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Inhaler nebulizer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888990/a-randomized-controlled-multicentric-study-of-inhaled-budesonide-and-intravenous-methylprednisolone-in-the-treatment-on-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Zhen Ding, Xiu Li, Youjin Lu, Guangsheng Rong, Ruiqing Yang, Ruixia Zhang, Guiqin Wang, Xiqiang Wei, Yongqing Ye, Zhaoxia Qian, Hongyan Liu, Daifeng Zhu, Ruiqing Zhou, Kun Zhu, Rongping Ni, Kui Xia, Nan Luo, Cong Pei
BACKGROUND: Almost all international guidelines recommend corticosteroids for management of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), because it leads to improved outcomes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Nevertheless, due to its side effects, there are still concerns regarding the use of systemic corticosteroid (SC). Inhaled corticosteroids (IC) can be used as an alternative to SC, while reducing the risk of occurrence of side effects...
December 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884712/solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-sustained-pulmonary-delivery-of-yuxingcao-essential-oil-preparation-characterization-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#2
Yun Zhao, Yue-Xing Chang, Xiao Hu, Chun-Yu Liu, Li-Hui Quan, Yong-Hong Liao
The objective of this study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for sustained pulmonary delivery of Yuxingcao essential oil (YEO). Three YEO loaded SLNs (SLN-200, SLN-400 and SLN-800) with different particle size were prepared and separated following a high-shear homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and polyvinyl alcohol as an emulsifier. The particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the SLNs were determined to be between 171 and 812nm, -17...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863863/effect-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-on-lung-fluid-in-stable-heart-failure-patients
#3
Bryan J Taylor, Eric M Snyder, Maile L Richert, Courtney M Wheatley, Steven C Chase, Lyle J Olson, Bruce D Johnson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) when compared with healthy control subjects; and (2) the effect of acute β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist inhalation on lung fluid balance. METHODS: Twenty-two stable HFrEF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were studied. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) (via re-breathe) and lung tissue volume (Vtis) (via computed tomography) were assessed before and within 30 minutes after administration of nebulized albuterol...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849432/monitoring-the-inhalation-flow-rate-of-nebulized-aerosols-using-an-ultrasonic-flow-meter-in-vitro-assessment
#4
Michael Y Yang, Hak-Kim Chan
BACKGROUND: The measurement of aerosol flow rates without obscuration of the flow is of particular concern with in vivo lung deposition studies, where precise knowledge of aerosol particle size distributions is a necessary requirement for the development of predictive correlations. This study examines the utility of an ultrasonic flow meter for such measurements and determines if a valved system can be attached to the flow meter for sampling exhaled aerosols. METHODS: The flow rate across a D-30 flow meter was compared with and without nebulization of 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848886/liposomes-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-the-role-of-formulation-and-inhalation-device-design
#5
Abdelbary Elhissi
Liposomes are established drug carriers for inhalation owing to their safety and ability to provide controlled drug release in the lung. These carriers can entrap a wide range of therapeutic molecules for delivery in large volumes to the peripheral airways using medical nebulizers. Pressurized metered inhalers (pMDIs), soft mist inhalers (SMIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) can deliver relatively small quantities of medication to the lung when compared to medical nebulizers which can deliver large volumes using simple liposome preparation techniques...
November 16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843842/evaluation-of-proficiency-in-using-different-inhaler-devices-among-intern-doctors
#6
Ravish M Kshatriya, Nimit V Khara, Rajiv P Paliwal, Satish N Patel
CONTEXT: Doctors may have deficiencies in the ability to use different inhalers, which in turn, can result in improper technique by the patients and poorly controlled asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIMS: To evaluate intern doctors' proficiency in using various inhaler devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy interns were evaluated for their proficiency in using pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), pMDI with spacer, rotahaler, turbuhaler, and nebulizer...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803782/inactivated-mycobacterium-phlei-inhalation-ameliorates-allergic-asthma-through-modulating-the-balance-of-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-and-th17-cells-in-mice
#7
Moyu Ming, Zhixi Luo, Shengqiu Lv, Qixiang Sun, Chaoqian Li
OBJECTIVES: Th2 response is related to the aetiology of asthma, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. To address this point, the effect of nebulized inhalation of inactivated Mycobacterium phlei on modulation of asthmatic airway inflammation was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (Group A), asthma model group (Group B), and the medicated asthma model group (Group C). Group B and C were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA)...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799757/a-review-of-nebulized-drug-delivery-in-copd
#8
REVIEW
Donald P Tashkin
Current guidelines recommend inhaled pharmacologic therapy as the preferred route of administration for treating COPD. Bronchodilators (β2-agonists and antimuscarinics) are the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy in patients with COPD, with long-acting agents recommended for patients with moderate to severe symptoms or those who are at a higher risk for COPD exacerbations. Dry powder inhalers and pressurized metered dose inhalers are the most commonly used drug delivery devices, but they may be inadequate in various clinical scenarios (eg, the elderly, the cognitively impaired, and hospitalized patients)...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773996/albuterol-improves-alveolar-capillary-membrane-conductance-in-healthy-humans
#9
Natalie E Taylor, Sarah E Baker, Thomas P Olson, Sophie Lalande, Bruce D Johnson, Eric M Snyder
BACKGROUND: Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS: We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748638/the-history-of-therapeutic-aerosols-a-chronological-review
#10
Stephen W Stein, Charles G Thiel
In 1956, Riker Laboratories, Inc., (now 3 M Drug Delivery Systems) introduced the first pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). In many respects, the introduction of the MDI marked the beginning of the modern pharmaceutical aerosol industry. The MDI was the first truly portable and convenient inhaler that effectively delivered drug to the lung and quickly gained widespread acceptance. Since 1956, the pharmaceutical aerosol industry has experienced dramatic growth. The signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 led to a surge in innovation that resulted in the diversification of inhaler technologies with significantly enhanced delivery efficiency, including modern MDIs, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizer systems...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743639/protective-effect-of-inhaled-rho-kinase-inhibitor-on-lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Keiji Ohata, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Toshi Menju, Ei Miyamoto, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Rho-kinase, an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) pathogenesis of many organs; however, its involvement with lung IRI remains unclear. This study assessed the association of Rho-kinase with lung IRI and evaluated the protective effect of inhaled Rho-kinase inhibitors in lung IRI. METHODS: The study included isolated rat lung perfusion models, divided into three groups: sham, Rho-kinase inhibitor, and warm ischemia (n = 6 each)...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741312/aqueous-extract-of-gumiganghwal-tang-a-traditional-herbal-medicine-reduces-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-pathway-in-murine-model-of-chronic-asthma
#12
Woo-Young Jeon, In-Sik Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Seong Eun Jin, Mee-Young Lee
Gumiganghwal-tang is a traditional herbal prescription that is used widely for the treatment of the common cold and inflammatory diseases in Korea and other Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a Gumiganghwal-tang aqueous extract (GGTA) against airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis using a mouse model of chronic asthma. Chronic asthma was modeled in BALB/c mice via sensitization/challenge with an intraperitoneal injection of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) and inhalation of nebulized 1% OVA for 4 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740878/predicting-exposure-after-oral-inhalation-of-the-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-based-on-dose-deposition-pattern-and-mechanistic-modeling-of-pulmonary-disposition
#13
Per Bäckman, Ulrika Tehler, Bo Olsson
BACKGROUND: Exposure following oral inhalation depends on the deposition pattern of the inhaled aerosol, the extent and rate of oral and pulmonary absorption, as well as systemic distribution and clearance. For lipophilic inhaled compounds with low water solubility and high permeability, the extent and rate of pulmonary absorption can be assumed dependent on deposition pattern as well as dissolution rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mechanistic model of airway deposition, mucociliary clearance, dissolution, absorption, and dissipation was applied to simulate systemic exposure of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, AZD5423, when dosed to healthy volunteers using two different nebulizers and two different dry powder inhalers in combination with two different primary particle size distributions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737734/bronchodilator-inhalation-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-perfusion-improves-posttransplant-graft-function-after-warm-ischemia
#14
Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Hideki Motoyama, Akihiro Ohsumi, Daisuke Nakajima, Jin Sakamoto, Keiji Ohata, Mamoru Takahashi, Satona Tanaka, Ei Miyamoto, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an injured lung graft from donation after cardiac death donors could be reconditioned before transplantation using an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system and ventilation with high-dose short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in a canine model by intravenous potassium chloride injection. Lungs were randomly assigned to two groups after 150 minutes of warm ischemia: inhalation of 1,400 μg of procaterol (BETA group, n = 5) or control group receiving solvent (CON group, n = 5) during EVLP...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688737/the-effect-of-inhalation-of-citrus-sinensis-flowers-and-mentha-spicata-leave-essential-oils-on-lung-function-and-exercise-performance-a-quasi-experimental-uncontrolled-before-and-after-study
#15
Nidal Amin Jaradat, Hamzeh Al Zabadi, Belal Rahhal, Azmi Mahmoud Ali Hussein, Jamal Shaker Mahmoud, Basel Mansour, Ahmad Ibrahim Khasati, Abdelkhaleq Issa
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increased interest in the effects of essential oils on athletic performances and other physiological effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of Citrus sinensis flower and Mentha spicata leaves essential oils inhalation in two different groups of athlete male students on their exercise performance and lung function. METHODS: Twenty physical education students volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Mentha spicata and Citrus sinensis (ten participants each)...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671446/characterization-of-aerosols-containing-legionella-generated-upon-nebulization
#16
Séverine Allegra, Lara Leclerc, Pierre André Massard, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Jérémie Pourchez
Legionella pneumophila is, by far, the species most frequently associated with Legionnaires' disease (LD). Human infection occurs almost exclusively by aerosol inhalation which places the bacteria in juxtaposition with alveolar macrophages. LD risk management is based on controlling water quality by applying standardized procedures. However, to gain a better understanding of the real risk of exposure, there is a need (i) to investigate under which conditions Legionella may be aerosolized and (ii) to quantify bacterial deposition into the respiratory tract upon nebulization...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614961/inhaled-vitamin-d-a-novel-strategy-to-enhance-neonatal-lung-maturation
#17
Sneha K Taylor, Reiko Sakurai, Tokusho Sakurai, Virender K Rehan
INTRODUCTION: The physiologic vitamin D (VD), 1α,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) is a local paracrine/autocrine effecter of fetal lung maturation. By stimulating alveolar type II cell and lipofibroblast proliferation and differentiation, parenterally administered 1,25D has been shown to enhance neonatal lung maturation; but due to the potential systemic side effects of the parenteral route, the translational value of these findings might be limited. To minimize the possibility of systemic toxicity, we examined the effects of VD on neonatal lung maturation, when delivered directly to lungs via nebulization...
December 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591357/is-inhaled-prophylactic-heparin-useful-for-prevention-and-management-of-pneumonia-in-ventilated-icu-patients
#18
(no author information available yet)
PURPOSE: The purpose was to determine the efficacy of prophylactic inhaled heparin for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial stratified for study center and patient type (nonoperative, postoperative) was conducted in 3 university-affiliated intensive care units. Patients aged at least 18 years and requiring invasive MV for more than 48 hours were randomized to usual care, nebulization of unfractionated sodium heparin (5000 U in 2 mL), or nebulization with 0...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563934/dry-powder-inhaler-delivery-of-tobramycin-in-in-vitro-models-of-tracheostomized-children
#19
Wallace B Wee, Scott Tavernini, Andrew R Martin, Israel Amirav, Carina Majaesic, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: Pediatric tracheostomies are not uncommon and aerosols allow for targeted lung therapy. However, there is little literature that quantifies aerosol delivery through tracheostomies. Nebulizers are commonly used in delivering tobramycin, but there are drawbacks, for example, time burden. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) can deliver higher payloads in less time. However, no data exist assessing DPIs with tracheostomies. OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to quantify the amount of aerosolized tobramycin delivered to the lungs of in vitro tracheostomized spontaneously breathing pediatric models with the TOBI(®) Podhaler™ (Podhaler) and the PARI LC Plus(®) (LC Plus)...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550345/pulmonary-deposition-and-elimination-of-liposomal-amikacin-for-inhalation-and-effect-on-macrophage-function-after-administration-in-rats
#20
Vladimir Malinin, Mary Neville, Gina Eagle, Renu Gupta, Walter R Perkins
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) infections represent a treatment challenge. Liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) is a novel formulation currently in development for treatment of PNTM infections. Pulmonary deposition and elimination of LAI and its effect on macrophage function were evaluated in a series of preclinical studies in healthy rats. METHODS: Pulmonary deposition of LAI was evaluated in female rats (n = 76) treated with LAI by nebulizer at 10 mg/kg per day or 90 mg/kg per day for 27 days, followed by dosing of dual-labeled LAI (lipid label plus amikacin label) on day 28 with subsequent lung histological and amikacin analyses...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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