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Metformin for esrd

Surya Ayalasomayajula, Thomas Langenickel, Parasar Pal, Sreedevi Boggarapu, Gangadhar Sunkara
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a twofold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1...
January 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Surya Ayalasomayajula, Thomas Langenickel, Parasar Pal, Sreedevi Boggarapu, Gangadhar Sunkara
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is indicated for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Absorption of sacubitril/valsartan and conversion of sacubitril (prodrug) to sacubitrilat (neprilysin inhibitor) was rapid with maximum plasma concentrations of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) reaching within 0.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-3.0 h, respectively. With a two-fold increase in dose, an increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was proportional for sacubitril, ~1...
December 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Adriana M Hung, Christianne L Roumie, Robert A Greevy, Carlos G Grijalva, Xulei Liu, Harvey J Murff, T Alp Ikizler, Marie R Griffin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD. Glucose control improves kidney outcomes. Most patients eventually require treatment intensification with second-line medications; however, the differential effects of those therapies on kidney function are unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: We studied a retrospective cohort of veterans on metformin monotherapy from 2001 to 2008 who added either insulin or sulfonylurea and were followed through September of 2011...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Abdullah K Al-Hwiesh, Ibrahiem Saeed Abdul-Rahman, Abdul-Salam Noor, Mohammed A Nasr-El-Deen, Abdalla Abdelrahman, Tamer S El-Salamoni, Fahd A Al-Muhanna, Khalid Al-Otaibi, Nehad Al-Audah
♦ OBJECTIVE: Metformin continues to be the safest and most widely used antidiabetic drug. In spite of its well-known benefits; metformin use in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is still restricted. Little has been reported about the effect of peritoneal dialysis (PD) on metformin clearance and the phantom of lactic acidosis deprives ESRD patients from metformin therapeutic advantages. Peritoneal dialysis is probably a safeguard against lactic acidosis, and it is likely that using this drug would be feasible in this group of patients...
January 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Surendra Kumar Sharma, A Panneerselvam, K P Singh, Girish Parmar, Pradeep Gadge, Onkar C Swami
Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults along with diet and exercise. Teneligliptin has been recently available in Japan (Teneria(®)), Argentina (Teneglucon(®)), and India (Tenepure; Teneza) at relatively affordable price. This is a positive step toward the management of T2DM in developing countries, where the cost of medicine is out-of-pocket expenditure and is a limiting factor for health care. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in the management of T2DM...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Nicholas Carlson, Kristine Hommel, Jonas B Olesen, Thomas A Gerds, Anne-Merete Soja, Tina Vilsbøll, Anne-Lise Kamper, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar Gislason
Recent guidelines governing anti-diabetic medications increasingly advocate metformin as first-line therapy in all patients with type 2 diabetes. However, metformin could be associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute dialysis and lactate acidosis in marginal patients. In a retrospective nationwide cohort study, a total of 168 443 drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes ≥50 years, initiating treatment with either metformin or sulphonyl in Denmark between 2000 and 2012 were included in this study (70...
December 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jianjun Gao, Zhaoyan Gu, Yongxing Xu, Yu Na
We report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) in a 66-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The patient presented with severe lactic acidosis and was treated successfully with automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). During the treatment, PD solution was prepared from hemofiltration substitute fluid. The prescription was 8 cycles of 2,000 mL over 24 hours with the prepared solution, and venoclysis with sodium bicarbonate to improve the acidosis. After 3 days of treatment, his lactic acidosis was corrected...
November 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Sana R Akbar, Hafiz I Iqbal, Umair Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is an increasingly prevalent health problem with the potential for poor outcome of end-stage renal disease. Hospitalized critically ill patients are prone to acute renal injury from numerous factors such as poor renal perfusion secondary to ischemia and hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and intravenous contrast exposure. AIMS: We set to explore resident awareness and knowledge about chronic kidney disease management, timely nephrology referrals, preventing inadvertent acute kidney injury (AKI), and the understanding of basic electrolyte physiology...
November 2015: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Po-Ya Chang, Li-Nien Chien, Yuh-Feng Lin, Hung-Yi Chiou, Wen-Ta Chiu
Poor glycemic control is related to an increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study investigated the association between medication adherence and the risk of ESRD in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.In this population-based cohort study, we used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to identify 559,864 patients with newly diagnosed or treated diabetes mellitus who were ages from 20 to 85 years between 2001 and 2008. We identified 1695 patients with ESRD during the study period...
November 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lesley J Scott
Oral teneligliptin [Teneglucon® (Argentina)], a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This article reviews the pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of teneligliptin in the treatment of adults with T2DM. In 12- or 16-week, placebo-controlled phase 2 and 3 trials, oral teneligliptin 20 or 40 mg once daily, as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, glimepiride or pioglitazone improved glycaemic control, including in patients with end-stage renal disease, and was generally well tolerated...
November 2015: Clinical Drug Investigation
Diane P Calello, Kathleen D Liu, Timothy J Wiegand, Darren M Roberts, Valéry Lavergne, Sophie Gosselin, Robert S Hoffman, Thomas D Nolin, Marc Ghannoum
BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed...
August 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Bettina Winzeler, Michael Dickenmann, Andreas Werner Jehle
Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is important as tight control of albuminuria and hypertension improves the renal prognosis. Similarly, good control of hyperglycemia is critical, but emphasis should be given on individualization of treatment goals. Once the estimated GFR is < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 the antidiabetic medication needs to be reviewed and a dose reduction of many drugs is necessary. The risk for hypoglycemia is particularly high for the sulfonylureas glibenclamide and glimepiride and they are contraindicated once the GFR is < 60 ml/min/1...
March 2015: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
P McEwan, H Bennett, T Ward, K Bergenheim
OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluations of new diabetes therapies rely heavily upon the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) equations for prediction of cardiovascular events; however, concerns persist regarding their relevance to current clinical practice and appropriate use in populations other than newly diagnosed patients. This study refits the UKPDS 68 event equations, using contemporary data describing low- and intermediate-risk patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Anonymized patient data describing demographics, risk factors and incidence of cardiovascular and microvascular events were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database over the 10-year period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009...
February 2015: PharmacoEconomics
Yumi Takiyama, Masakazu Haneda
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is now a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In addition, DN accounts for the increased mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and then patients without DN achieve long-term survival compatible with general population. Hypoxia represents an early event in the development and progression of DN, and hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1 mediates the metabolic responses to renal hypoxia. Diabetes induces the "fraternal twins" of hypoxia, that is, pseudohypoxia and hypoxia. The kidneys are susceptible to hyperoxia because they accept 20% of the cardiac output...
2014: BioMed Research International
Francis Cc Chow, Siew-Pheng Chan, Chii-Min Hwu, Sompongse Suwanwalaikorn, Akira Yt Wu, Susan Yu Gan, Manuel B Zacarias
It is well recognised that Asia is at the epicenter of the global type 2 diabetes epidemic. Driven by socioeconomic changes involving industrialization, urbanization and adoption of Western lifestyles, the unprecedented increases in the prevalence of diabetes are particularly evident in Southeast Asia. The impact of diabetes is immense, and despite evidence of the benefit of optimal glucose control in reducing the risk of disease progression and development of macrovascular and microvascular complications, many individuals in this region remain poorly controlled...
December 20, 2012: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Abdulla Khalaf Al-Hwiesh, Ibrahiem Saeed Abdul-Rahman, Mohammad Ahmad Nasr El-Deen, Emmanuel Larbi, Jose C Divino-Filho, Fahd Abdul-Aziz Al-Mohanna, Krishan L Gupta
OBJECTIVE: In a number of patients, the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with lactic acidosis. Despite the fact that diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and that peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an expanding modality of treatment, little is known about optimal treatment strategies in the large group of PD patients with diabetes. In patients with ESRD, the use of metformin has been limited because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis or severe hypoglycemia...
June 2014: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
J Dziuba, P Alperin, J Racketa, U Iloeje, D Goswami, E Hardy, I Perlstein, H L Grossman, M Cohen
AIMS: Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, has been shown to lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, blood pressure and serum uric acid in clinical trials. Plasma lipids were also evaluated as exploratory variables. The goal of this study was to estimate the long-term cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular outcomes of dapagliflozin added to the standard of care (SOC) versus SOC using simulation methodology. METHODS: The Archimedes Model, a validated model of human physiology, diseases and healthcare systems, was used to model a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population derived from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with HbA1c 7-10%, taking a single oral antidiabetic agent [metformin, sulfonylureas SU or thiazolidinedione (TZD)] at the beginning of the trial...
July 2014: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Adriana M Hung, Christianne L Roumie, Robert A Greevy, Xulei Liu, Carlos G Grijalva, Harvey J Murff, Marie R Griffin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that kidney function declined faster among initiators of sulfonylureas compared to metformin; however, sulfonylurea use compared to metformin use was also associated with increases in body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). We sought to determine if differences between sulfonylureas and metformin on kidney function decline were mediated by differential effects on BMI, SBP, or glucose control. METHODS: We identified 13,238 veterans who initiated sulfonylurea or metformin treatment (2000–2007) with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/minute, and followed them until a study event occurred, non-persistence on treatment, loss of follow-up, or end of the study...
June 2013: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Colleen Flynn, George L Bakris
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As the worldwide prevalence of diabetes continues to increase, the number of patients with CKD will also increase. Therefore, it is essential that physicians know how to safely and effectively manage diabetes in the setting of CKD. Adequate glycaemic control in patients with diabetes is important to prevent ESRD and other complications and to decrease mortality. However, many glucose-lowering agents need to be dose-adjusted or should not be used in the setting of stage 3 CKD or higher (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1...
March 2013: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Sam M O'Toole, Stanley L Fan, M Magdi Yaqoob, Tahseen A Chowdhury
Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis...
March 2012: Postgraduate Medical Journal
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