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Multiplex and cytokine and canine

Kristen R Richter, Amirah N Nasr, Angela M Mexas
Cytokines are known to play important roles in a wide range of pathologic conditions spanning all organ systems in every species studied. As our knowledge of the physiology of individual cytokines expands and our ability to measure multiple cytokines in smaller biological samples increases, we gain more insight into the significance and function of each cytokine and the importance of cytokine networks. Previous studies that reported measurements of cytokine concentrations from serum or plasma in dogs with infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, endocrine, and neoplastic diseases yield an appreciation for the complexity of cytokine control and potential applications for cytokine measurements in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of a variety of disease conditions...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
Hanne Gredal, Barbara B Thomsen, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Laurent Garosi, Clare Rusbridge, Daniel Anthony, Arne Møller, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Kate L Lambertsen, Mette Berendt
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up...
February 8, 2017: Neuroreport
Jerome Calvalido, Geoffrey A Wood, Anthony J Mutsaers, Darren Wood, William Sears, J Paul Woods
In humans, multiple cytokines have been linked to the development of lymphoma, and are relevant biomarkers for response to chemotherapy and prognosis. In contrast, only a few circulating cytokines have been studied in dogs with lymphoma. We prospectively enrolled thirty-one dogs newly diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma. Immunophenotype was determined by flow cytometry in all dogs, separating them into 2 subgroups: B cell lymphoma (n=21) and T cell lymphoma (n=10). Nineteen healthy dogs were enrolled in the control group...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Amy M Silverstein, Aaron M Stoker, Gerard A Ateshian, J Chloe Bulinski, James L Cook, Clark T Hung
Due to the degradation of osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage in post-traumatic OA (PTOA), these tissues are challenging to study and manipulate in vitro. In this study, chondrocytes isolated from either PTOA (meniscal-release (MR) model) or normal (contralateral limb) cartilage of canine knee joints were used to form micropellets to assess the maintenance of the OA chondrocyte phenotype in vitro. Media samples from the micropellet cultures were used to measure matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), chemokine, and cytokine concentrations...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Amelia Goddard, Andrew L Leisewitz, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Annemarie T Kristensen, Johan P Schoeman
Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot...
2016: PloS One
Iulia Karlsson, Ragnvi Hagman, Anders Johannisson, Liya Wang, Fredrik Södersten, Sara Wernersson
Clinical diagnostic criteria for sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection) are unspecific and, therefore, biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis are needed for appropriate treatment and patient survival. Pyometra, a common disease caused by bacterial infection of the uterus, results in sepsis in nearly 60% of cases in dogs. We used dogs with pyometra as a natural model for sepsis and collected serum samples from 39 dogs, of which 22 with pyometra and 17 healthy controls. Dogs with pyometra were further grouped into dogs with sepsis (n=18) and without sepsis (n=4)...
February 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sarah L Purcell, Melissa Claus, Giselle Hosgood, Lisa Smart
OBJECTIVE To measure changes in interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in stored canine packed RBCs (PRBCs) over time and assess the effect of leukoreduction on these cytokine concentrations. ANIMALS 12 anesthetized healthy Greyhounds. PROCEDURES 1 unit of whole blood from each dog was processed into PRBCs. Half of each PRBCs unit was passed through a leukoreduction filter to produce a leukoreduced unit, and the remaining blood was kept as a nonleukoreduced unit...
November 2015: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Stavros Stavrakis, Mary Beth Humphrey, Benjamin J Scherlag, Yanqing Hu, Warren M Jackman, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Deborah Lockwood, Ralph Lazzara, Sunny S Po
BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous low-level tragus electrical stimulation (LLTS) suppresses atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the antiarrhythmic and anti-inflammatory effects of LLTS in humans. METHODS: Patients with paroxysmal AF who presented for AF ablation were randomized to either 1 h of LLTS (n = 20) or sham control (n = 20). Attaching a flat metal clip onto the tragus produced LLTS (20 Hz) in the right ear (50% lower than the voltage slowing the sinus rate)...
March 10, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Farrah A Monibi, John R Dodam, Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel, Juliana Amorim, Yan Zhang, Kaoru Tsuruta, F A Mann, Amy E DeClue
Opioids have immunomodulatory properties in many species, but there is little information pertaining to these properties in dogs. Our objective was to compare the in vivo effects of morphine, buprenorphine, and control solution on innate immune system function and apoptosis in healthy dogs. Six adult dogs received a 24-hour infusion of morphine, buprenorphine, or control solution (saline) in a randomized, controlled, crossover block design. Leukocyte apoptosis, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst were evaluated using flow cytometry...
April 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
Rowena A Woode, Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel, Kaoru Tsuruta, Juliana R Amorim, Yan Zhang, Amy E DeClue
INTRODUCTION: Resveratrol, a naturally-occurring phytophenol, has been shown to bolster immune surveillance and reverse immunosenescence in a dose dependent manner in rodents and humans. Although safety and pharmacokinetic studies have been completed in dogs, the immunomodulatory effects of resveratrol in dogs has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of resveratrol on canine innate immune system function in vitro. The hypothesis was that similar to other species, low concentrations of resveratrol would stimulate while high concentrations would depress innate immune system function...
February 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Berenice C Bastien, Avinash Patil, Ebenezer Satyaraj
Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that are contributing to insulin resistance and related co-morbidities. Cytokines act in networks and exhibit pleiotropic effects so we investigated the circulating levels of a wide array of cytokines (pro and anti-inflammatory, chemotactic and growth factors) in a canine model of weight loss. The dogs served as their own control in order to study the impact of weight loss independent of potential confounding factors, such as history of excess weight or gender...
February 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Amelia G White, Cassandra L Wolsic, Karen L Campbell, Sidonie N Lavergne
BACKGROUND: Bacterial skin infections are common in dogs and humans. Keratinocytes have phenotypic features of nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells and express various cytokines. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics on inflammatory markers in canine keratinocytes. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate inflammatory markers in canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEKs) and to determine the effects of selected antibiotics on these markers...
December 2014: Veterinary Dermatology
A N K Floras, M K Holowaychuk, D Bienzle, A M E Bersenas, S Sharif, T Harvey, S K Nordone, G A Wood
BACKGROUND: Serum N-terminal pro-C-natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) concentration at hospital admission has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to differentiate naturally occurring sepsis from nonseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, little is known about serum NT-proCNP concentrations in dogs during the course of sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum NT-proCNP and cytokine kinetics in dogs with endotoxemia, a model of canine sepsis. SAMPLES: Eighty canine serum samples...
September 2014: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Sandra M Axiak-Bechtel, Kaoru Tsuruta, Juliana Amorim, Rebecca Donaldson, Giulia Lino, Allyson Honaker, Farrah Monibi, John Dodam, Amy DeClue
OBJECTIVE: Tramadol is a commonly used opioid analgesic in dogs, particularly in dogs with a compromised immune system. An opioid may be selected for its immunomodulatory effects. Consequently, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tramadol on immune system function by evaluating the effect of tramadol and o-desmethyltramadol (M1) on the function of canine leukocytes in vitro. The hypothesis was that tramadol and M1 would not alter polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) phagocytosis, PMN oxidative burst, or stimulated leukocyte cytokine production capacity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10...
May 2015: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
P Martin-Vaquero, R C da Costa, S A Moore, A C Gross, T D Eubank
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of human cervical spondylotic myelopathy and could also play a role in cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: That cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine concentrations would differ between clinically normal (control) and CSM-affected Great Danes (GDs), with affected GDs showing higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2)...
July 2014: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Milton Levin, Tracy Romano, Keith Matassa, Sylvain De Guise
The present study was conducted to assess and validate the cross-reactivity of commercially available multiplex human and canine cytokine kits coupled with the Bio-Plex 200 platform to measure cytokines in three pinniped species, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), and harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus). Cytokines are important small proteins that help direct a proper immune response to pathogens. The human cytokine kit allowed the detection of cytokines in the supernatant of mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but not in the three pinniped species studied, with the exception of TNFα and GM-CSF...
July 15, 2014: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ashley N Hartley, Gretchen Cooley, Sarah Gwyn, Marcela M Orozco, Rick L Tarleton
Vaccines to prevent Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans or animals are not available, and in many settings, dogs are an important source of domestic infection for the insect vector. Identification of infected canines is crucial for evaluating peridomestic transmission dynamics and parasite control strategies. As immune control of T. cruzi infection is dependent on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, we aimed to define a serodiagnostic assay and T cell phenotypic markers for identifying infected dogs and studying the canine T...
2014: Veterinary Research
I Karlsson, R Hagman, A Johannisson, L Wang, E Karlstam, S Wernersson
Pyometra is a disease in dogs caused by bacterial infection of the uterus and resulting in SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) in nearly 6 of 10 cases. Clinical diagnostic criteria for SIRS are relatively unspecific, and biomarkers for the diagnosis of pyometra and SIRS in dogs are needed. Serum samples from 32 dogs were used in this study and grouped into dogs with pyometra and SIRS, dogs with pyometra without SIRS and healthy controls. The serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18 and TNF-α were measured using multiplex analyses...
December 2012: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Melissa Grant, Jay Wilson, Peter Rock, Iain Chapple
This controlled longitudinal intervention study investigated changes in cytokines and biomarkers of bone and tissue metabolism within gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. GCF was collected on Periopaper™ strips (Oraflow Inc., USA) from 20 volunteers at baseline, before tooth extraction and appliance placement and then at intervals during orthodontic treatment. Samples were taken 10 weeks following first appliance placement: at four hours; 7 days; and 42 days after application of distalising forces to maxillary canine teeth...
October 2013: European Journal of Orthodontics
E Dvir, R J Mellanby, M Kjelgaard-Hansen, J P Schoeman
The nematode Spirocerca lupi (S. lupi) induces sarcoma in the dog oesophagus in about 25% of cases. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the cytokine milieu between dogs with neoplastic (n=29) and non-neoplastic disease (n=49) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n=25). We measured IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, GM-CSF and MCP-1 in a specific canine multiplex immunoassay kit. Cytokine concentrations were compared between the different groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test...
November 23, 2012: Veterinary Parasitology
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