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396610/modulation-of-glucose-metabolism-by-a-natural-compound-from-chloranthus-japonicus-via-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#14
Rongkuan Hu, Huan Yan, Xiaoyan Fei, Haiyang Liu, Jiarui Wu
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor and regulator of glucose metabolism. Here, we demonstrated that shizukaol F, a natural compound isolated from Chloranthus japonicus, can activate AMPK and modulate glucose metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Shizukaol F increased glucose uptake in differentiated C2C12 myotubes by stimulating glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) membraned translocation. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with shizukaol F decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396295/molecular-characterization-of-fasciola-flukes-obtained-from-wild-sika-deer-and-domestic-cattle-in-hokkaido-japan
#15
Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Tomoko Shiroma, Tatsuya Kariya, Ryo Nakao, Yuma Ohari, Kei Hayashi, Shinya Fukumoto
The number of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) continues to increase in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The major concern for the livestock industry is the transmission of pathogens between sika deer and cattle. Fasciolosis is an important disease that can occur in both animals. The aim of this study was to examine the possible mutual transmission of this disease in Hokkaido Prefecture. A total of 105 Fasciola flukes were obtained from sika deer and 96 from domestic cattle. The Fasciola flukes in Japan are reported to possess no mature sperm...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387334/sequential-exposure-to-obesogenic-factors-in-females-rats-from-physiological-changes-to-lipid-metabolism-in-liver-and-mesenteric-adipose-tissue
#16
Marta G Novelle, María J Vázquez, Juan R Peinado, Kátia D Martinello, Miguel López, Simon M Luckman, Manuel Tena-Sempere, María M Malagón, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez
During their lifetime, females are subjected to different nutritional and hormonal factors that could increase the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities. From early postnatal periods until the postmenopausal phase, exposure to over nutrition, high-energy diet and oestrogen deficiency, are considered as significant obesity risk factors in women. In this study, we assessed how key transitional life events and exposure to different nutrition influence energy homeostasis in a rat model. Specifically, we assessed the sequential exposure to postnatal over nutrition, high-fat diet (HFD) after weaning, followed later by ovariectomy (OVX; as a model of menopause)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379184/the-effect-of-phloroglucinol-a-component-of-ecklonia-cava-extract-on-hepatic-glucose-production
#17
Ji-Young Yoon, Hojung Choi, Hee-Sook Jun
Phloroglucinol is a phenolic compound that is one of the major compounds in Ecklonia cava (brown alga). It has many pharmacological activities, but its anti-diabetic effect is not yet fully explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of phloroglucinol on the control of blood glucose levels and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Phloroglucinol significantly improved glucose tolerance in male C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and inhibited glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes...
April 5, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371117/structural-constraints-and-importance-of-caffeic-acid-moiety-for-anti-hyperglycemic-effects-of-caffeoylquinic-acids-from-chicory
#18
Kimberly M Palatini Jackson, Thirumurugan Rathinasabapathy, Debora Esposito, Slavko Komarnytsky
SCOPE: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a perennial herb often consumed as a vegetable, whereas the ground and roasted roots are blended as a coffee substitute. Caffeoylquinic or chlorogenic acids (CQA), the abundant intermediates of lignin biosynthesis in chicory, have been reported to improve glucose metabolism in humans, but the functional group in their structure responsible for this effect has not been yet characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we showed that three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids suppressed hepatic glucose production in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells by reducing expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), two key enzymes that regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#19
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324053/hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-altered-gluconeogenic-pathway-in-premature-baboons
#20
Lisa McGill-Vargas, Amalia Gastaldelli, Hanyu Liang, Diana Anzueto Guerra, Teresa Johnson-Pais, Steven Seidner, Donald McCurnin, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Ralph DeFronzo, Nicolas Musi, Cynthia Blanco
Premature infants have altered glucose regulation early in life and increased risk for diabetes in adulthood. Although prematurity leads to an increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult life, the role of hepatic glucose regulation and adaptation to an early extra-uterine environment in preterm infants remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental differences in glucose metabolism, hepatic protein content and gene expression of key insulin signaling/gluconeogenic molecules...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
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