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perinatal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455772/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#1
REVIEW
Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
This article reviews important features to improve the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) by applying ultrasound in prenatal cardiac screening. As low and high-risk pregnancies for CHD are subject to routine obstetric ultrasound, the diagnosis of structural heart defects represents a challenge that involves a team of specialists and subspecialists on fetal ultrasonography. In this review, the images highlight normal anatomy of the heart as well as pathologic cases consistent with cardiac malposition and isomerism, septal defects, pulmonary stenosis/atresia, aortic malformations, hypoplastic left ventricle, conotruncal anomalies, tricuspid dysplasia, and Ebstein's anomaly, and univentricular heart, among other congenital cardiovascular defects...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446815/fetoplacental-malformations-and-abnormalities-a-retrospective-analysis-of-398-cases
#2
Sana Ben Slama, Leila Mebazaa, Dhouha Bacha, Saadia Bouraoui, Sabeh Mzabi-Regaya, Ahlem Lahmar
BACKGROUND: The fetoplacental examination is actually very important and sometimes necessary to confirm or correct prenatal diagnosis. AIM: to deduce a list of indications of fetoplacental examination and to determine the type and frequency of malformations found. METHODS: a retrospective study including 398 consecutive fetoplacental examinations, including abortions, stillbirths and children died perinatally. The cases were referred in the department of pathology of the M...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438963/health-professionals-and-coroners-views-on-less-invasive-perinatal-and-paediatric-autopsy-a-qualitative-study
#3
Celine Lewis, Melissa Hill, Owen J Arthurs, John C Hutchinson, Lyn S Chitty, Neil Sebire
OBJECTIVE: To assess health professionals' and coroners' attitudes towards non-minimally and minimally invasive autopsy in the perinatal and paediatric setting. METHODS: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twenty-five health professionals (including perinatal/paediatric pathologists and anatomical pathology technologists, obstetricians, fetal medicine consultants and bereavement midwives, intensive care consultants and family liaison nurses, a consultant neonatologist and a paediatric radiologist) and four coroners participated...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437246/early-movement-restriction-leads-to-enduring-disorders-in-muscle-and-locomotion
#4
Maxime Delcour, Vicky S Massicotte, Michaël Russier, Hélène Bras, Julie Peyronnet, Marie-Hélène Canu, Florence Cayetanot, Mary F Barbe, Jacques-Olivier Coq
Motor control and body representation in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as musculoskeletal architecture and physiology are shaped during development by sensorimotor experience and feedback, but the emergence of locomotor disorders during maturation and their persistence over time remain a matter of debate in the absence of brain damage. By using transient immobilization of the hind limbs, we investigated the enduring impact of postnatal sensorimotor restriction (SMR) on gait and posture on treadmill, age-related changes in locomotion, musculoskeletal histopathology and Hoffmann reflex in adult rats without brain damage...
February 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422212/diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-late-onset-fetal-growth-restriction
#5
REVIEW
Francesc Figueras, Javier Caradeux, Fatima Crispi, Elisenda Eixarch, Anna Peguero, Eduard Gratacos
By consensus, late fetal growth restriction is that diagnosed >32 weeks. This condition is mildly associated with a higher risk of perinatal hypoxic events and suboptimal neurodevelopment. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of uteroplacental vascular lesions (especially infarcts), although the incidence of such lesions is lower than in preterm fetal growth restriction. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those who are healthy and those who are pathologically small...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405969/ultrasound-screening-of-umbilical-cord-abnormalities-and-delivery-management
#6
REVIEW
Junichi Hasegawa
With the improvement of prenatal diagnoses of foetuses, the prevalence of stillbirth due to foetal anomaly after mid-gestation decreased, whereas that of stillbirth associated with umbilical cord factors tended to increase. Prenatal detection of umbilical cord abnormalities and appropriate management during the antenatal period and delivery based on the ultrasound diagnosis will improve the perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. In the present review, the strategy to reduce the incidence of foetal compromise due to umbilical cord problems is discussed considering the current knowledge regarding the physiological and pathological aspects of umbilical cord abnormalities...
February 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397421/activin-receptors-regulate-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-health-and-disease
#7
Alessandra Dillenburg, Graeme Ireland, Rebecca K Holloway, Claire L Davies, Frances L Evans, Matthew Swire, Marie E Bechler, Daniel Soong, Tracy J Yuen, Gloria H Su, Julie-Clare Becher, Colin Smith, Anna Williams, Veronique E Miron
The most prevalent neurological disorders of myelin include perinatal brain injury leading to cerebral palsy in infants and multiple sclerosis in adults. Although these disorders have distinct etiologies, they share a common neuropathological feature of failed progenitor differentiation into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and lack of myelin, for which there is an unmet clinical need. Here, we reveal that a molecular pathology common to both disorders is dysregulation of activin receptors and that activin receptor signaling is required for the majority of myelin generation in development and following injury...
February 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397159/placental-pathology-in-neonatal-stroke-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#8
Miya E Bernson-Leung, Theonia K Boyd, Emily E Meserve, Amy R Danehy, Kush Kapur, Cameron C Trenor, Laura L Lehman, Michael J Rivkin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of placental abnormalities with neonatal stroke. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective case-control study at 3 academic medical centers examined placental specimens for 46 children with neonatal arterial or venous ischemic stroke and 99 control children without stroke, using a standard protocol. Between-group comparisons used χ 2 and Fisher exact t test. Correlations used Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Case placentas were more likely than controls to meet criteria for ≥1 of 5 major categories of pathologic abnormality (89% vs 62%; OR, 5...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379062/spatiotemporal-patterning-of-epcam-is-important-for-murine-embryonic-endo-and-mesodermal-differentiation
#9
Sannia Sarrach, Yuanchi Huang, Sebastian Niedermeyer, Matthias Hachmeister, Laura Fischer, Sebastian Gille, Min Pan, Brigitte Mack, Gisela Kranz, Darko Libl, Juliane Merl-Pham, Stefanie M Hauck, Elisa Paoluzzi Tomada, Matthias Kieslinger, Irmela Jeremias, Antonio Scialdone, Olivier Gires
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro, but is repressed in differentiated cells, except epithelia and carcinomas. Molecular functions of EpCAM, possibly imposing such repression, were primarily studied in malignant cells and might not apply to non-pathologic differentiation. Here, we comprehensively describe timing and rationale for EpCAM regulation in early murine gastrulation and ESC differentiation using single cell RNA-sequencing datasets, in vivo and in vitro models including CRISPR-Cas9-engineered ESC-mutants...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376235/-study-on-the-mechanism-of-bushen-culuan-chongji-treating-kidney-deficiency-and-blood-stasis-in-ovulatory-dysfunctional-infertility
#10
Kun Ma, Min Li
Kidney deficiency and blood stasis is the main cause of ovulatory dysfunctional infertility. Kidney deficiency is the main pathological mechanism. Blood stasis is the main pathological manifestation, and it is an important factor throughout. Bushen Culuan Chongji is under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory, previous years of clinical experience, combined with the etiology and pathogenesis of anovulatory infertility and modern pharmacological research results, selected, not only maintains the TCM syndrome differentiation and different diseases features, but also reflects the superiority of the combination of disease...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372645/martha-wollstein-a-pioneer-american-female-clinician-scientist
#11
Jeanne Abrams, James R Wright
Martha Wollstein was not only the first fully specialized pediatric perinatal pathologist practicing exclusively in a North America children's hospital, she also blazed another pathway as a very early pioneer female clinician-scientist. Wollstein provided patient care at Babies Hospital of New York City from 1891 until her retirement in 1935, and also simultaneously worked for many years as a basic scientist at the prestigious Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Wollstein published over 65 papers, many frequently cited, during her career on a wide range of topics including pediatric and infectious diseases...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352119/parturition-in-baboons-papio-spp
#12
N Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, J Maher, R Sullivan, G Mari, M Schenone, H L Cohen, R A Word, G B Hubbard, E J Dick
The Old World non-human primates (NHP) - baboons (Papio spp.) share similarities with humans regarding fetal and placental development and some pregnancy-related complications. Information about the mechanism of birth and complications arising during parturition in these species is relatively sparse. In this manuscript, we add information from a series of pathological and observational cases to highlight insights and selected complications of birth in Papio spp, based on video-recording of the delivery process, X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound evaluations in pregnant baboons...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351271/risk-factors-for-low-birth-weight-according-to-the-multiple-logistic-regression-model-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-jos%C3%A3-mar%C3%A3-a-morelos-municipality-quintana-roo-mexico
#13
José Franco Monsreal, Miriam Del Ruby Tun Cobos, José Ricardo Hernández Gómez, Lidia Esther Del Socorro Serralta Peraza
INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight has been an enigma for science over time. There have been many researches on its causes and its effects. Low birth weight is an indicator that predicts the probability of a child surviving. In fact, there is an exponential relationship between weight deficit, gestational age, and perinatal mortality. Multiple logistic regression is one of the most expressive and versatile statistical instruments available for the analysis of data in both clinical and epidemiology settings, as well as in public health...
January 17, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328035/assessment-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-6-12-months-of-age-according-to-impact-of-perinatal-risk-factors
#14
N Tskimanauri, N Khachapuridze, P Imnadze, T Chanadiri, S Bakhtadze
The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II)...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287090/immune-activation-despite-preserved-cd4-t-cells-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#15
Patricia Alvarez, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Alka Khaitan
BACKGROUND: HIV disease progresses more rapidly in children than adults with mortality rates exceeding 50% by 2 years of age without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend universal treatment for all living persons with HIV, yet there is limited supporting evidence in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD4 cell counts reflect immunological markers associated with disease progression in ART naïve perinatally-infected HIV+ children and adolescents and their response to ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278628/perinatal-complications-in-two-cohort-groups-of-preterm-newborns-in-intensive-care-unit-for-children-s-diseases-of-university-clinical-hospital-mostar
#16
Vedran Bjelanović, Marjana Jerković Raguž, Matea Galić, Ana Čuljak, Ivana Bjelanović, Vajdana Tomić
AIM: To determine the frequency and type of complications in two cohort groups of preterm newborns. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The research involved 100 preterm newborns divided into two groups according to their gestational age: newborns from 24 to 33+6/7 weeks GA and newborns from 34 to 36+6/7 weeks GA. Parameters which were observed with mother were: age, number of births, course and complications in pregnancy. Parameters with infant: gestational age, weight, newborn small for gestational age (IUGR), asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, hyperbilirubinemia, apnea, anemia, intracranial hemorrhage and metabolic disorder (hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia)...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277067/biochemical-composition-of-fetal-fluids-in-at-term-normal-developed-healthy-viable-dogs-and-preliminary-data-from-pathologic-littermates
#17
M C Veronesi, B Bolis, M Faustini, A Rota, A Mollo
A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth...
December 14, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262379/dexamethasone-induced-upregulation-of-cav3-2-t-type-ca2-channels-in-rat-cardiac-myocytes
#18
D Falcón, R González-Montelongo, E Sánchez de Rojas-de Pedro, A Ordóñez, J Ureña, A Castellano
Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat acute and chronic diseases. Unfortunately, their therapeutic use is associated with severe side effects. Glucocorticoids are known to regulate several ion channels in cardiac myocytes, including voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Low-voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channels are expressed in ventricular myocytes during the fetal and perinatal period, but are practically absent in the adult. However, these channels can be re-expressed in adult cardiomyocytes under some pathological conditions...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241965/perinatal-hemorrhage-from-ulceration-of-the-umbilical-cord-a-potentially-catastrophic-association-with-duodenal-and-jejunal-obstruction
#19
Danielle Aronowitz, Stephen Dolgin, Eran Bornstein, Amanda Little-Richardson, Jaya Bajaj, Alex Williamson, Esperanza Naves-Ruiz, Morris Edelman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to review published reports and contribute new cases of umbilical cord ulceration (UCU) with perinatal hemorrhage into the amniotic cavity in the setting of duodenal or jejunal obstruction because knowledge of this sequence is poorly disseminated and could be lifesaving. METHODS: Published reports of UCU with hemorrhage associated with congenital duodenal or jejunal obstruction were reviewed. Chart review was conducted for the cases encountered at our institutions between January 2008 and March 2017...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217054/classification-and-pathology-of-congenital-and-perinatal-vascular-anomalies-of-the-head-and-neck
#20
REVIEW
Paula E North
Accurate histopathologic description in correlation with clinical and radiological evaluation is required for treatment of vascular anomalies, both neoplastic and malformative. It is important to examine current clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypical features that distinguish the major types of congenital and perinatal vascular anomalies affecting the head and neck. General discussions of pathogenesis and molecular diagnosis must also be taken into account. This article provides an overview of the features that distinguish the major types of congenital and perinatal vascular anomalies affecting the head and neck, and summarizes the diagnostic histopathologic criteria and nomenclature currently applied to these lesions...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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