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perinatal pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050067/-neuropathologic-findings-in-intractable-epilepsy-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-822-cases
#1
Z J Duan, K Yao, J Zhou, L Li, F Zhai, C Q Liu, Z Ma, Y Bian, G M Luan, X L Qi
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of intractable epilepsy. Methods: Based on the classification criteria proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), a retrospective analysis of the pathological characteristics was done in 822 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery in Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, from June 2008 to December 2012. Results: The mean age of epilepsy onset was 9.9 years, mean duration of epilepsy was 11.9 years. Complex partial seizures were the main presenting features...
October 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017630/poor-perinatal-growth-impairs-baboon-aortic-windkessel-function
#2
A H Kuo, J Li, C Li, H F Huber, P W Nathanielsz, G D Clarke
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016509/maternal-vascular-malperfusion-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-in-low-risk-nulliparous-women
#3
Emily Wright, Melanie C Audette, Xiang Y Ye, Sarah Keating, Barry Hoffman, Stephen J Lye, Prakesh S Shah, John C Kingdom
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disease burden of placental maternal vascular malperfusion pathology in a low-risk nulliparous population and test the hypothesis that a multiparameter model in the second trimester can predict maternal vascular malperfusion with high precision. METHODS: A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted in healthy nulliparous women. Maternal vascular malperfusion disease burden was estimated by incidence, relative risk (RR), and population-attributable risk percent...
October 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987191/developmental-and-perinatal-brain-diseases
#4
Homa Adle-Biassette, Jeffery A Golden, Brian Harding
This chapter briefly describes the normal development of the nervous system, the neuropathology and pathophysiology of acquired and secondary disorders affecting the embryo, fetus, and child. They include CNS manifestations of chromosomal change; forebrain patterning defects; disorders of the brain size; cell migration and specification disorders; cerebellum, hindbrain and spinal patterning defects; hydrocephalus; secondary malformations and destructive pathologies; vascular malformations; arachnoid cysts and infectious diseases...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982832/incidence-risk-factors-and-perinatal-outcomes-for-placenta-accreta-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-case-control-study
#5
Cynthia M Farquhar, Zhuoyang Li, Sarah Lensen, Claire McLintock, Wendy Pollock, Michael J Peek, David Ellwood, Marian Knight, Caroline Se Homer, Geraldine Vaughan, Alex Wang, Elizabeth Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the incidence of placenta accreta and describe risk factors, clinical practice and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Sites in Australia and New Zealand with at least 50 births per year. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were women giving birth (≥20 weeks or fetus ≥400 g) who were diagnosed with placenta accreta by antenatal imaging, at operation or by pathology specimens between 2010 and 2012...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981981/antenatal-corticosteroid-treatment-and-placental-pathology-with-a-focus-on-villous-maturation
#6
Miranda Um-Bergström, Nikos Papadogiannakis, Magnus Westgren, Marie-Therese Vinnars
INTRODUCTION: Mothers at risk of preterm birth are treated with antenatal corticosteroids, which have advantageous effects for prematurely born infants. Accelerated villous maturation in the placenta is also associated with improved perinatal outcome. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between antenatal corticosteroids and accelerated villous maturation. The secondary aim was to study associations with other placental pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including 105 women who had (n=75) or had not (n=30) been treated with antenatal corticosteroids...
October 5, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980560/-specific-immunoglobulins-g-and-m-in-blood-serum-in-retinoblastoma-and-pseudoretinoblastoma
#7
S V Saakyan, L A Katargina, G I Krichevskaya, E B Myakoshina, E V Denisova
Perinatal inflammatory retinal diseases and intrauterine retinal maldevelopments are mistaken for retinoblastoma as often as in 8-16% of cases. AIM: To analyze the infectious status in children with retinoblastoma and pseudoretinoblastoma at different ages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 47 retinoblastoma suspects aged 4-69 months were enrolled. Pseudoretinoblastoma (inflammatory retinal diseases and intrauterine maldevelopments of the retina) was detected in 14 children (group 1), retinoblastoma - in 33 children (group 2)...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978465/sarm1-deletion-but-not-wld-s-confers-lifelong-rescue-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-axonopathy
#8
Jonathan Gilley, Richard R Ribchester, Michael P Coleman
Studies with the Wld(S) mutant mouse have shown that axon and synapse pathology in several models of neurodegenerative diseases are mechanistically related to injury-induced axon degeneration (Wallerian degeneration). Crucially, an absence of SARM1 delays Wallerian degeneration as robustly as Wld(S), but their relative capacities to confer long-term protection against related, non-injury axonopathy and/or synaptopathy have not been directly compared. While Sarm1 deletion or Wld(S) can rescue perinatal lethality and widespread Wallerian-like axonopathy in young NMNAT2-deficient mice, we report that an absence of SARM1 enables these mice to survive into old age with no overt phenotype, whereas those rescued by Wld(S) invariantly develop a progressive neuromuscular defect in their hindlimbs from around 3 months of age...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974162/antenatal-assessment-and-postnatal-outcome-of-fetal-echogenic-lung-lesions-a-decade-s-experience-at-a-tertiary-referral-hospital
#9
Stefan C Kane, Fabrício Da Silva Costa, Joseph A Crameri, Karen L Reidy, Helen Kaganov, Ricardo Palma-Dias
INTRODUCTION: Fetal echogenic lung lesions (ELL) are the commonest pulmonary pathology diagnosed on antenatal sonography, and include congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) and bronchopulmonary sequestrations. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of the CPAM volume ratio (CVR) at presentation in a series of fetuses with ELLs at a tertiary Australian referral hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all pregnancies with a prenatal diagnosis of an isolated fetal echogenic lung lesion managed at the Royal Women's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, between 2005 and 2015...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972799/immune-function-a-missing-link-in-the-gender-disparity-in-preterm-neonatal-outcomes
#10
David N O'Driscoll, Catherine M Greene, Eleanor J Molloy
In neonatology, males exhibit a more severe disease course and poorer prognosis in many pathological states when compared to females. Perinatal brain injury, respiratory morbidity, and sepsis, among other complications, preferentially affect males. Preterm neonates (born <37 weeks gestation) display a particularly marked sexual disparity in pathology, especially at the borders of viability. The sex biases in preterm neonatal outcomes and underlying multifactorial mechanisms have been incompletely explored...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971254/placental-pathology-varies-in-hypertensive-conditions-of-pregnancy
#11
Jerzy Stanek
This study was a comprehensive analysis of placental phenotypes in hypertensive conditions of pregnancy, including recently described placental hypoxic lesions and lesions of shallow placentation. To this end, consecutive placentas from > 21 weeks pregnancies that were signed out by the author at 4 tertiary care centers on 3 continents were included. Twenty-four clinical and 50 placental phenotypes were studied in 6 groups and statistically compared: 91 cases of gestational hypertension, 187 cases of mild preeclampsia, 211 cases of severe preeclampsia, 84 cases of HELLP or eclampsia, 127 cases of chronic hypertension, and 55 cases of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension...
October 2, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948358/pregnancy-outcome-in-162-women-with-rheumatic-diseases-experience-of-a-university-hospital-in-turkey
#12
Ebru Alici Davutoğlu, Aysegul Ozel, Nevin Yılmaz, Riza Madazli
PURPOSE: To evaluate the distribution and the obstetric outcomes of pregnancies with different types of rheumatic diseases managed in our unit. METHODS: Pregnancies of 162 women with rheumatic diseases, seen for their antenatal care at our department for the period between 2013 and 2017 were included in this retrospective clinical study. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes were main outcome measures. RESULTS: The most encountered rheumatic diseases were SLE (37...
September 25, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945005/differential-expression-of-myometrial-ap-1-proteins-during-gestation-and-labour
#13
Lubna Nadeem, Tali Farine, Anna Dorogin, Elzbieta Matysiak-Zablocki, Oksana Shynlova, Stephen Lye
Preterm labour (PTL) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and postnatal morbidity. Contractions of the uterine muscle (myometrium) that determine the onset of labour depend on the expression of contraction-associated proteins (CAPs, i.e. connexin43) regulated by dimeric AP-1 transcription factors. Here, we examined subcellular (by immunoblotting) and tissue expression (by immunohistochemistry) of myometrial AP-1 proteins (cJUN, JUNB, JUND, cFOS, FOSB, FRA1, FRA2) throughout gestation and TL in different species (mouse, rat and human)...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#14
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922987/admissions-for-hypoglycaemia-after-35%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation-perinatal-predictors-of-cost-of-stay
#15
Theodore Dassios, Anne Greenough, Stamatina Leontiadi, Ann Hickey, Nick Kametas
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycaemia accounts for approximately one tenth of term admissions to neonatal units, can cause long-term neurodevelopmental impairment and is associated with significant burden to the affected infants, families and the health system. OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence, length and cost of admissions for hypoglycaemia in infants born at greater than 35 weeks gestation and to identify antenatal and perinatal predictors of those outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective audit of infants admitted for hypoglycaemia between 1/1/2012 and 31/12/2015, in a level three neonatal intensive care unit at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920104/variable-phenotypic-penetrance-of-thrombosis-in-adult-mice-after-tissue-selective-and-temporally-controlled-thbd-gene-inactivation
#16
Thijs E van Mens, Hai-Po H Liang, Sreemanti Basu, Irene Hernandez, Mark Zogg, Jennifer May, Min Zhan, Qiuhui Yang, Jamie Foeckler, Shawn Kalloway, Rashmi Sood, Caren Sue Karlson, Hartmut Weiler
Thrombomodulin (Thbd) exerts pleiotropic effects on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and complement system activity by facilitating the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and may have additional thrombin- and protein C (pC)-independent functions. In mice, complete Thbd deficiency causes embryonic death due to defective placental development. In this study, we used tissue-selective and temporally controlled Thbd gene ablation to examine the function of Thbd in adult mice...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915123/placental-examination-in-nonmacerated-stillbirth-versus-neonatal-mortality
#17
Jerzy Stanek
AIM: To retrospectively statistically compare clinical and placental phenotypes of nonmacerated fetuses and live-born perinatal deaths in 3rd trimester pregnancies. METHODS: Twenty-five clinical and 47 placental phenotypes were statistically compared among 93 cases of nonmacerated (intrapartum, or recent antepartum death) 3rd trimester fetal deaths (Group 1), 118 3rd trimester neonatal deaths (Group 2) and 4285 cases without perinatal mortality (Group 3). RESULTS: Sixteen clinical and placental phenotypes were statistically significantly different between Group 3 and the two groups of perinatal deaths, which included eight placental phenotypes of fetal vascular malperfusion and eight other placental phenotypes of various etiology (amnion nodosum, 2-vessel umbilical cord, villous edema, increased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi, erythroblasts in fetal blood and trophoblastic lesions of shallow placentation)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898573/alternatives-to-autopsy-for-fetal-and-early-neonatal-perinatal-deaths-insights-from-the-wisconsin-stillbirth-service-program
#18
Elspeth McPherson, Eirini Nestoridi, Dominique Heinke, Drucilla J Roberts, Ruth Fretts, Mahsa M Yazdy, Angela E Lin
BACKGROUND: Although autopsy is a key component of the etiologic evaluation following fetal and early neonatal death, and traditionally has been the preferred method to determine the cause of death, an alternative may be suitable when traditional autopsy by a perinatal pathologist is not available or declined. METHODS: Among 3137 cases evaluated through the Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP), a community-based program for etiologic evaluation of second trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, and early neonatal death, most diagnoses are based on multiple types of data including placental pathology, clinical examination, photographs, maternal records, radiographs, and laboratory testing...
September 12, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28896000/-symptomatic-absence-seizures-the-least-known-causation-of-absence-seizures
#19
L Carrera-Garcia, I Malaga-Dieguez, R Blanco-Lago, A Diaz-Baamonde, L Santovena-Gonzalez, J Gonzalez-Rato
INTRODUCTION: According to the 1981 International League Against Epilepsy classification, absence seizures are the paradigm of idiopathic generalised seizures of childhood. Although absences are mainly of an idiopathic origin, there are also symptomatic absences, which account for 10% of all cases of absences. It is thought that a structural pathology can favour the appearance of absences in genetically predisposed individuals. CASE REPORTS: We report the cases of two patients with symptomatic absence seizures of childhood onset...
September 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892972/renal-synovial-sarcoma-in-a-young-pregnant-lady-a-case-report-and-clinico-pathological-profile
#20
Gregory Pathrose, Nirmal Thampi John, Pradeep Hariharan
Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm with clearly defined histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features. These tumours usually arise in the extremities of young adults. Their occurrence in the kidney is extremely rare. A 25-year-old pregnant lady in her first trimester was incidentally found to have a left renal mass on perinatal ultrasonography. MRI showed a well encapsulated, heterointense mass replacing the left kidney. Following medical termination of her pregnancy, a radical nephrectomy was performed...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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