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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919178/comparison-of-respiratory-inductive-plethysmography-versus-head-out-plethysmography-for-anesthetized-nonhuman-primates-in-an-animal-biosafety-level-4-facility
#2
J Kyle Bohannon, Anna N Honko, Rebecca J Reeder, Kurt Cooper, Russ Byrum, Laura Bollinger, Jens H Kuhn, Jiro Wada, Jing Qin, Peter B Jahrling, Matthew G Lackemeyer
For inhalational studies and aerosol exposures to viruses, head-out plethysmography acquisition has been traditionally used for the determination of estimated inhaled dose in anesthetized nonhuman primates prior to or during an aerosol exposure. A pressure drop across a pneumotachograph is measured within a sealed chamber during inspiration/exhalation of the nonhuman primate, generating respiratory values and breathing frequencies. Due to the fluctuation of depth of anesthesia, pre-exposure respiratory values can be variable, leading to less precise and accurate dosing calculations downstream...
December 5, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904756/ct-negative-mri-gre-positive-primary-motor-cortex-contusion-causing-isolated-foot-drop
#3
Alexander M Tucker, Tianyi Niu, Daniel T Nagasawa, Richard Everson, Shaina Sedighim, Manuel M Buitrago Blanco
BACKGROUND: Isolated acute foot drop due to traumatic brain injury is exceedingly rare and is often misdiagnosed during initial evaluation. Here, we present the case of a patient who presented with left foot drop after falling off a bicycle. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 55-year-old male who was mountain biking when he fell, hit his head, and lost consciousness. Neurologic examination of the left leg revealed foot drop, no sensory deficits, and 3+ reflexes at the knee and ankle with clonus...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#4
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880972/interferons-beta-versus-glatiramer-acetate-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Loredana La Mantia, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Marco Rovaris, Giulio Rigon, Serena Frau, Francesco Berardo, Anna Gandini, Anna Longobardi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Alberto Vaona
BACKGROUND: Interferons-beta (IFNs-beta) and glatiramer acetate (GA) were the first two disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) approved 20 years ago for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). DMTs' prescription rates as first or switching therapies and their costs have both increased substantially over the past decade. As more DMTs become available, the choice of a specific DMT should reflect the risk/benefit profile, as well as the impact on quality of life. As MS cohorts enrolled in different studies can vary significantly, head-to-head trials are considered the best approach for gaining objective reliable data when two different drugs are compared...
November 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880060/neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-complicating-traumatic-posterior-fossa-extradural-haematoma-case-report-and-review
#6
Ajay Hegde, G Lakshmi Prasad, Priyanka Kini
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary oedema is accumulation of fluid in the lung air spaces and interstitia. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE) is a potentially life-threatening condition which has been noted in head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and others. Timely management is crucial to achieve good outcome; however, no specific guidelines have been defined. METHODS: A 33-year female involved in a motor vehicular accident had a GCS of 14/15 and CT scan showed a moderate-sized unilateral posterior fossa extradural haematoma (PFEDH)...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878491/possible-cause-of-nonlinear-tension-rise-in-activated-muscle-fiber-during-stretching
#7
P V Kochubei, S Yu Bershitsky
Tension in contracting muscle fiber under conditions of ramp stretching rapidly increases, but after reaching a critical stretch Pc sharply decreases. To find out the cause of these changes in muscle fiber tension, we stopped stretching before and after reaching Pc and left the fiber stretched for 50 msec. After rapid tension drop, the transient tension rise not accompanied by fiber stiffness increase was observed only in fibers heated to 25°C and stretched to Pc. Under other experimental conditions, this growth was absent...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876398/dropped-head-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-caused-by-de-novo-mutations-in-lmna
#8
Pakize Karaoglu, Nicolas Quizon, Matthias Pergande, Haicui Wang, Ayşe Ipek Polat, Ayca Ersen, Erdener Özer, Lena Willkomm, Semra Hiz Kurul, Raúl Heredia, Uluç Yis, Duygu Selcen, Sebahattin Çirak
BACKGROUND: Dropped head syndrome is an easily recognizable clinical presentation of Lamin A/C-related congenital muscular dystrophy. Patients usually present in the first year of life with profound neck muscle weakness, dropped head, and elevated serum creatine kinase. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two patients exhibited head drop during infancy although they were able to sit independently. Later they developed progressive axial and limb-girdle weakness. Creatine kinase levels were elevated and muscle biopsies of both patients showed severe dystrophic changes...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864928/classification-of-porcine-cranial-fracture-patterns-using-a-fracture-printing-interface
#9
Feng Wei, Serhat Selçuk Bucak, Jennifer M Vollner, Todd W Fenton, Anil K Jain, Roger C Haut
Distinguishing between accidental and abusive head trauma in children can be difficult, as there is a lack of baseline data for pediatric cranial fracture patterns. A porcine head model has recently been developed and utilized in a series of studies to investigate the effects of impact energy level, surface type, and constraint condition on cranial fracture patterns. In the current study, an automated pattern recognition method, or a fracture printing interface (FPI), was developed to classify cranial fracture patterns that were associated with different impact scenarios documented in previous experiments...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863479/myasthenic-symptoms-in-anti-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-4-antibody-seropositive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-two-case-reports
#10
Hisashi Takahashi, Yu-Ichi Noto, Naoki Makita, Yukie Kushimura-Okada, Ryotaro Ishii, Akihiro Tanaka, Tomoyuki Ohara, Shunya Nakane, Osamu Higuchi, Masanori Nakagawa, Toshiki Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Myasthenic symptoms can be present in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These symptoms have been considered to be caused by the degeneration of distal motor neurons and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Recent studies suggested that antibody to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was a pathogenic agent of myasthenia gravis (MG), and it was also detected in ALS patients. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient 1: A 58-year-old Japanese man developed progressive weakness and subsequent myasthenic symptoms including oculomotor disturbance...
November 18, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854225/myasthenia-gravis-unusual-presentations-and-diagnostic-pitfalls
#11
Carmelo Rodolico, Daniela Parisi, Simona Portaro, Fiammetta Biasini, Stefano Sinicropi, Annamaria Ciranni, Antonio Toscano, Sonia Messina, Olimpia Musumeci, Giuseppe Vita, Paolo Girlanda
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with fluctuating, fatigable muscle weakness. Initial symptoms classically involve ocular and proximal limb muscles. Rarely, MG may onset with unusual features, so it can be misdiagnosed with other neuromuscular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe unusual and atypical presentations of MG in a large cohort of patients, considering and discussing diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls. METHODS: We report on 21 out of 508 MG patients, coming to our department in the last 27 years and presenting with atypical or unusual features...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854089/serial-neuroimaging-of-a-patient-with-minor-stroke-due-to-isolated-cortical-vein-thrombosis-and-convexal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#12
Pei-Ya Chen, Kun-Eng Lim, Shinn-Kuang Lin
PURPOSE: Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) comprises less than 5% of cases of nontraumatic SAH and frequently presents as a focal and transient neurological deficits that mimics transient ischemic attack (TIA). Isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT) is rare and accounts for only 6.3% of cerebral venous thrombosis. We present a case of minor stroke due to cSAH secondary to ICVT, and alos put emphasis on the chronological change of those serial imagings. CASE REPORT: An 87-year-old man presented with episodes of numbness and dropping of his left arm, which had lasted for three days...
September 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853084/double-seronegative-myasthenia-gravis-with-anti-lrp4-antibodies-presenting-with-dropped-head-and-acute-respiratory-insufficiency
#13
Goichi Beck, Taiki Yabumoto, Kousuke Baba, Tsutomu Sasaki, Osamu Higuchi, Hidenori Matsuo, Hideki Mochizuki
We herein report the case of a 72-year-old man demonstrating myasthenia gravis (MG) with a dropped head and acute respiratory insufficiency. There was no ocular, bulbar, or limb involvement. The patient was seronegative for anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies and anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies. Subsequent tests showed seropositivity for anti-low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) antibodies. The addition of steroid pulse therapy resulted in a full remission of his respiratory symptoms...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845037/novel-glp-1r-gipr-co-agonist-twincretin-is-neuroprotective-in-cell-and-rodent-models-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Ian A Tamargo, Miaad Bader, Yazhou Li, Seong-Jin Yu, Yun Wang, Konrad Talbot, Richard D DiMarchi, Chaim G Pick, Nigel H Greig
Several single incretin receptor agonists that are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been shown to be neuroprotective in cell and animal models of neurodegeneration. Recently, a synthetic dual incretin receptor agonist, nicknamed "twincretin," was shown to improve upon the metabolic benefits of single receptor agonists in mouse and monkey models of T2DM. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of twincretin are probed in cell and mouse models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a prevalent cause of neurodegeneration in toddlers, teenagers and the elderly...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837370/intraocular-pressure-and-cerebral-oxygenation-during-prolonged-headward-acceleration
#15
Ola Eiken, Michail E Keramidas, Nigel A S Taylor, Mikael Grönkvist
PURPOSE: Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818218/role-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Vibol Chhor, Raffaella Moretti, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Stephanie Sigaut, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Marie-Virginie Oré, Chiara Zuiani, Valentina Milan, Julien Josserand, Regina Vontell, Julien Pansiot, Vincent Degos, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Luigi Titomanlio, Henrik Hagberg, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain that mediate neuroinflammation, are activated following TBI in the immature brain. However, the type and temporal profile of this activation and the consequences of altering it are still largely unknown...
November 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812787/prophylactic-exercises-among-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-during-and-after-swallowing-sparing-intensity-modulated-radiation-adherence-and-exercise-performance-levels-of-a-12-week-guided-home-based-program
#17
Ingrid C Cnossen, Cornelia F van Uden-Kraan, Birgit I Witte, Yke J Aalders, Cees J T de Goede, Remco de Bree, Patricia Doornaert, Derek H F Rietveld, Jan Buter, Johannes A Langendijk, C René Leemans, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
The background and purpose of this paper is to investigate adherence, exercise performance levels and associated factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients participating in a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program during and after treatment [swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT)]. Fifty patients were included in the study. Adherence was defined as the percentage of patients who kept up exercising; exercise performance level was categorized as low: ≤1, moderate: 1-2, and high: ≥2 time(s) per day, on average...
November 3, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806796/-dynamin-1-related-infantile-spasms-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#18
X L Deng, F Yin, C L Zhang, Y P Ma, F He, L W Wu, J Peng
Objective: To analyze the clinical and gene mutation characteristics of dynamin-1 (DNM1)-related infantile spasms. Method: Clinical, laboratory and genetic data of one case of DNM1-related infantile spasms diagnosed by Xiangya Hospital in September 2015 were analyzed.Through taking "Dynamin-1" "DNM1" as key words to search at CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and OMIM to date (April 2016), the clinical characteristics of 9 reported cases of DNM1-related epileptic encephalopathy in international literature with our case were reviewed...
November 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747880/topical-ear-treatment-options-indications-and-limitations-of-current-therapy
#19
REVIEW
S Paterson
Topical otic products form an integral part of the overall management of otitis externa. With an ever increasing array of ear drops and cleaners to choose from, appropriate selection of therapy can be difficult. The investigation of all cases of otitis externa should consider primary and secondary causes and predisposing and perpetuating factors. This article considers topical therapy under these same broad headings and discusses, through literature review, the various properties of the components of the ear cleaning solutions and drops...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744073/does-decorin-protect-neuronal-tissue-via-its-antioxidant-and-antiinflammatory-activity-from-traumatic-brain-injury-an-experimental-study
#20
Rafet Özay, Erhan Türkoğlu, Bora Gürer, Habibullah Dolgun, Oya Evirgen, Berrin İmge Ergüder, Nazlı Hayırlı, Levent Gürses, Zeki Şekerci, Erdal Reşit Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: The development of secondary brain injury via oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well known. Decorin inactivates Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), complement system (CS) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which are related the oxidative stress and apoptosis. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Decorin (DC) on TBI. METHODS: A total of 24 male rats were used and divided into four groups as follows; control, trauma, DC, and methylprednisolone (MP)...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
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