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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#1
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302863/transfer-of-dysbiotic-gut-microbiota-has-beneficial-effects-on-host-liver-metabolism
#2
Simon Nicolas, Vincent Blasco-Baque, Audren Fournel, Jerome Gilleron, Pascale Klopp, Aurelie Waget, Franck Ceppo, Alysson Marlin, Roshan Padmanabhan, Jason S Iacovoni, François Tercé, Patrice D Cani, Jean-François Tanti, Remy Burcelin, Claude Knauf, Mireille Cormont, Matteo Serino
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280902/ginsenoside-rg5-attenuates-hepatic-glucagon-response-via-suppression-of-succinate-associated-hif-1%C3%AE-induction-in-hfd-fed-mice
#3
Na Xiao, Meng-Die Lou, Yi-Tong Lu, Le-Le Yang, Qun Liu, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ginsenosides regulate glucose homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) on the hepatic glucagon response, focusing on the regulation of metabolism. METHODS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). We observed the effects of Rg5 on hepatic fatty acid oxidation and glucagon response. The regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4B by succinate was also investigated in hepatocytes...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273963/benefits-of-alcohol-on-arsenic-toxicity-in-rats
#4
Purnima Singh, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Deepak Passi, Jaya Bharti
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259166/phenolic-compounds-isolated-from-fermented-blueberry-juice-decrease-hepatocellular-glucose-output-and-enhance-muscle-glucose-uptake-in-cultured-murine-and-human-cells
#5
Abir Nachar, Hoda M Eid, Melinda Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Tri Vuong, Wilhelmina Kalt, Chantal Matar, Pierre S Haddad
BACKGROUND: We recently reported that blueberry juice fermented (FJ) with Serratia vaccinii bacterium has antidiabetic activities both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this project was to elucidate the effect of FJ on glucose homeostasis in liver and skeletal muscle cells and to identify active fractions/compounds responsible for this effect. METHODS: FJ was fractionated using standard chromatography procedures. Hepatic (H4IIE, HepG2) and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were treated with maximum non-toxic concentrations of FJ, fractions and isolated compounds thereof...
March 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218289/type-i-neuregulin1%C3%AE-is-a-novel-local-mediator-to-suppress-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#6
Takatomo Arai, Yumika Ono, Yujiro Arimura, Keimon Sayama, Tomohiro Suzuki, Satoko Shinjo, Mai Kanai, Shin-Ichi Abe, Kentaro Semba, Nobuhito Goda
Neuregulin1 is an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain-containing protein that has multiple isoforms and functions as a local mediator in the control of various cellular functions. Here we show that type I isoform of neuregulin1 with an α-type EGF-like domain (Nrg1α) is the major isoform in mouse liver and regulates hepatic glucose production. Forced expression of Nrg1α in mouse liver enhanced systemic glucose disposal and decreased hepatic glucose production with reduced fasting blood glucose levels...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173748/susceptibility-to-type-2-diabetes-may-be-modulated-by-haplotypes-in-g6pc2-a-target-of-positive-selection
#7
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Chiara Pontremoli, Rachele Cagliani, Diego Forni, Majed S Alokail, Omar S Al-Attas, Shaun Sabico, Stefania Riva, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
BACKGROUND: The endoplasmic reticulum enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the common terminal reaction in the gluconeogenic/glycogenolytic pathways and plays a central role in glucose homeostasis. In most mammals, different G6PC subunits are encoded by three paralogous genes (G6PC, G6PC2, and G6PC3). Mutations in G6PC and G6PC3 are responsible for human mendelian diseases, whereas variants in G6PC2 are associated with fasting glucose (FG) levels. RESULTS: We analyzed the evolutionary history of G6Pase genes...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112007/the-fatty-acid-rich-fraction-of-eruca-sativa-rocket-salad-leaf-extract-exerts-antidiabetic-effects-in-cultured-skeletal-muscle-adipocytes-and-liver-cells
#8
Mona H Hetta, Asmaa I Owis, Pierre S Haddad, Hoda M Eid
CONTEXT: Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae), commonly known as rocket salad, is a popular leafy-green vegetable with many health benefits. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of this plant in major insulin-responsive tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five E. sativa leaf extracts of varying polarity were prepared (aqueous extract, 70% and 95% ethanol extracts, the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the 95% ethanol extract (ES3) and the defatted 95% ethanol extract)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096054/glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-mice-with-less-than-2-of-normal-hepatic-glucose-6-phosphatase-%C3%AE-activity-restored-are-at-risk-of-developing-hepatic-tumors
#9
Goo-Young Kim, Young Mok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jun-Ho Cho, Chi-Jiunn Pan, Matthew F Starost, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and chronic risk of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC), is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC). We have previously shown that G6pc-/- mice receiving gene transfer mediated by rAAV-G6PC, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing G6Pase-α, and expressing 3-63% of normal hepatic G6Pase-α activity maintain glucose homeostasis and do not develop HCA/HCC. However, the threshold of hepatic G6Pase-α activity required to prevent tumor formation remained unknown...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#10
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002512/pharmacotoxicological-screening-on-new-derivatives-of-beta-phenylethylamine-potential-agonists-of-beta3-adrenergic-receptors
#11
Simona Negreş, Anca Zanfirescu, Floriana Elvira Ionică, Elena Moroşan, Bruno Ştefan Velescu, Oana Cristina Şeremet, Cristina Elena Zbârcea, Emil Ştefănescu, Manuella Militaru, Andreea LetiŢia Arsene, Denisa Marilena Margină, Livia Uncu, Corina Scutari, Cornel ChiriŢă
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta3-adrenergic receptors (beta3-ARs) have been initially characterized in 1989. Afterwards, their tissue distribution was established: white and brown adipose tissue, central nervous system, myocardium (atrial and ventricular), blood vessels, smooth gastrointestinal muscles (stomach, small intestine, colon), gallbladder, urinary bladder, prostate, skeletal muscles. Non-clinical trials have demonstrated the major implication of beta3-ARs in glucose metabolism, implicitly, in insulin release, and also in obesity...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932985/pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-mediated-gene-repression-and-cross-talk-of-pxr-with-other-nuclear-receptors-via-coactivator-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Petr Pavek
Pregnane X receptor is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor (NR) that mainly controls inducible expression of xenobiotics handling genes including biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. Nowadays it is clear that PXR is also involved in regulation of intermediate metabolism through trans-activation and trans-repression of genes controlling glucose, lipid, cholesterol, bile acid, and bilirubin homeostasis. In these processes PXR cross-talks with other NRs. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cross-talk is often mediated by competing for common coactivators or by disruption of coactivation and activity of other transcription factors by the ligand-activated PXR...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914922/negative-regulation-of-hepatic-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-gene-expression-by-insulin
#13
Tooru M Mizuno, Pei San Lew, Yanming Luo, Arnold Leckstrom
AIMS: To investigate the role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of hepatic fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene expression and the role of hepatic Fto in the regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. MAIN METHODS: To determine the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic Fto expression, levels of Fto mRNA in liver were compared between normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic, hypereglycemic/hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic/hypoinsulinemic mice. To determine the direct effect of insulin on Fto expression, levels of Fto, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) mRNA levels were compared between control and insulin-treated mouse liver tissues cultured ex vivo and immortalized mouse hepatocytes AML12...
February 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890887/royal-jelly-improves-hyperglycemia-in-obese-diabetic-kk-ay-mice
#14
Mei Yoshida, Kaori Hayashi, Risa Watadani, Yoshiyasu Okano, Keiya Tanimura, Jun Kotoh, Daiki Sasaki, Kozo Matsumoto, Akihiko Maeda
The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806092/effect-of-portal-glucose-sensing-on-systemic-glucose-levels-in-sd-and-zdf-rats
#15
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803313/optimizing-human-hepatocyte-models-for-metabolic-phenotype-and-function-effects-of-treatment-with-dimethyl-sulfoxide-dmso
#16
Nikolaos Nikolaou, Charlotte J Green, Pippa J Gunn, Leanne Hodson, Jeremy W Tomlinson
Primary human hepatocytes are considered to be the "gold standard" cellular model for studying hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolism; however, they come with limitations. Although the HepG2 cell line retains many of the primary hepatocyte metabolic functions they have a malignant origin and low rates of triglyceride secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethyl sulfoxide supplementation in the media of HepG2 cells would enhance metabolic functionality leading to the development of an improved in vitro cell model that closely recapitulates primary human hepatocyte metabolism...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798359/transcriptional-coactivator-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-promotes-gluconeogenic-gene-expression-and-enhances-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#17
Ji Suk Chang, Hee-Jin Jun, Minsung Park
The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796348/metabolomics-reveals-the-protective-of-dihydromyricetin-on-glucose-homeostasis-by-enhancing-insulin-sensitivity
#18
Liang Le, Baoping Jiang, Wenting Wan, Wei Zhai, Lijia Xu, Keping Hu, Peigen Xiao
Dihydromyricetin (DMY), an important flavanone found in Ampelopsis grossedentata, possesses antioxidative properties that ameliorate skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and exert a hepatoprotective effect. However, little is known about the effects of DMY in the context of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were fed a HFD(60% fat) supplemented with DMY for 8 weeks. The administration of DMY to the rats with HFD-induced insulin resistance reduces hyperglycemia, plasma levels of insulin, and steatosis in the liver...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742409/entada-phaseoloides-extract-suppresses-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-via-activation-of-the-ampk-signaling-pathway
#19
Tao Zheng, Xincai Hao, Qibin Wang, Li Chen, Si Jin, Fang Bian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704066/the-potential-beneficial-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-isolated-from-a-pilosa-ledeb-on-insulin-resistant-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#20
Hui Teng, Lei Chen, Hongbo Song
Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) has already been applied in practice for the treatment of different disorders and is available to access without the provision of a medical prescription. The present study aims at investigating the effect of bioactive compounds isolated from AP on the improvement of insulin resistance, figuring out the mechanism in insulin-responsive cell lines. Five compounds were isolated from AP using column chromatography, including agrimonolide (K1), desmethylagrimonolide (K2), tormentic acid (K3), ursolic acid (K4), and quercetin (K5)...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
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