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Inhaler nebulizer

Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Keiji Ohata, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Toshi Menju, Ei Miyamoto, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Rho-kinase, an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) pathogenesis of many organs; however, its involvement with lung IRI remains unclear. This study assessed the association of Rho-kinase with lung IRI and evaluated the protective effect of inhaled Rho-kinase inhibitors in lung IRI. METHODS: The study included isolated rat lung perfusion models, divided into three groups: sham, Rho-kinase inhibitor, and warm ischemia (n = 6 each)...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Woo-Young Jeon, In-Sik Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Seong Eun Jin, Mee-Young Lee
Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Per Bäckman, Ulrika Tehler, Bo Olsson
BACKGROUND: Exposure following oral inhalation depends on the deposition pattern of the inhaled aerosol, the extent and rate of oral and pulmonary absorption, as well as systemic distribution and clearance. For lipophilic inhaled compounds with low water solubility and high permeability, the extent and rate of pulmonary absorption can be assumed dependent on deposition pattern as well as dissolution rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mechanistic model of airway deposition, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, absorption, and dissipation was applied to simulate systemic exposure of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, AZD5423, when dosed to healthy volunteers using two different nebulizers and two different dry powder inhalers in combination with two different primary particle size distributions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Hideki Motoyama, Akihiro Ohsumi, Daisuke Nakajima, Jin Sakamoto, Keiji Ohata, Mamoru Takahashi, Satona Tanaka, Ei Miyamoto, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an injured lung graft from donation after cardiac death donors could be reconditioned before transplantation using an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system and ventilation with high-dose short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in a canine model by intravenous potassium chloride injection. Lungs were randomly assigned to two groups after 150 minutes of warm ischemia: inhalation of 1,400 μg of procaterol (BETA group, n = 5) or control group receiving solvent (CON group, n = 5) during EVLP...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Nidal Amin Jaradat, Hamzeh Al Zabadi, Belal Rahhal, Azmi Mahmoud Ali Hussein, Jamal Shaker Mahmoud, Basel Mansour, Ahmad Ibrahim Khasati, Abdelkhaleq Issa
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increased interest in the effects of essential oils on athletic performances and other physiological effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of Citrus sinensis flower and Mentha spicata leaves essential oils inhalation in two different groups of athlete male students on their exercise performance and lung function. METHODS: Twenty physical education students volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Mentha spicata and Citrus sinensis (ten participants each)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Séverine Allegra, Lara Leclerc, Pierre André Massard, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Jérémie Pourchez
Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires' disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sneha K Taylor, Reiko Sakurai, Tokusho Sakurai, Virender K Rehan
INTRODUCTION: The physiologic vitamin D (VD), 1α,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) is a local paracrine/autocrine effecter of fetal lung maturation. By stimulating alveolar type II cell and lipofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, parenterally administered 1,25D has been shown to enhance neonatal lung maturation; but due to the potential systemic side effects of the parenteral route, the translational value of these findings might be limited. To minimize the possibility of systemic toxicity, we examined the effects of VD on neonatal lung maturation, when delivered directly to lungs via nebulization...
September 10, 2016: Lung
(no author information available yet)
PURPOSE: The purpose was to determine the efficacy of prophylactic inhaled heparin for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial stratified for study center and patient type (nonoperative, postoperative) was conducted in 3 university-affiliated intensive care units. Patients aged at least 18 years and requiring invasive MV for more than 48 hours were randomized to usual care, nebulization of unfractionated sodium heparin (5000 U in 2 mL), or nebulization with 0...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Wallace B Wee, Scott Tavernini, Andrew R Martin, Israel Amirav, Carina Majaesic, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tracheostomies are not uncommon and aerosols allow for targeted lung therapy. However, there is little literature that quantifies aerosol delivery through tracheostomies. Nebulizers are commonly used in delivering tobramycin, but there are drawbacks, for example, time burden. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) can deliver higher payloads in less time. However, no data exist assessing DPIs with tracheostomies. OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to quantify the amount of aerosolized tobramycin delivered to the lungs of in vitro tracheostomized spontaneously breathing pediatric models with the TOBI(®) Podhaler™ (Podhaler) and the PARI LC Plus(®) (LC Plus)...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Vladimir Malinin, Mary Neville, Gina Eagle, Renu Gupta, Walter R Perkins
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) infections represent a treatment challenge. Liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) is a novel formulation currently in development for treatment of PNTM infections. Pulmonary deposition and elimination of LAI and its effect on macrophage function were evaluated in a series of preclinical studies in healthy rats. METHODS: Pulmonary deposition of LAI was evaluated in female rats (n = 76) treated with LAI by nebulizer at 10 mg/kg per day or 90 mg/kg per day for 27 days, followed by dosing of dual-labeled LAI (lipid label plus amikacin label) on day 28 with subsequent lung histological and amikacin analyses...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Takeshi Yano, Tetsu Yonaha, Koutaro Hidaka, Masumi Nagahama, Tomohiro Koshida, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Masahiko Taniguchi, Isao Tsuneyoshi
Yokkaichi asthma was one of the most common environmental pollution diseases in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. The problem of air pollution in Yokkaichi was solved in the 1970s. However, mortality and life expectancy were still affected by the late effects of air pollution in patients with Yokkaichi asthma even in the 2000s. In this case report, we described the experience of successful treatment of a patient with severe asthmatic status due to Yokkaichi asthma. A 40s-year-old man, who was officially certified as a patient with Yokkaichi asthma from his infancy, was admitted to hospital due to acute exacerbation of asthma...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Kevin M Dube, Kristen L Ditch, Luanne Hills
Smoke inhalation injury (SIJ) is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with burns. SIJ causes airway damage, inflammation, and bronchial obstruction, resulting in decreased oxygenation and perfusion status in these patients. Retrospective studies have compared the use of nebulized heparin (NH) plus nebulized N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and albuterol in patients with SIJ to those who received standard ventilator support with bronchodilator therapy. These studies are associated with a decrease in mortality when NH and nebulized NAC are administered to patients with SIJ...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Allyson McIntire, Serena A Harris, Jessica A Whitten, Andrew C Fritschle-Hilliard, David R Foster, Rajiv Sood, Todd A Walroth
Inhalation injury (IHI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in burn victims due to both local and systemic effects. Nebulized heparin promotes improvement in lung function and decreased mortality in IHI by reducing the inflammatory response and fibrin cast formation. The study objective is to determine if nebulized heparin 10,000 units improves lung function and decreases mechanical ventilation duration, mortality, and hospitalization length in IHI with minimal systemic adverse events. This retrospective, case-control study evaluated efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin administered to mechanically ventilated adults admitted within 48 hr of confirmed IHI...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Florian Gueho, Sébastien Beaune, Philippe Devillier, Saik Urien, Christophe Faisy
Short-acting β2-agonists (SABA) are widely used in the emergency department (ED) to treat patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to model the effectiveness of nebulized SABA (terbutaline) on clinically relevant parameters associated with a reduction in work of breathing or respiratory muscle fatigue in decompensated COPD patients admitted to the ED.Forty consecutive decompensated COPD patients (having received at least one dose of nebulized terbutaline during their stay in the ED) were included in an observational cohort study...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Paul Spin, Ingrid Sketris, Barbara Hill-Taylor, Courtney Ward, Katrina F Hurley
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence demonstrating the advantages of metered-dose inhalers with spacers (MDI-s), nebulization (NEB) remains the primary method of asthma treatment in some pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). There is a perception that delivering salbutamol by MDI-s is more costly than by NEB. This research evaluates the relative costs of MDI-s and NEB using local, hospital-specific, patient-level data. METHODS: Regression models estimated associations between the salbutamol inhalation method and costs, length of stay (LOS) in the PED and hospital, and the probability of admission...
August 10, 2016: CJEM
Muhammad H E ElHansy, Marina E Boules, Heba Farid, Henry Chrystyn, Sameh Kamal El-Maraghi, Mohamed Bakry Al-Kholy, Assem Fouad Mohamed El-Essawy, Maha M Abdelrahman, Amira S A Said, Raghda R S Hussein, Hoda Rabea, Mohamed E A Abdelrahim
Aerodynamic characteristics of aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are mostly determined by inserting cascade impactor in the circuit. Impactor might have some effect on airflow within IMV. Hence, the aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate new in vitro aerodynamic characterization methodology without affecting airflow in IMV. Breathing simulator was set in standard adult IMV circuit with inspiratory and expiratory pressures of 20 and 5 cm H2O, 1:3 inspiratory-expiratory ratio, 15 breaths min(-1), and tidal volume of 500 ml...
August 30, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Francis H Y Green, Richard Leigh, Morenike Fadayomi, Gurkeet Lalli, Andrea Chiu, Grishma Shrestha, Sharif G ElShahat, David Evan Nelson, Tamer Y El Mays, Cora A Pieron, John H Dennis
BACKGROUND: A major challenge in treating acute asthma exacerbations is the need to open constricted airways rapidly enough to reestablish ventilation and allow delivery of conventional medication to diseased airways. The solution requires a new approach that considers both biophysical and pharmacological aspects of treatments used in acute asthma. The result of testing several formulations was S-1226: carbon dioxide-enriched air delivered in nebulized perflubron, a synthetic surfactant...
2016: Trials
Hengameh H Raissy, Graham Timmins, Lea Davies, Theresa Heynekamp, Michelle Harkins, Zachary D Sharp, H William Kelly
This is a "proof of concept" study to determine whether inhalation of (13)C-urea can be safely used to detect the presence of urease producing bacteria in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by detecting (13)CO2 in breath. This was a prospective, 2-part, open label, single-center, single-arm, single-administration, dose-escalation investigational device exemption trial. First, the safety of 20 and 50 mg inhaled (13)C-urea was evaluated in 6 healthy adult participants. Then, 3 adult CF participants colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were enrolled for each dose of inhaled (13)C-urea...
June 1, 2016: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Jana Pardeike, Sabrina Weber, Hans Peter Zarfl, Maximilian Pagitz, Andreas Zimmer
Aspergillosis is the most common and most lethal disease in captive falcons, which is most effectively treated with the poorly soluble drug Itraconazole. To obtain a high drug concentration at the side of infection, the falcon's respiratory system, an isotonic, sterile, non-toxic NLC formulation loaded with Itraconazole was developed for pulmonary application. Itraconazole-loaded NLC had a particle size well in the nanometer range and possessed a narrow particle size distribution. An entrapment efficiency of 99...
July 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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