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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222249/are-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-reliable-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Hailemichael Desalegn, Hanna Aberra, Nega Berhe, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: In the absence of liver biopsy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends non-invasive tests, such as APRI (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index) and FIB-4, to assess liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, these tests are not well validated in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, a new marker, GPR (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio), was found to be more accurate in an African setting, but this needs confirmation in other cohorts...
February 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220512/sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-daa-experienced-patients-with-genotype-1-hcv
#2
Eric Lawitz, Fred Poordad, Jennifer Wells, Robert H Hyland, Yin Yang, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Luisa M Stamm, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Carmen Landaverde, Julio Gutierrez
: The optimal retreatment strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-infected patients who fail direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based regimens remains unknown. In this phase 2, open-label study conducted at a single center in the United States, patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who previously failed to achieve sustained virologic response on a DAA-based regimen were randomized to receive treatment with a fixed-dose combination tablet of sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks...
February 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219761/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-assay-for-rapid-and-low-cost-genotyping-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-1a-1b-2-and-3a
#3
Andrea D Olmstead, Tracy D Lee, Ron Chow, Kingsley Gunadasa, Brian Auk, Mel Krajden, Agatha N Jassem
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects millions of people and leads to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment regimen selection requires HCV genotype (Gt) and Gt 1 subtype determination. Use of a laboratory developed, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay was explored as a low-cost, high-throughput screening approach for the major HCV genotypes and subtypes in North America. A commercial line probe assay (LiPA) was used for comparison. Sequencing and/or an alternative PCR assay were used for discordant analyses...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218263/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-emerging-driving-force-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217922/characterization-of-e-ntpdase-ec-3-6-1-5-activity-in-hepatic-lymphocytes-a-different-activity-profile-from-peripheral-lymphocytes
#5
Pedro H Doleski, Stephen A Adefegha, Fernanda L Cabral, Daniela B R Leal
: The activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase; EC 3.6.1.5) was characterized in hepatic lymphocytes (HL) of rats. For this purpose, a specific method for the isolation of lymphocytes from hepatic tissue was developed. Subsequently, E-NTPDase activity of rat HL was compared with that of rat peripheral lymphocytes. The HL showed high cell count and viability. Also, the characterization test revealed that the optimal E-NTPDase activities were attained at 37°C and pH 8...
February 19, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217691/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-misfolded-secretory-protein-variant-with-unique-effects-on-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#6
David H Perlmutter
In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids...
September 2016: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217259/phase-3-trial-of-first-generation-protease-inhibitor-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#7
Kenneth E Sherman, Minhee Kang, Richard Sterling, Triin Umbleja, Kristen Marks, Jennifer J Kiser, Beverly Alston-Smith, Wayne Greaves, Adeel A Butt, The Actg Birth Study Team
AIM: To evaluate efficacy/safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor boceprevir with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa and weight-based ribavirin (RBV) in a phase 3 trial. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, phase 3, open-label, single-arm study of PEG-IFN alfa, weight-based RBV, and boceprevir, with a PEG-IFN/RBV lead-in phase was performed. The HCV/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected study population included treatment naïve (TN) and treatment experienced (TE) patients...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217254/is-laparoscopic-hepatectomy-superior-to-open-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
EDITORIAL
Jian-Hong Zhong, Ning-Fu Peng, Jian-Hong Gu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Le-Qun Li
The low perioperative morbidity and shorter hospital stay associated with laparoscopic hepatectomy have made it an often-used option at many liver centers, despite the fact that many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have cirrhosis, which makes the procedure more difficult and dangerous. Type of surgical procedure proves not to be a primary risk factor for poor outcomes after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, the available evidence clearly shows that laparoscopic hepatectomy is an effective alternative to the open procedure for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, even in the presence of cirrhosis...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217250/advanced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-cirrhosis-a-high-risk-population-for-pre-liver-transplant-portal-vein-thrombosis
#9
Jonathan G Stine, Curtis K Argo, Shawn J Pelletier, Daniel G Maluf, Stephen H Caldwell, Patrick G Northup
AIM: To examine if liver transplant recipients with high-risk non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk for pre-transplant portal venous thrombosis. METHODS: Data on all liver transplants in the United States from February 2002 through September 2014 were analyzed. Recipients were sorted into three distinct groups: High-risk (age > 60, body mass index > 30 kg/m(2), hypertension and diabetes), low-risk and non-NASH cirrhosis. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216976/correlation-of-transient-elastography-with-hepatic-venous-pressure-gradient-in-patients-with-cirrhotic-portal-hypertension-a-study-of-326-patients-from-india
#10
Ashish Kumar, Noor Muhammad Khan, Shrihari Anil Anikhindi, Praveen Sharma, Naresh Bansal, Vikas Singla, Anil Arora
AIM: To study the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE) for detecting clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) in Indian patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Institute of Liver, Gastroenterology, and Pancreatico-Biliary Sciences, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, on consecutive patients with cirrhosis greater than 15 years of age who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and TE from July 2011 to May 2016...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216972/laparoscopic-resection-vs-laparoscopic-radiofrequency-ablation-for-the-treatment-of-small-hepatocellular-carcinomas-a-single-center-analysis
#11
Marco Casaccia, Gregorio Santori, Giuliano Bottino, Pietro Diviacco, Enzo Andorno
AIM: To compare survival and recurrence after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (LRFA) for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Between June 1, 2005 and November 30, 2010, 46 patients (62.26 ± 8.55 years old; female/male: 12/34) treated for small HCC were enrolled following strict criteria. Patients with better liver function and larger tumors were referred for LLR (n = 24), while those with poorer liver function and multiple tumors were referred for LRFA (n = 22), and they were then followed for similar durations (44...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216578/tumor-microenvironment-a-paradigm-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-and-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Maryam Tahmasebi Birgani, Vinicio Carloni
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Different etiological factors such as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol and diabetes cause liver injury followed by inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes proliferation. Continuous cycles of this destructive-regenerative process culminates in liver cirrhosis which is characterized by regenerating nodules that progress to dysplastic nodules and ultimately HCC. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms, and there are only limited therapeutic options...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215616/incidence-and-determinants-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Aylin Tansel, Lior H Katz, Hashem B El-Serag, Aaron P Thrift, Mayur Parepally, Mohammad H Shakhatreh, Fasiha Kanwal
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence of HCC and associated risk factors among patients with AIH. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and reference lists from relevant articles through June 2016 to identify cohort studies that examined the incidence of HCC in patients with AIH. We used random effects models to estimate pooled incidence rates overall and in subgroup of patients with cirrhosis...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215516/aisf-position-paper-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-updates-and-future-directions
#14
Amedeo Lonardo, Fabio Nascimbeni, Giovanni Targher, Mauro Bernardi, Ferruccio Bonino, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Alessandro Casini, Amalia Gastaldelli, Giulio Marchesini, Fabio Marra, Luca Miele, Filomena Morisco, Salvatore Petta, Fabio Piscaglia, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Luca Valenti, Stefano Bellentani
This review summarizes our current understanding of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a multi-factorial systemic disease resulting from a complex interaction between a specific genetic background and multiple environmental/metabolic "hits". The role of gut microbiota, lipotoxicity, inflammation and their molecular pathways is reviewed in-depth. We also discuss the epidemiology and natural history of NAFLD by pinpointing the remarkably high prevalence of NAFLD worldwide and its inherent systemic complications: hepatic (steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis), cardio-metabolic (cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and type 2 diabetes) and neoplastic (primary liver cancers and extra-hepatic cancers)...
January 23, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213381/outcomes-of-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-infection-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-1-4-in-an-ambulatory-care-setting
#15
Timothy A Bach, Kathy Zaiken
PURPOSE: Outcomes with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-4 were determined. METHODS: A total of 360 patients at 36 clinical sites in Massachusetts with HCV genotypes 1-4 and a prescription for at least one DAA medication between May 2011 and October 2015 were included. The primary investigator completed a retrospective and concurrent chart review, and data were collected through April 2016. RESULTS: A total of 446 patients were assessed for eligibility into the study, with 86 patients excluded...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#16
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212220/hcv-antiviral-therapy-in-liver-transplant-candidates-and-recipients-with-renal-insufficiency
#17
Elizabeth C Verna, Robert S Brown
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains the leading indication for liver transplant in much of the world, and has traditionally been associated with diminished posttransplant survival due to recurrent HCV-related liver disease. This field has been dramatically changed by the advent of safe and effective directly active antiviral (DAA) therapy, such that most patients can be cured in the pre or posttransplant setting. In addition, there are now DAA regimens specifically approved for use in patients with severe renal insufficiency...
February 16, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211229/serum-micrornas-as-predictors-for-liver-fibrosis-staging-in-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-chronic-liver-disease-patients
#18
Olfat G Shaker, Mahmoud A Senousy
Accurate staging of liver fibrosis is important for clinical decision making and personalized management. Liver fibrosis is influenced by patients' genomics, including IFNL3 genotype and microRNA expression. However, incorporating microRNAs into fibrosis prediction algorithms has not been investigated. We examined the potential of 8 selected serum microRNAs; miR-122, miR-126, miR-129, miR-199a, miR-155, miR-203a, miR-221, and miR-223 as non-invasive biomarkers to stage liver fibrosis in HCV-associated chronic liver disease (HCV-CLD)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209103/analysis-of-15-patients-with-abnormal-liver-function-as-the-first-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-symptom
#19
Y Gao, W Li, Q-H Meng, H-X Liu, Y-K Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the clinical characteristics of patients with abnormal liver function as the first symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Here, 15 patients admitted to a hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 with initial presentation of lupus-related hepatitis or cirrhosis were included. Their SLE-DAI scores and clinical and laboratory data were collected. All cases received liver protection therapy and active SLE controlling treatment with methylprednisolone combined with rapamycin...
September 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207552/disease-spectrum-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-beijing-302-hospital-from-2002-to-2013-a-large-tertiary-referral-hospital-experience-from-7422-patients
#20
Ang Huang, Binxia Chang, Yin Sun, Huiming Lin, Baosen Li, Guangju Teng, Zheng-Sheng Zou
Alcohol consumption in China has substantially increased over the last 3 decades and the number of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is rising at an alarming rate. However, accurate and representative data on time trends in its hospitalization rates are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the current status and burden of ALD in China by analyzing the data from a large tertiary referral hospital, Beijing 302 Hospital.Data were retrospectively recorded from patients diagnosed as ALD in Beijing 302 Hospital from 2002 to 2013...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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