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Critical thinking

Maryah S Fram, Edward A Frongillo
In recent years, school-based food backpack programs (BPPs) have come into national prominence as a response to a perceived crisis of child hunger in America. Distributing bags of free food directly to schoolchildren for their own personal consumption each weekend, BPPs bring together private donors, faith communities, and public schools around an intuitively appealing project: children are hungry, and so we give them food. Perhaps because of their intuitive appeal, BPPs have expanded rapidly, without rigorous evaluation to determine their impacts on children, families, and schools...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Mathias Schlögl, Daniel Hofmänner, Robert Manka, Dagmar I Keller
We present a case of an 80-year-old Turkish female patient with diabetes who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and underwent percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA)/stenting. Due to new ischaemic episodes, a second PTCA/stenting had to be preformed 6 days later, which revealed a partial restent thrombosis. This case report raises several important issues. First, language problems are an important barrier for safety and quality in healthcare. Second, gender, ethnicity and age differences in patients with AMI need to be considered in order to eliminate inequities in clinical practice...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Guido Giunti, Jan Kool, Octavio Rivera Romero, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders, with symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and issues with mobility. Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) helps people with MS reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. The use of mobile technologies for health has grown in recent years with little involvement from relevant stakeholders. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy with the goal of creating solutions specific to the needs and tasks of the intended users...
February 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Maria Ward, Mary C Knowlton, Candice W Laney
The flipped classroom (FC) andragogy purports an improvement of critical thinking and problem-solving skills in students. This literature review explores fourteen research studies and discusses outcome measures reported on the effectiveness of using this teaching modality. Students described the learning activities during the classroom meeting times as valuable and indicated the interaction and engagement were beneficial to their learning. Many students opined an increased comprehension of the subject matter...
February 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Luana Dos Santos Costa, Gláucia Alexandre Formozo
OBJECTIVE: analyze the social representation of undergraduates from the health area in which were scholars of PET-Saúde of the UFRJ-Macaé Professor Aloísio Teixeira Campus about this program and its contribution to the respective professional training. METHOD: This is an exploratory, descriptive study, with a qualitative approach. A total of 38 undergraduates participated, and a professional socioeconomic questionnaire and semi-structured interview were used to collect data...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Adam Omelianchuk
Although much has been written on the dead-donor rule (DDR) in the last twenty-five years, scant attention has been paid to how it should be formulated, what its rationale is, and why it was accepted. The DDR can be formulated in terms of either a Don't Kill rule or a Death Requirement, the former being historically rooted in absolutist ethics and the latter in a prudential policy aimed at securing trust in the transplant enterprise. I contend that the moral core of the rule is the Don't Kill rule, not the Death Requirement...
February 6, 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Magnus Liebherr, Hanna Weiland-Breckle, Tanja Grewe, Petra B Schumacher
We often walk around when we have to think about something, but suddenly stop when we are confronted with a demanding cognitive task, such as calculating 1540∗24. While previous neurophysiological research investigated cognitive and motor performance separately, findings that combine both are rare. To get a deeper understanding of the influence of motor demands as well as the difficulty of a simultaneously performed cognitive task, we investigated 20 healthy individuals. Participants performed two cognitive tasks with different levels of difficulty while sitting or standing on one leg...
January 30, 2018: Brain Research
Mohammed Saqr, Uno Fors, Matti Tedre
BACKGROUND: Collaborative learning facilitates reflection, diversifies understanding and stimulates skills of critical and higher-order thinking. Although the benefits of collaborative learning have long been recognized, it is still rarely studied by social network analysis (SNA) in medical education, and the relationship of parameters that can be obtained via SNA with students' performance remains largely unknown. The aim of this work was to assess the potential of SNA for studying online collaborative clinical case discussions in a medical course and to find out which activities correlate with better performance and help predict final grade or explain variance in performance...
February 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Amanda Holt, Phillip C Shon
An examination of scholarly literature concerning fatal violence (i.e., parricide) and non-fatal violence toward parents reveals dominant themes of mental illness, child abuse, and pathology based on a research paradigm that focuses on adolescent perpetrators and, to a lesser extent, elderly victims. This article presents a critical analysis of this literature and argues for a more contextualized approach to the study of violence against parents. It is argued that criminologists should widen their methodological lens to examine this issue from a life course perspective and draw on conceptual tools such as developmental pathways, sources of conflict, and intersectionality to allow for an analysis that can offer new ways of thinking about violence toward parents...
March 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Dustin T Weiler, Andrea L Gibson, Jason J Saleem
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of high fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) on nursing training; however, a gap exists on the effects of role assignment on critical thinking, self-efficacy, and situation awareness skills in team-based simulation scenarios. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine if role assignment and the involvement level related to the roles yields significant effects and differences in critical thinking, situation awareness and self-efficacy scores in team-based high-fidelity simulation scenarios...
January 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Jacob M Kolman, Susan M Miller
An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores...
January 29, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Adam Papini, Pietro Ravani, Robert R Quinn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is renewed interest in vascular access research, fueled by new perspectives and a critical re-examination of traditional thinking. This review summarizes important developments in vascular access from the past year, highlight areas of controversy, and makes recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies provide an innovative and critical look at the assumptions underlying the promotion of fistulas as the preferred form of vascular access and highlight the need for a randomized comparison of different forms of access...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Wendy Carter Kooken, Noël Kerr
The liberal arts and sciences serve as a core part of the educational discipline in nursing curriculum and are believed to undergird abilities for critical-thinking, creativity, and holistic care (Hermann, 2004; McKie, 2012). Over time, science has taken on a more central role in nursing education, despite the acknowledged importance and contributions of liberal arts. The humanities are an essential part of liberal arts education and generally include disciplines such as history, literature, religion, philosophy, architecture, or fine arts (e...
January 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Martin M Miner, Joel Heidelbaugh, Mark Paulos, Allen D Seftel, Jason Jameson, Steven A Kaplan
Men's mental health and how they think about their health are critical to the future of men's health. Poor health choice patterns are established under age 50, when men are twice as likely to die than women. As the future of medicine focuses on quality and value, a better understanding of the social determinants of men's health will identify areas for improvement. The presentation of a man to a clinician's office with a sexual health complaint presents an opportunity for more complete evaluation. The future of men's health will be well served by integrated men's health centers that focus on the entire man...
March 2018: Medical Clinics of North America
Linda Underbrink, Alice Twink Dalton, Jan Leonard, Pamela W Bourg, Abigail Blackmore, Holly Valverde, Thomas Candlin, Lisa M Caputo, Christopher Duran, Sherrie Peckham, Jeff Beckman, Brandon Daruna, Krista Furie, Debra Hopgood
OBJECTIVE: The impact of immobilization techniques on older adult trauma patients with spinal injury has rarely been studied. Our advisory group implemented a change in the immobilization protocol used by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals across a region encompassing 9 trauma centers and 24 EMS agencies in a Rocky Mountain state using a decentralized process on July 1, 2014. We sought to determine whether implementing the protocol would alter immobilization methods and affect patient outcomes among adults ≥60 years with a cervical spine injury...
February 6, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Grace Edwards, Kyakuwaire Hellen, Sharon Brownie
BACKGROUND: there is extensive evidence to show that skilled midwifery care is crucial in reducing maternal deaths; however, in East Africa, the midwifery profession has been subsumed within the nursing role. This paper highlights issues in the preparation of skilled midwives in three East African countries, specifically, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania and provides a case study description of a flexible work/study programme designed to develop skilled midwives to meet internationally regarded ICM competency standards in midwifery education and practice...
January 11, 2018: Midwifery
Catherine M Walsh, Li-Jung Liang, Tristan Grogan, Courtney Coles, Norma McNair, Teryl K Nuckols
BACKGROUND: Most fall prevention programs are only modestly effective, and their sustainability is unknown. An academic medical center implemented a series of fall prevention interventions from 2001 to 2014. METHODS: The medical center's series of fall prevention interventions were as follows: reorganized the Falls Committee (2001), started flagging high-risk patients (2001), improved fall reporting (2002), increased scrutiny of falls (2005), instituted hourly nursing rounds (2006), reorganized leadership systems (2007), standardized fall prevention equipment (2008), adapted to a move to a new hospital building (2008), routinely investigated root causes (2009), mitigated fall risk during hourly nursing rounds (2009), educated patients about falls (2011), and taught nurses to think critically about risk (2012)...
February 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
John Dobson, Tracy Linderholm, Jose Perez
OBJECTIVE: Many investigations have shown that retrieval practice enhances the recall of different types of information, including both medical and physiological, but the effects of the strategy on higher-order thinking, such as evaluation, are less clear. The primary aim of this study was to compare how effectively retrieval practice and repeated studying (i.e. reading) strategies facilitated the evaluation of two research articles that advocated dissimilar conclusions. A secondary aim was to determine if that comparison was affected by using those same strategies to first learn important contextual information about the articles...
February 1, 2018: Medical Education
Itxaso Barberia, Elisabet Tubau, Helena Matute, Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro
Cognitive biases such as causal illusions have been related to paranormal and pseudoscientific beliefs and, thus, pose a real threat to the development of adequate critical thinking abilities. We aimed to reduce causal illusions in undergraduates by means of an educational intervention combining training-in-bias and training-in-rules techniques. First, participants directly experienced situations that tend to induce the Barnum effect and the confirmation bias. Thereafter, these effects were explained and examples of their influence over everyday life were provided...
2018: PloS One
Linda Schauenburg, Filip Liebsch, Murat Eravci, Magnus C Mayer, Christoph Weise, Gerhard Multhaup
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its homologs, the APP like proteins APLP1 and APLP2, is typically a two-step process, which is initiated by ectodomain-shedding of the substrates by α- or β-secretases. Growing evidence, however, indicates that the cleavage process for APLP1 is different than for APP. Here, we describe that full-length APLP1, but not APP or APLP2, is uniquely cleaved by γ-secretase without previous ectodomain shedding. The new fragment, termed sAPLP1γ, was exclusively associated with APLP1, not APP, APLP2...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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