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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226064/reflections-in-the-light-of-the-complexity-theory-and-nursing-education
#1
Ronny Anderson de Oliveira Cruz, Elidianne Layanne Medeiros de Araujo, Neyce de Matos Nascimento, Raquel Janyne de Lima, Jael Rúbia Figueiredo de Sá França, Jacira Dos Santos Oliveira
Objective: to reflect on nursing education, taking into account the principles of complex thinking proposed by Morin. Method: reflection based on the principles of the complexity theory by Edgar Morin. Results: the application of complexity in teaching proposes an emancipatory education based on questioning and social transformation. It comprises the education of nurses who interact with others as a characteristic of their work. It is necessary to prepare students to develop critical and reflective attitudes and actions to overcome the fragmentation and linearity of knowledge...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223237/consumer-preferences-for-sustainable-aquaculture-products-evidence-from-in-depth-interviews-think-aloud-protocols-and-choice-experiments
#2
Antje Risius, Meike Janssen, Ulrich Hamm
Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied...
February 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216842/case-based-learning-a-study-to-ascertain-the-effectiveness-in-enhancing-the-knowledge-among-interns-of-an-indian-dental-institute
#3
Kamal Shigli, Y B Aswini, Deepti Fulari, Banashree Sankeshwari, Dayanand Huddar, M Vikneshan
OBJECTIVE: Time and again, it has been shown that active learning promotes critical thinking, and this environment has to be fostered in dental education too. Therefore, the present study was carried out with an aim to know the effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) in enhancing the knowledge of dental interns of a dental institute in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This pre-post single-blinded, experimental study was conducted in two sessions on a purposive sample of 45 dental interns who gave informed consent...
January 2017: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213153/critical-thinking-instruction-and-technology-enhanced-learning-from-the-student-perspective-a-mixed-methods-research-study
#4
Ruth Swart
Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability...
February 4, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208882/pbl-trigger-design-by-medical-students-an-effective-active-learning-strategy-outside-the-classroom
#5
Maya Roche, Indira Kakkunje Adiga, Akshatha G Nayak
INTRODUCTION: Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. AIM: To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207980/questioning-skills-of-clinical-facilitators-supporting-undergraduate-nursing-students
#6
Nicole M Phillips, Maxine M Duke, Rona Weerasuriya
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To report on a study investigating questioning skills of clinical facilitators who support the learning of undergraduate nursing students. BACKGROUND: The ability to think critically is integral to decision-making and the provision of safe and quality patient care. Developing students' critical thinking skills is expected of those who supervise and facilitate student learning in the clinical setting. Models used to facilitate student learning in the clinical setting have changed over the years with clinicians having dual responsibility for patient care and facilitating student learning...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#7
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198580/can-nursing-epistemology-embrace-p-values
#8
Christine H K Ou, Wendy A Hall, Sally E Thorne
The use of correlational probability values (p-values) as a means of evaluating evidence in nursing and health care has largely been accepted uncritically. There are reasons to be concerned about an uncritical adherence to the use of significance testing, which has been located in the natural science paradigm. p-values have served in hypothesis and statistical testing, such as in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses to support what has been portrayed as the highest levels of evidence in the framework of evidence-based practice...
February 15, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188946/integration-of-cognitive-skills-as-a-cross-cutting-theme-into-the-undergraduate-medical-curriculum-at-tehran-university-of-medical-sciences
#9
Akbar Soltani, Maryam Allaa, Hamideh Moosapour, Azadeh Aletaha, Farzaneh Shahrtash, Alireza Monajemi, Tohid Arastoo, Maryam Ahmadinejad, Azim Mirzazadeh, Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad
Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences...
January 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188698/justification-of-radiographic-examinations-what-are-the-key-issues
#10
REVIEW
Jason Vom, Imelda Williams
Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187323/suppressing-memories-of-words-and-familiar-objects-results-in-their-affective-devaluation-evidence-from-think-no-think-tasks
#11
David De Vito, Mark J Fenske
Potentially distracting or otherwise-inappropriate stimuli, thoughts, or actions often must be inhibited to prevent interference with goal-directed behaviour. Growing evidence suggests that the impact of inhibition is not limited to reduced neurocognitive processing, but also includes negative affective consequences for any associated stimuli. The link between inhibition and aversive response has primarily been studied using tasks involving attentional- or response-related inhibition of external sensory stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185589/synergies-strengths-and-challenges-findings-on-community-capability-from-a-systematic-health-systems-research-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Asha S George, Kerry Scott, Vrinda Mehra, Veena Sriram
BACKGROUND: Community capability is the combined influence of a community's social systems and collective resources that can address community problems and broaden community opportunities. We frame it as consisting of three domains that together support community empowerment: what communities have; how communities act; and for whom communities act. We sought to further understand these domains through a secondary analysis of a previous systematic review on community participation in health systems interventions in low and middle income countries (LMICs)...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185075/paediatric-patient-safety-and-the-need-for-aviation-black-box-thinking-to-learn-from-and-prevent-medication-errors
#13
Chi Huynh, Ian C K Wong, Jo Correa-West, David Terry, Suzanne McCarthy
Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors...
February 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178963/immersive-high-fidelity-simulation-of-critically-ill-patients-to-study-cognitive-errors-a-pilot-study
#14
Shivesh Prakash, Shailesh Bihari, Penelope Need, Cyle Sprick, Lambert Schuwirth
BACKGROUND: The majority of human errors in healthcare originate from cognitive errors or biases. There is dearth of evidence around relative prevalence and significance of various cognitive errors amongst doctors in their first post-graduate year. This study was conducted with the objective of using high fidelity clinical simulation as a tool to study the relative occurrence of selected cognitive errors amongst doctors in their first post-graduate year. METHODS: Intern simulation sessions on acute clinical problems, conducted in year 2014, were reviewed by two independent assessors with expertise in critical care...
February 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171852/the-extent-variability-and-attitudes-towards-volunteering-among-undergraduate-nursing-students-implications-for-pedagogy-in-nurse-education
#15
S E Dyson, L Liu, O van den Akker, Mike O'Driscoll
In the aftermath of the Francis Report nurses are being called to account for an apparent lack of care and compassion, leading to debate around pedagogy in nurse education. Absent from this debate is a consideration of student volunteering within undergraduate nursing programmes and its potential to promote student nurses self-esteem and to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the extent of and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students...
January 28, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166428/design-of-experiments-doe-in-pharmaceutical-development
#16
Stavros N Politis, Paolo Colombo, Gaia Colombo, Dimitrios M Rekkas
At the beginning of the 20(th) century, Sir Ronald Fisher introduced the concept of applying statistical analysis during the planning stages of research rather than at the end of experimentation. When statistical thinking is applied from the design phase, it enables to build quality into the product, by adopting Deming's profound knowledge approach, comprising system thinking, variation understanding, theory of knowledge and psychology. The pharmaceutical industry was late in adopting these paradigms, compared to other sectors...
February 6, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164767/nanotechnology-for-alzheimer-disease
#17
Jerzy Leszek, Wai Hei Tse, Jin Zhang, Marco Fidel Ávila-Rodriguez, Vadim V Tarasov, George E Barreto, Sergey O Bachurin, Gjumrakch Aliev
Dementia of Alzheimer disease (AD) type affects memory, thinking and behavior. Researchers believe that changes in the brain may begin 10-20 years before symptoms appear and AD is diagnosed. The need to diagnose and treat the devastating disease at an early stage is critical to manage and treat AD. Unfortunately, the lack of validated biomarkers limits the possibility of the earlier stages of AD. The advance of nanotechnology could offer huge opportunities in early-stage diagnosis and well treatment of AD. Biocompatible nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 1-100 nm could be used as targeted delivery system for drugs (e...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163396/schumpeter-s-picture-of-economic-and-political-institutions-in-the-light-of-a-cognitive-approach-to-human-behavior
#18
Massimo Egidi
Schumpeter's theory of democracy can be read through the lens of the cognitive approach to rationality. Schumpeter himself constructed his theory on the basis of his (neglected) conception of conscious rationality, which considers the process of thinking as composed of conscious/deliberate and unconscious/automatic components. The prevalence of the deliberate over the automatic component can occur in different degrees; as a consequence, individuals exhibit different levels of conscious rationality. Schumpeter makes clear that an essential attribute of democracy is its being a system of government capable of working notwithstanding a low degree of conscious rationality among its citizens...
2017: J Evol Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161664/assessing-maladaptive-repetitive-thought-in-clinical-disorders-a-critical-review-of-existing-measures
#19
REVIEW
Suraj Samtani, Michelle L Moulds
Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology...
January 24, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157389/critical-thinking-in-critical-care-five-strategies-to-improve-teaching-and-learning-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
Margaret M Hayes, Souvik Chatterjee, Richard M Schwartzstein
Critical thinking, the capacity to be deliberate about thinking, is increasingly the focus of undergraduate medical education, but is not commonly addressed in graduate medical education. Without critical thinking, physicians, particularly residents, are prone to cognitive errors, which can lead to diagnostic errors, especially in a high stakes environment such as the intensive care unit. Although challenging, critical thinking skills can be taught. Currently there is a paucity of data to support an educational gold standard for teaching critical thinking, but we believe that five strategies, routed in cognitive theory and our personal teaching experiences, provide an effective framework to teach critical thinking in the intensive care unit...
February 3, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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