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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090780/a-multi-body-dynamics-study-on-a-weight-drop-test-of-rat-brain-injury
#1
Wenyi Yan, Germain Sossou, Ramesh Rajan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), induced by impact of an object with the head, is a major health problem worldwide. Rats are a well-established animal analogue for study of TBI and the weight-drop impact-acceleration (WDIA) method is a well-established model in rats for creating diffuse TBI, the most common form of TBI seen in humans. However, little is known of the biomechanics of the WDIA method and, to address this, we have developed a four-degrees-of-freedom multi-body mass-spring-damper model for the WDIA test in rats...
January 16, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086988/computed-tomographic-findings-and-treatment-of-a-bull-with-pituitary-gland-abscess
#2
Ueli Braun, Alexandra Malbon, Manon Kochan, Barbara Riond, Fredi Janett, Cornelia Iten, Matthias Dennler
BACKGROUND: In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. CASE REPORT: The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis...
January 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078065/clinical-features-of-neuromuscular-disorders-in-patients-with-n-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-antibodies
#3
Andreas Totzeck, Petra Mummel, Oliver Kastrup, Tim Hagenacker
Neuromuscular junction disorders affect the pre- or postsynaptic nerve to muscle transmission due to autoimmune antibodies. Members of the group like myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton syndrome have pathophysiologically distinct characteristics. However, in practice, distinction may be difficult. We present a series of three patients with a myasthenic syndrome, dropped-head syndrome, bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness and positive testing for anti-N-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies. In two cases anti-acetylcholin receptor antibodies were elevated, anti-P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies were negative...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069503/wettability-gradient-on-the-elytra-in-the-aquatic-beetle-cybister-chinensis-and-its-role-in-angular-position-of-the-beetle-at-water-air-interface
#4
Mingxia Sun, Yuan Chen, Yongmei Zheng, Mingming Zhen, Chunying Shu, Zhendong Dai, Aiping Liang, Stanislav N Gorb
: The surface of the elytra in some species of aquatic beetles displays relatively low contact angles (CAs), even showing hydrophilic properties. In this study, we report on an observation that both sexes of Cybister chinensis beetle fresh elytral surface do not exhibit uniform CA, but rather a wettability gradient along the longitudinal axis in posterior direction. The wettability is very different between females and males due to the presence (female) or absence (male) of channels on the elytral surface...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068376/an-objective-functional-characterisation-of-head-movement-impairment-in-individuals-with-neck-muscle-weakness-due-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Silvia Pancani, Wendy Tindale, Pamela J Shaw, Christopher J McDermott, Claudia Mazzà
BACKGROUND: Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls. METHODS: We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062122/airflow-behavior-changes-in-upper-airway-caused-by-different-head-and-neck-positions-comparison-by-computational-fluid-dynamics
#6
Wei Wei, Shi-Wei Huang, Lian-Hua Chen, Yang Qi, Yi-Min Qiu, Shi-Tong Li
The feasibility of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate airflow characteristics in different head and neck positions has not been established. This study compared the changes in volume and airflow behavior of the upper airway by CFD simulation to predict the influence of anatomical and physiological airway changes due to different head-neck positions on mechanical ventilation. One awake volunteer with no risk of difficult airway underwent computed tomography in neutral position, extension position (both head and neck extended), and sniffing position (head extended and neck flexed)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048972/astaxanthin-improves-cognitive-performance-in-mice-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Xinran Ji, Dayong Peng, Yiling Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yuning Wang, Yuan Gao, Ning Lu, Peifu Tang
[BACKGROUND]: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces lasting neurological deficits that plague patients and physicians. To date, there is no effective method to combat the source of this problem. Here, we utilized a mild, closed head TBI model to determine the modulatory effects of a natural dietary compound, astaxanthin (AST). AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model...
December 31, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047327/su-f-t-279-impact-of-beam-energy-drifts-on-imrt-delivery-accuracy
#8
S Goddu, G Kamal, A Herman, S Edwards, S Yaddanapudi, S Oddiraju, B Cai, D Rangaraj, S Mutic
PURPOSE: According to TG-40 percent-depth-dose (PDD) tolerance is ±2% but TG-142 is ±1%. Now the question is, which one is relevant in IMRT era? The primary objective of this study is to evaluate dosimetric impact of beam-energy-drifts on IMRT-delivery. METHODS: Beam-energy drifts were simulated by adjusting Linac's bending-magnet-current (BMC) followed by tuning the pulse-forming network and adjusting gun-current. PDD change of -0.6% and +1.2% were tested. Planar-dosimetry measurements were performed using an ionization-chamber-array in solid-water phantoms...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047219/su-f-t-443-quantification-of-dosimetric-effects-of-dental-metallic-implant-on-vmat-plans
#9
C Lin, Y Feng, Z Huang, W Jiang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of metallic implant that correlates with the size of targets and metallic implants and distance in between on volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck (H&N) cancer patients with dental metallic implant. METHODS: CT images of H&N cancer patients with dental metallic implant were used. Target volumes with different sizes and locations were contoured. Metal artifact regions excluding surrounding critical organs were outlined and assigned with CT numbers close to water (0HU)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046681/su-f-j-192-a-quick-and-effective-method-to-validate-patient-s-daily-setup-and-geometry-changes-prior-to-proton-treatment-delivery-based-on-water-equivalent-thickness-projection-imaging-wetpi-for-head-neck-cancer-hnc-patient
#10
G Liu, A Qin, J Zhang, X Li, J Zhou, D Yan, B Teo, P Chen, D Krauss, P Kabolizadeh, T Guerrero, C Stevens, J Liang, X Ding
PURPOSE: With the implementation of Cone-beam Computed-Tomography (CBCT) in proton treatment, we introduces a quick and effective tool to verify the patient's daily setup and geometry changes based on the Water-Equivalent-Thickness Projection-Image(WETPI) from individual beam angle. METHODS: A bilateral head neck cancer(HNC) patient previously treated via VMAT was used in this study. The patient received 35 daily CBCT during the whole treatment and there is no significant weight change...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032805/nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-and-characteristics-associated-with-glaucoma-in-community-living-older-adults-prelude-to-a-screening-trial
#11
Barbara E K Klein, Chris A Johnson, Stacy M Meuer, Kyungmoo Lee, Andreas Wahle, Kristine E Lee, Amruta Kulkarni, Milan Sonka, Michael D Abràmoff, Ronald Klein
PURPOSE: To examine the associations of nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness with other ocular characteristics in older adults. METHODS: Participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (2008-2010) underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans of the optic nerve head, imaging of optic discs, frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry, measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), and an interview concerning their history of glaucoma and use of drops to lower eye pressure...
December 29, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026725/-operative-treatment-for-saddle-shaped-femoral-heads
#12
M Burian, P Dungl, J Chomiak, M Ošťádal, R Kubeš, O Schwarz
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY A saddle-shaped deformity of the femoral head has a poor prognosis due to rapid development of secondary changes. A new method of treatment by intra-articular anteromedial wedge reduction osteotomy (AWRO) of the femoral head may preserve the hip for the future. This study was designed to ascertain that this invasive technique was safe and effective and to confirm our hypothesis that AWRO significantly improved functional and radiological parameters of the hip joint. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who underwent AWRO between 2010 and 2013 were enrolled in this study...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000322/head-drop-a-frequent-feature-of-late-onset-myasthenia-gravis
#13
Marvin Sih, Betty Soliven, Nicholas Mathenia, John Jacobsen, Kourosh Rezania
INTRODUCTION: Head-drop is often encountered in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, but its frequency and clinical course have not been studied systematically. METHODS: In a retrospective study of a cohort of MG patients seen over a period of 11 years in a tertiary medical center, we assessed the clinical characteristics of patients who had head-drop. RESULTS: Of 146 generalized MG patients, 15 had head-drop during the course of their disease...
December 21, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991782/inversion-boundaries-and-phonon-scattering-in-ga-zno-thermoelectric-compounds
#14
Emmanuel Guilmeau, Pablo Díaz-Chao, Oleg I Lebedev, Aleksander Rečnik, Marion C Schäfer, Fabian Delorme, Fabien Giovannelli, Mateja Košir, Slavko Bernik
We investigated the high-temperature thermoelectric properties of Ga:ZnO bulk compounds, synthesized using a simple and scalable solid-state process. The effects of a low gallium content (x ≤ 0.04 in Zn1-xGaxO1+x/2) on the structural features and electrical/thermal properties are reviewed. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that 2D, nonperiodic defects had formed from a doping content as low as x = 0.01 Ga. The structural description of these nanoscale interfaces is, for the first time, carefully investigated in such low-Ga-content samples by HAADF-STEM analyses combined with structural modeling...
January 3, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939753/a-head-to-head-comparison-between-ct-and-ivus-derived-coronary-blood-flow-models
#15
C A Bulant, P J Blanco, G D Maso Talou, C Guedes Bezerra, P A Lemos, R A Feijóo
The goal of this work is to compare coronary hemodynamics as predicted by computational blood flow models derived from two imaging modalities: coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and intravascular ultrasound integrated with angiography (IVUS). Criteria to define boundary conditions are proposed to overcome the dissimilar anatomical definition delivered by both modalities. The strategy to define boundary conditions is novel in the present context, and naturally accounts for the flow redistribution induced by the resistance of coronary vessels...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932436/multifactorial-pathological-hip-subluxation-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1-due-to-intra-articular-plexiform-neurofibroma-lumbar-radiculopathy-and-neurofibromatous-polyneuropathy
#16
Waqar Waheed, Diego F Diego F Lemos, Nelms Nathaniel Nelms, Rup Tandan
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder with very rare descriptions of hip instability. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with known NF1 and childhood-onset of left foot drop, who developed persistent left hip pain following a minor trauma. Physical examination revealed left-sided mild foot drop, hip abductor weakness, bilateral sensory loss in feet and an antalgic gait. Work-up revealed anterolateral subluxation of the left femoral head along with left hip plexiform neurofibroma (PN), dysplastic and degenerative changes, neurofibromatous neuropathy and chronic left L5 radiculopathy...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926759/mortality-and-prehospital-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-major-traumatic-brain-injury-implications-for-the-hypotension-threshold
#17
Daniel W Spaite, Chengcheng Hu, Bentley J Bobrow, Vatsal Chikani, Duane Sherrill, Bruce Barnhart, Joshua B Gaither, Kurt R Denninghoff, Chad Viscusi, Terry Mullins, P David Adelson
Importance: Current prehospital traumatic brain injury guidelines use a systolic blood pressure threshold of less than 90 mm Hg for treating hypotension for individuals 10 years and older based on studies showing higher mortality when blood pressure drops below this level. However, the guidelines also acknowledge the weakness of the supporting evidence. Objective: To evaluate whether any statistically supportable threshold between systolic pressure and mortality emerges from the data a priori, without assuming that a cut point exists...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925247/does-flexible-arterial-tubing-retain-more-hemodynamic-energy-during-pediatric-pulsatile-extracorporeal-life-support
#18
Shigang Wang, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance and energy transmission of flexible arterial tubing as the arterial line in a simulated pediatric pulsatile extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system. The ECLS circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump head, Medos Hilite 2400 LT oxygenator, Biomedicus arterial/venous cannula (10 Fr/14 Fr), 3 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) arterial tubing or latex rubber arterial tubing, primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (hematocrit 40%)...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924930/new-principle-for-measuring-arterial-blood-oxygenation-enabling-motion-robust-remote-monitoring
#19
Mark van Gastel, Sander Stuijk, Gerard de Haan
Finger-oximeters are ubiquitously used for patient monitoring in hospitals worldwide. Recently, remote measurement of arterial blood oxygenation (SpO2) with a camera has been demonstrated. Both contact and remote measurements, however, require the subject to remain static for accurate SpO2 values. This is due to the use of the common ratio-of-ratios measurement principle that measures the relative pulsatility at different wavelengths. Since the amplitudes are small, they are easily corrupted by motion-induced variations...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923162/comparison-of-different-osmotic-therapies-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Vinoth K M Khandelwal, Prabhakar Singh, Tatiana Ravingerova, Marslin Gregory, Hardik Gandhi, Manu Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Inflammation in the affected region, increased intracranial pressure, consequent oedema and congestion contribute to the negative outcome of traumatic brain injury. Osmotic therapies are recommended for improvement in cognitive and motor functions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of osmotic therapies in a mice model of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Experimental closed head injury was performed in adult Swiss albino mice by the weight-drop method...
February 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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