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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742703/nebulized-heparin-and-n-acetylcysteine-for-smoke-inhalational-injury-a-case-report
#1
Umair Ashraf, Bharat Bajantri, Gabriella Roa-Gomez, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Amanda Cantin, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
RATIONALE: Every year, ∼40,000 people suffer burn-related injuries in the United States. Despite recent advances, the odds of dying from exposure to fire, flames, or smoke are one in ∼1500. Smoke inhalation causes injury to the airways via a complex physiological process, and the treatment is mainly supportive. Many recent interventions aim to decrease the formation of fibrin casts, the main cause of airway damage in these patients. Among these, treatment with a combination of nebulized heparin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown benefit...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736245/pharmacological-properties-of-revefenacin-td-4208-a-novel-nebulized-long-acting-and-lung-selective-muscarinic-antagonist-at-human-recombinant-muscarinic-receptors-and-in-rat-guinea-pig-and-human-isolated-airway-tissues
#2
Sharath S Hegde, M Teresa Pulido-Rios, Mark A Luttmann, James J Foley, Gerald E Hunsberger, Tod Steinfeld, TaeWeon Lee, Yuhua Ji, Mathai M Mammen, Jeffrey R Jasper
Revefenacin (TD-4208) is a novel, long-acting, and lung-selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist in development as a nebulized inhalation solution for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study evaluated the pharmacology of revefenacin at human recombinant mAChRs and in airway tissues from rats, guinea pigs, and humans. At human recombinant mAChRs, revefenacin displayed high affinity (pKI  = 8.2-9.8) and behaved as a competitive antagonist (pKI, apparent = 9...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733750/delivery-of-alx-0171-by-inhalation-greatly-reduces-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-in-newborn-lambs
#3
Alejandro Larios Mora, Laurent Detalle, Jack M Gallup, Albert Van Geelen, Thomas Stohr, Linde Duprez, Mark R Ackermann
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of acute lower respiratory disease in infants and young children worldwide. Currently, treatment is supportive and no vaccines are available. The use of newborn lambs to model hRSV infection in human infants may provide a valuable tool to assess safety and efficacy of new antiviral drugs and vaccines. ALX-0171 is a trivalent Nanobody targeting the hRSV fusion (F) protein and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in newborn lambs infected with a human strain of RSV followed by daily ALX-0171 nebulization for 3 or 5 consecutive days...
May 7, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733738/case-study-a-combination-of-mepolizumab-and-omaluzimab-injections-for-severe-asthma
#4
Rejmon Dedaj, Lindie Unsel
A Combination of Mepolizumab and Omaluzimab injections for severe asthma. INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe persistent asthma account for a large proportion of asthma morbidity and health care expenditures. In this case report we describe the use of a combination of omalizumab and mepolizumab in severe asthma with elevated IgE levels and eosinophilic phenotype. CASE STUDY: We are treating a 55 year old woman with severe persistent eosinophilic asthma and elevated IgE levels...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732223/comparison-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-salbutamol-with-jet-and-mesh-nebulizers-in-asthmatic-children
#5
Norihide Murayama, Kikuno Murayama
Background: Ultrasonic, jet, and mesh nebulizers have all been used in the treatment for asthma. Mesh nebulizers reportedly offer the best inhalation efficiency. Methods: This study aimed to clarify the utility of the mesh nebulizer, compared to jet nebulizers, in the treatment of pediatric asthma patients. Participants included 88 children <6 years old who were receiving treatment for asthma at Murayama Pediatric Clinic. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation in arterial blood, and Mitsui symptom scores were compared before and after treatment with a mesh nebulizer ( n = 43) or jet nebulizer ( n = 45) using a salbutamol inhalation solution (0...
2018: Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717099/results-of-a-pulmonologist-survey-regarding-knowledge-and-practices-with-inhalation-devices-for-copd
#6
Sidney S Braman, Brian W Carlin, Nicola A Hanania, Donald A Mahler, Jill A Ohar, Victor Pinto-Plata, Tina Shah, David Eubanks, Rajiv Dhand
BACKGROUND: COPD guidelines advise on inhaled medication use, yet no advice is offered on when to use and which type of patient could benefit from a specific delivery device. We investigated pulmonologists' perception of their knowledge and practices with delivery devices for COPD management. METHODS: An online survey was designed by a steering committee of American Thoracic Society clinicians and scientists and conducted by a national market research firm between January 7 and 29, 2016...
May 1, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716819/a-randomized-trial-comparing-metered-dose-inhalers-and-breath-actuated-nebulizers
#7
Mark A Snider, Jim Y Wan, Jonathan Jacobs, Rudy Kink, Barry Gilmore, Sandra R Arnold
BACKGROUND: Despite little evidence for its effectiveness, the breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN) is the default albuterol delivery method in our pediatric emergency department. OBJECTIVE: We compared the clinical efficacy of BAN and the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in treating subjects patients 2 to 17 years of age who presented with mild to moderate asthma exacerbations. METHODS: This is a randomized, nonblinded, noninferiority study conducted at a single pediatric tertiary care emergency department...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696536/transgenic-up-regulation-of-claudin-6-decreases-fine-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#8
Joshua B Lewis, Jared S Bodine, Jason R Gassman, Samuel Arce Muñoz, Dallin C Milner, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein that contributes to tight junctional complexes and has been implicated in the maintenance of lung epithelial barriers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that genetic up-regulation of Cldn-6 influences inflammation in mice exposed to short-term environmental diesel particulate matter (DPM). Mice were subjected to ten exposures of nebulized DPM (PM2.5) over a period of 20 days via a nose-only inhalation system (Scireq, Montreal, Canada). Using real-time RT-PCR, we discovered that the Cldn6 gene was up-regulated in control mice exposed to DPM and in lung-specific transgenic mice that up-regulate Cldn-6 (Cldn-6 TG)...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692212/use-of-glucocorticoids-in-patients-with-copd-exacerbations-in-china-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Jing Zhang, Jinping Zheng, Kewu Huang, Yahong Chen, Jingping Yang, Wanzhen Yao
BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are common in patients with underlying moderate to severe COPD and are associated with increased health and economic burden. International and Chinese guidelines recommend using glucocorticoids for the management of AECOPD because glucocorticoid therapy has been shown to benefit clinical outcomes. However, only scant data are available for current status of glucocorticoid therapy in hospitalized AECOPD patients in China...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683731/bronchiolitis-obliterans-murine-model-induced-by-nitric-acid-aerosol-inhalation-an-economical-and-reproducible-model
#10
Jianing Yin, Xiaobo Ma, Fei Huang, Yucong Ma, Yanan Li
PURPOSE: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a highly debilitative and fatal syndrome associated with a series of severe lower airway disorders. The pathogenesis of BO is complicated and not entirely understood. An appropriate animal model of BO may aid research into its pathogenesis. Here, we establish a mouse model of BO to provide insight into this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6-8 week old BABL/c mice were exposed to 5% nitric acid (NA) aerosol through a nebulizer for 3 hours, and controls were exposed to distilled water instead...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681239/inhaled-formulation-and-device-selection-bridging-the-gap-between-preclinical-species-and-first-in-human-studies
#11
Jennifer L Wylie, Aileen House, Peter J Mauser, Shari Sellers, Jenna Terebetski, Zhenyu Wang, Jason D Ehrick
The factors that influence inhaled first-in-human (FIH) device and formulation selection often differ significantly from the factors that have influenced the preceding preclinical experiments and inhalation toxicology work. In order to minimize the risk of delivery issues negatively impacting a respiratory pipeline program, the preclinical and FIH delivery systems must be considered holistically. This topic will be covered in more detail in this paper. Several examples will be presented that highlight how appropriate scientific strategy can help bridge the gap between delivering to preclinical species and human...
May 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679678/characterisation-of-40-mg-ml-and-100-mg-ml-tobramycin-formulations-for-aerosol-therapy-with-adult-mechanical-ventilation
#12
Jayesh A Dhanani, Patrician Tang, Steven C Wallis, Suzanne L Parker, Preeti Pandey, John F Fraser, Jeremy Cohen, Adrian Barnett, Jason R Roberts, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: Preservative-free tobramycin is commonly used as aerosolized therapy for ventilator associated pneumonia. The comparative delivery profile of the formulations of two different concentrations (100 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the aerosol characteristics of these tobramycin formulations in a simulated adult mechanical ventilation model. METHODS: Simulated adult mechanical ventilation set up and optimal settings were used in the study...
April 18, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#13
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628574/effects-of-intravenous-and-inhaled-nebulized-lignocaine-on-the-hemodynamic-response-of-endotracheal-intubation-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Abolfazl Jokar, Maryam Babaei, Sahar Pourmatin, Majid Taheri, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Arash Yazdanbakhsh
Background: Endotracheal intubation is one of the most common measures in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) which plays an important role in airway management of the critically ill patients. Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of lignocaine spray on hemodynamic response of endotracheal intubation patients. Settings and Design: This study is a randomized clinical trial on a study population comprising patients admitted to the ICU. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into three groups using a permuted block randomization...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625389/high-molecular-weight-hyaluronan-attenuates-fine-particulate-matter-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-ros-ask1-p38-jnk-mediated-epithelial-apoptosis
#15
Chenming Xu, Qiwen Shi, Leifang Zhang, Hang Zhao
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is asscoiated with lung injury. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is an essential constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM), exhibiting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties when administered by injection, inhalation, nebulization or gene delivery of HA synthases. The aim of the present study is to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5 -induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We observed that HMW-HA suppressed pathological injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, edema and epithelial damage caused by PM2...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624368/hybrid-surface-and-bulk-resonant-acoustics-for-concurrent-actuation-and-sensing-on-a-single-microfluidic-device
#16
Emily P Nguyen, Lillian Lee, Amgad R Rezk, Ylias M Sabri, Suresh K Bhargava, Leslie Y Yeo
While many microfluidic devices have been developed for sensing and others for actuation, few devices can perform both tasks effectively and simultaneously on the same platform. In piezoelectric sensors and actuators, this is due to the opposing operating requirements for sensing and actuation. Sensing ideally requires narrow resonant peaks characterized by high quality factors, such as those found in quartz crystals. However, these materials usually have poor electromechanical coupling coefficients that are not ideal for actuation...
April 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609129/nebulized-lidocaine-ameliorates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-downregulation-of-tlr2
#17
Lixia Wang, Muzi Wang, Shuai Li, Huimei Wu, Qiying Shen, Shihai Zhang, Lei Fang, Rongyu Liu
Nebulized lidocaine has been suggested to be beneficial in asthma therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are little known. We aimed to investigate whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was involved in the protective effect of lidocaine on allergic airway inflammation. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Meanwhile, some of the mice were treated with TLR2 agonist (Pam3CSK4, 100 μg) intraperitoneally in combination with OVA on day 0. Just after allergen provocation, mice were treated with inhaled lidocaine or vehicle for 30 min...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599187/the-in-vitro-effect-of-nebulised-hypertonic-saline-on-human-bronchial-epithelium
#18
Jennifer L Goralski, Dan Wu, William R Thelin, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button
RATIONALE: Inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) is an effective therapy for muco-obstructive lung diseases. However, the mechanism of action and principles pertinent to HS administration remain unclear. METHODS: An in vitro system aerosolized HS to epithelial cells at rates comparable to in vivo conditions. Airway surface liquid (ASL) volume and cell height responses were measured by confocal microscopy under normal and hyperconcentrated mucus states. MAIN RESULTS: Aerosolized HS produced a rapid increase in ASL height and decrease in cell height...
March 29, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587842/experimental-infection-of-pigs-with-h1-and-h3-influenza-a-viruses-of-swine-by-using-intranasal-nebulization
#19
Nobuhiro Takemae, Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuko Uchida, Toshihiro Ito, Takehiko Saito
BACKGROUND: Experimental infection of pigs via direct intranasal or intratracheal inoculation has been mainly used to study the infectious process of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S). Nebulization is known to be an alternative method for inoculating pigs with IAVs-S, because larger quantities of virus potentially can be delivered throughout the respiratory tract. However, there is very little data on the experimental infection of pigs by inhalation using nebulizer. In the current study, we used intranasal nebulization to inoculate pigs with 9 different IAVs-S-3 H1N1, 2 H1N2, and 4 H3N2 strains...
March 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587546/uncovering-the-regional-localization-of-inhaled-salmeterol-retention-in-the-lung
#20
Erica Bäckström, Gregory Hamm, Anna Nilsson, Britt-Marie Fihn, Nicole Strittmatter, Per Andrén, Richard J A Goodwin, Markus Fridén
Treatment of respiratory disease with a drug delivered via inhalation is generally held as being beneficial as it provides direct access to the lung target site with a minimum systemic exposure. There is however only limited information of the regional localization of drug retention following inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate the regional and histological localization of salmeterol retention in the lungs after inhalation and to compare it to systemic administration. Lung distribution of salmeterol delivered to rats via nebulization or intravenous (IV) injection was analyzed with high-resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
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