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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674343/impacts-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrition-on-glucagon-regulation-and-hepatic-signalling-in-sheep
#1
Bishnu Adhikari, Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
To evaluate the long-term impacts of early life nutritional manipulations on glucagon secretion and hepatic signalling, thirty-six twin pregnant ewes during their last trimester were exposed to NORM (fulfilling 100% of daily energy/protein requirements), HIGH (fulfilling 150/110% of daily energy/protein requirements) or LOW (50% of NORM) diets. Twin lambs were assigned after birth to a moderate (CONV) or high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet until six months. Then responses in plasma glucagon concentrations and glucagon ratios relative to previously reported values for insulin, glucose and lactate were determined after intravenous bolus injections of glucose or propionate (fed and 2-days fasting state)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673674/association-between-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-ct-and-histological-grade-of-uterine-endometrial-carcinoma
#2
Hiroaki Takagi, Toshiyuki Sasagawa, Takeo Shibata, Hiroshi Minato, Tomoko Takahashi
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus has increased in Japan. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between this type of cancer and various data provided by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort thus comprised 27 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma who had undergone PET/CT examinations from April 2008 to March 2015...
April 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663270/molecular-biology-and-gene-therapy-for-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib
#3
Janice Y Chou, Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib) is caused by a deficiency in the ubiquitously expressed glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) transporter (G6PT or SLC37A4). The primary function of G6PT is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inside the ER, G6P is hydrolyzed to glucose and phosphate by either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β. A deficiency in G6Pase-α causes GSD type Ia (GSD-Ia) and a deficiency in G6Pase-β causes GSD-I-related syndrome (GSD-Irs)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576889/recent-development-and-gene-therapy-for-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#4
Janice Y Chou, Goo-Young Kim, Jun-Ho Cho
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) that is expressed primarily in the liver, kidney, and intestine. G6Pase-α catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose and phosphate in the terminal step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and is a key enzyme for endogenous glucose production. The active site of G6Pase-α is inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. For catalysis, the substrate G6P must be translocated from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen by a G6P transporter (G6PT)...
September 2017: Liver Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546314/plasma-and-pancreas-islet-hormone-concentrations-in-lactating-rats-are-associated-with-dietary-protein-amounts
#5
Lianbin Xu, Xueyan Lin, Robin R White, Mark D Hanigan, Zhiyong Hu, Qiuling Hou, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Background: Circulating amino acid (AA) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic gluconeogenesis are affected by previous protein intake. However, information about their relations and islet hormone responses is limited. Objective: This study investigated the associations between islet hormone concentrations with circulating AA and NO concentrations as well as with hepatic gluconeogenesis in lactating rats. Methods: At delivery, 18 Wistar rats aged 14 wk were assigned either to low-protein (LP; 9% protein), standard-protein (SP; 21% protein), or high-protein (HP; 35% protein) diets for 15 d in groups of 6 pups/dam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545180/hepatic-glucose-6-phosphatase-%C3%AE-deficiency-leads-to-metabolic-reprogramming-in-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#6
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530977/regulation-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-nuclear-factor-y-transcription-factor-in-mice
#7
Yanjie Zhang, Qiuyue Guan, Yin Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulong Chen, Jinglu Chen, Yulan Liu, Zhiguang Su
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain the blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524400/ampk-activation-by-pterostilbene-contributes-to-suppression-of-hepatic-gluconeogenic-gene-expression-and-glucose-production-in-h4iie-cells
#8
Guang Ren, Agnes M Rimando, Suresh T Mathews
Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries and grapes, shows structural similarity to resveratrol, and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, and cholesterol lowering effects. Recent evidence indicates that pterostilbene is an agonist of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). Since PPAR-α agonists induce peroxisomal proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, we examined gene expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1)...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504286/cold-acclimation-reduces-hepatic-protein-kinase-b-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-phosphorylation-and-increases-gluconeogenesis-in-rats
#9
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Glen Katsnelson, George Bikopoulos, Ayesha Iqbal, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the molecular and metabolic responses of the liver to cold-induced thermogenesis. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4°C) for 7 days. Livers were then extracted and used for the determination of glucose and fatty acid oxidation, glycogen content, the expression and content of proteins involved in insulin signaling, as well as in the regulation of gluconeogenesis and de novo lipid synthesis. Despite being hyperphagic, cold-acclimated rats displayed normoglycemia with reduced insulinemia, which suggests improved whole-body insulin sensitivity...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474705/pcb126-inhibits-the-activation-of-ampk-creb-signal-transduction-required-for-energy-sensing-in-liver
#10
Gopi S Gadupudi, Benjamin A Elser, Fabian A Sandgruber, Xueshu Li, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Larry W Robertson
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), a dioxin-like PCB, elicits toxicity through a wide array of non-carcinogenic effects, including metabolic syndrome, wasting, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we reported decreases in the transcription of several enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, before the early onset of lipid accumulation. Hence, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of resultant decreases gluconeogenic enzymes on growth, weight and metabolism in the liver, upon extended exposure...
February 20, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462809/liver-plays-a-major-role-in-fgf-21-mediated-glucose-homeostasis
#11
Mingyao Liu, Hongwei Cao, Yuting Hou, Guopeng Sun, Deshan Li, Wenfei Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The liver is a vital organ in vertebrates and has a wide range of functions, including glucose absorption, glycogen storage and glucose production. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a metabolic regulator that is primarily produced by the liver. In this paper, we studied the effect of FGF-21 on glucose metabolism in the liver. METHODS: The glucose uptake of cells was detected by 2-Deoxy-d-[3H] glucose; the synergy between insulin and FGF-21 was evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442133/follicle-stimulating-hormone-enhances-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-grk2-mediated-ampk-hyperphosphorylation-at-ser485-in-mice
#12
Xiaoyi Qi, Yanjing Guo, Yongfeng Song, Chunxiao Yu, Lifang Zhao, Li Fang, Dehuan Kong, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is correlated with fasting hyperglycaemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major cause of fasting hyperglycaemia the present study investigated whether FSH increases hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice. METHODS: Ovariectomised mice supplemented with oestradiol (E2) to maintain normal levels of serum E2 (OVX+E2 mice) were injected with low or high doses of FSH...
February 13, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434820/itraconazole-attenuates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-and-promotes-glucose-uptake-by-regulating-ampk-pathway
#13
Ri-Su Na, Cong Ma, Qiao-Rui Liu, Li-Ming Wu, Xu-Lei Zheng, Zhi-Wen Liu
The primarily metabolic abnormality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the defect in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Itraconazole (ITCZ) is a traditional azole drug with anti-fungal and anticancer properties. However, limited attention has been directed towards the contribution of ITCZ to hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake in T2DM. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of ITCZ on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake as well as the underlying mechanisms. No obvious change in cell viability was detected by MTT assay in HepG2 cells with ITCZ treatment at gradually increasing concentrations...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428299/g6pc-mrna-therapy-positively-regulates-fasting-blood-glucose-and-decreases-liver-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-glycogen-storage-disease-1a
#14
Daniel S Roseman, Tayeba Khan, Fabienne Rajas, Lucy S Jun, Kirtika H Asrani, Cleo Isaacs, Jeremiah D Farelli, Romesh R Subramanian
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD1a) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). GSD1a is associated with life-threatening hypoglycemia and long-term liver and renal complications. We examined the efficacy of mRNA-encoding human G6Pase in a liver-specific G6Pase -/- mouse model (L-G6PC -/- ) that exhibits the same hepatic biomarkers associated with GSD1a patients, such as fasting hypoglycemia, and elevated levels of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), glycogen, and triglycerides...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362600/palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-is-attenuated-by-pioglitazone-and-egcg-through-reducing-the-gluconeogenic-key-enzymes-expression-in-hepg2-cells
#15
S Yadollah, N Kazemipour, S Bakhtiyari, S Nazifi
HYPOTHESIS: Palmitate causes insulin resistance (IR) in insulin target tissue. Pioglitazone (an anti-hyperglycemic agent) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, a dietary supplement) can be used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, their molecular effects on gluconeogenesis remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Hence, we aimed to investigate the simultaneous effect of these anti-hyperglycemic agents on gluconeogenesis through in vitro experiments. METHODS: HepG2 cells were treated with 0...
October 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344818/dietary-chromium-picolinate-supplementation-affects-growth-whole-body-composition-and-gene-expression-related-to-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#16
Mingchun Ren, Ahmed Mokrani, Hualiang Liang, Ke Ji, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Bo Liu
An 11-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of supplemented chromium picolinate (Cr-Pic) on the growth, whole-body composition, and relative mRNA expression related to lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in juvenile blunt snout bream. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with graded Cr supplementation levels were fed to triplicate groups. The final weight (FW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and specific growth rate (SGR) were improved with increasing dietary Cr supplementation levels up to 0...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327229/leopoldia-comosa-prevents-metabolic-disorders-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#17
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190746/hepatic-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-nuclear-translocator-arnt-regulates-metabolism-in-mice
#18
Christopher H Scott, Kuan-Minn Cha, Jason Ngai, Changtao Jiang, Kim Cheng, Rebecca A Stokes, Kenneth W K Ho, Jacob George, Frank J Gonzalez, Jenny E Gunton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) and its partners hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α are candidate factors for the well-known link between the liver, metabolic dysfunction and elevation in circulating lipids and glucose. Methods: Hepatocyte-specific ARNT-null (LARNT), HIF-1α-null (LHIF1α) and HIF-2α-null (LHIF2α) mice were created. RESULTS: LARNT mice had increased fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, increased glucose production, raised post-prandial serum triglycerides (TG) and markedly lower hepatic ATP versus littermate controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109794/ginsenoside-rg1-inhibits-glucagon-induced-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-akt-foxo1-interaction
#19
Qun Liu, Fei-Ge Zhang, Wen-Song Zhang, An Pan, Yi-Lin Yang, Jin-Feng Liu, Ping Li, Bao-Lin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Rationale: Glucagon is involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, playing a key role in type 2 diabetes. Ginsenosides are reported to have antidiabetic activities. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major propanaxatriol-type saponin in ginseng. This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of Rg1 on glucagon-induced hepatic glucose production. Methods: The effects of Rg1 were investigated in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice and glucagon-challenged C57BL/6J mice. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and pyruvate tolerance test...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107025/association-of-changes-in-er-stress-mediated-signaling-pathway-with-lead-induced-insulin-resistance-and-apoptosis-in-rats-and-their-prevention-by-a-type-dimeric-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#20
Chan-Min Liu, Jie-Qiong Ma, Jian-Mei Sun, Zhao-Jun Feng, Chao Cheng, Wei Yang, Hong Jiang
A-type dimeric epigallocatechin-3-gallate (A-type-EGCG-dimer, AEd), a new proanthocyanidins dimer from persimmon fruits, has been shown to have health benefit effects. However, A-type-EGCG-dimer affects gluose metabolism in the liver and the underlying mechanism is not clarified. The present study aims to examine the protective effects of A-type-EGCG-dimer on Pb-induced hepatic insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in rats. Male wistar rats exposed to 0.05% w/v Pb acetate in the drinking water with or without A-type-EGCG-dimer coadministration (200 mg/kg body weight/day, intragastrically) for three months...
October 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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