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Mitochondria AND astaxanthin

Camila M Mano, Thais Guaratini, Karina H M Cardozo, Pio Colepicolo, Etelvino J H Bechara, Marcelo P Barros
Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a ketocarotenoid found in many marine organisms and that affords many benefits to human health. ASTA is particularly effective against radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, and recent findings hypothesize a "mitochondrial-targeted" action of ASTA in cells. Therefore, we examined the protective effects of ASTA against lipid peroxidation in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) and anionic phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylglycerol liposomes (PCPGLs), at different pHs (6...
April 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Wataru Aoi, Takashi Maoka, Ryo Abe, Mayuko Fujishita, Kumi Tominaga
Astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant, exists in non-esterified and esterified forms. Although it is known that astaxanthin can improve exercise endurance and cause metabolic improvement in skeletal muscle, the effects of the two different forms are unclear. We investigated the effects of the different forms of astaxanthin on endurance in mice. Eight-week-old ICR mice were divided into four groups: control; astaxanthin extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis in an esterified form; astaxanthin extracted from Phaffia rhodozyma in a non-esterified form; and astaxanthin synthesized chemically in a non-esterified form...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Kazuaki Hara, Chieko Hamada, Keiichi Wakabayashi, Reo Kanda, Kayo Kaneko, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a chlorhexidine-induced PF rat model. This suggests that oxidative stress induction of EMT is a key event during peritoneal damage...
2017: PloS One
Quan Fang, Songxue Guo, Hanlei Zhou, Rui Han, Pan Wu, Chunmao Han
Burn-wound progression can occur in the initial or peri-burn area after a deep burn injury. The stasis zone has a higher risk of deterioration mediated by multiple factors but is also considered salvageable. Astaxanthin (ATX), which is extracted from some marine organisms, is a natural compound with a strong antioxidant effect that has been reported to attenuate organ injuries caused by traumatic injuries. Hence, we investigated the potential effects of ATX on preventing early burn-wound progression. A classic "comb" burn rat model was established in this study for histological and biological assessments, which revealed that ATX, particularly higher doses, alleviated histological deterioration in the stasis zone...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yuqiu Wu, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama, Toshihiko Osawa, Makoto Naoi
Epidemiological studies present the beneficial effects of dietary habits on prevention of aging-associated decline of brain function. Phytochemicals, the second metabolites of food, protect neuronal cells from cell death in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders, and the neuroprotective activity has been ascribed to the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the cellular mechanism of neuroprotection by phytochemicals was investigated, using the cellular model of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of outer membrane translocator protein, in SH-SY5Y cells...
January 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Chao Xu, Ting Liu, Shu Yuan
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and cytokine outbreak, such as during virus infections, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, antioxidant is an important medicine to ROS-related diseases. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) was suggested as the candidate antioxidant to treat multiple diseases. However, long-term use of high-dose VC causes many side effects. In this review, we compare and analyze all kinds of mitochondrion-permeable antioxidants, including edaravone, idebenone, α-Lipoic acid, carotenoids, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10, and mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQ and SkQ and propose astaxanthin (a special carotenoid) to be the best antioxidant for ROS-burst-mediated acute diseases, like avian influenza infection and ischemia-reperfusion...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jinjin Zhang, Pan Xu, Youlei Wang, Meirong Wang, Hongbo Li, Shengcui Lin, Cuiping Mao, Bingsi Wang, Xiaodong Song, Changjun Lv
Promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the antifibrotic effect of astaxanthin on the promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis based on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that astaxanthin can inhibit lung parenchymal distortion and collagen deposition, as well as promote myofibroblast apoptosis. Astaxanthin demonstrated pro-apoptotic function in myofibroblasts by contributing to mitochondrial fission, thereby leading to apoptosis by increasing the Drp1 expression and enhancing Drp1 translocation into the mitochondria...
September 2015: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Marta Balietti, Stefano R Giannubilo, Belinda Giorgetti, Moreno Solazzi, Angelo Turi, Tiziana Casoli, Andrea Ciavattini, Patrizia Fattorettia
BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin (Ax) is a ketocarotenoid of the xanthophyll family with activities such as antioxidation, preservation of the integrity of cell membranes and protection of the redox state and functional integrity of mitochondria. The aim of this study was to investigate potential gender-related differences in the effect of Ax on the aging rat brain. RESULTS: In females, interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) was significantly lower in treated rats in both cerebral areas, and in the cerebellum, treated animals also had significantly higher IL10...
January 30, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xiaodong Song, Bingsi Wang, Shengcui Lin, Lili Jing, Cuiping Mao, Pan Xu, Changjun Lv, Wen Liu, Ji Zuo
Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism underlying lung fibrosis. The mitochondrion is a major organelle for oxidative stress in cells. Therefore, blocking the mitochondrial signalling pathway may be the best therapeutic manoeuver to ameliorate lung fibrosis. Astaxanthin (AST) is an excellent antioxidant, but no study has addressed the pathway of AST against pulmonary oxidative stress and free radicals by the mitochondrion-mediated signalling pathway. In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of AST against H2 O2 - or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in alveolar epithelial cells type II (AECs-II) in vivo and in vitro...
November 2014: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Georgia S Gaki, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative movement disorder; however, its etiology remains elusive. Nevertheless, in vivo observations have concluded that oxidative stress is one of the most common causes in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. It is known that mitochondria play a crucial role in reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways, and several gene products that associate with mitochondrial function are the subject of Parkinson's disease research. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) protects cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and is linked to the autosomal recessive familial form of the disease...
June 2014: Neuromolecular Medicine
Wataru Aoi, Yuji Naito, Toshikazu Yoshikawa
Exercise leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via several sources in the skeletal muscle. In particular, the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the muscle cells produces ROS along with an elevation in the oxygen consumption during exercise. Such ROS generated during exercise can cause oxidative modification of proteins and affect their functionality. Many evidences have been suggested that some muscle proteins, i.e., myofiber proteins, metabolic signaling proteins, and sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins can be a targets modified by ROS generated due to exercise...
2014: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
T Kuroki, S Ikeda, T Okada, T Maoka, A Kitamura, M Sugimoto, S Kume
PURPOSE: The effects of astaxanthin (Ax) on the in vitro development of bovine embryos cultured under heat stress were investigated in combination with the assessment of its cellular accumulation and action on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). METHODS: Bovine ≥8-cell embryos were collected on day 3 after in vitro fertilization and exposed to single (day 4) or repeated (day 4 and 5) heat stress (10 h/day at 40.5 °C). Ax was added into culture medium under the repeated heat stress and blastocyst development was evaluated...
June 2013: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Marina Wayama, Shuhei Ota, Hazuki Matsuura, Nobuhito Nango, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of green algae and is well known for its accumulation of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is used in aquaculture, various pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. High levels of astaxanthin are present in cysts, which rapidly accumulate when the environmental conditions become unfavorable for normal cell growth. It is not understood, however, how accumulation of high levels of astaxanthin, which is soluble in oil, becomes possible during encystment. Here, we performed ultrastructural 3D reconstruction based on over 350 serial sections per cell to visualize the dynamics of astaxanthin accumulation and subcellular changes during the encystment of H...
2013: PloS One
J S Park, B D Mathison, M G Hayek, J Zhang, G A Reinhart, B P Chew
Young (2.97±0.01 yr; 8.16±0.15 kg BW) and geriatric (10.71±0.01 yr; 9.46±0.18 kg BW) healthy female Beagle dogs (n=14/age group) were fed 0 or 20 mg astaxanthin daily for 16 wk to examine modulation of mitochondrial function. Fasted blood was sampled on wk 0, 8, and 16. Mitochondria membrane permeability, ATP production, cytochrome c oxidase/reductase, and number were assessed in leukocytes whereas astaxanthin uptake, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-isoprostane, and protein carbonyl were measured in plasma...
January 2013: Journal of Animal Science
Parris Kidd
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits. This molecule neutralizes free radicals or other oxidants by either accepting or donating electrons, and without being destroyed or becoming a pro-oxidant in the process. Its linear, polar-nonpolar-polar molecular layout equips it to precisely insert into the membrane and span its entire width. In this position, astaxanthin can intercept reactive molecular species within the membrane's hydrophobic interior and along its hydrophilic boundaries...
December 2011: Alternative Medicine Review: a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
Koumei Yazaki, Chinatsu Yoshikoshi, Satoru Oshiro, Sumino Yanase
Astaxanthin (AX), which is produced by some marine animals, is a type of carotenoid that has antioxidative properties. In this study, we initially examined the effects of AX on the aging of a model organism C. elegans that has the conserved intracellular pathways related to mammalian longevity. The continuous treatments with AX (0.1 to 1 mM) from both the prereproductive and young adult stages extended the mean lifespans by about 16-30% in the wild-type and long-lived mutant age-1 of C. elegans. In contrast, the AX-dependent lifespan extension was not observed even in a daf-16 null mutant...
2011: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mark F McCarty
Owing to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and the popularity of diets rich in sugar and saturated fat, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly common; it is usually associated with insulin resistance, and may be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. The pathologies which can complicate hepatic steatosis--steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cancer--appear to result from an interaction of hepatic lipid overload and hepatic oxidative stress. It is therefore proposed that comprehensive regimens which effectively target each of these precipitating factors should achieve the best therapeutic benefit in NAFLD...
October 2011: Medical Hypotheses
Xiao-dong Song, Jin-jin Zhang, Mei-rong Wang, Wen-bo Liu, Xin-bin Gu, Chang-Jun Lv
We designed to study the role of mitochondria in astaxanthin-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Effect of astaxanthin on cell proliferation was studied by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) in three tumor cell lines (CBRH-7919, SHZ-88 and Lewis) and normal human hepatocyte HL-7702 cell. Cell apoptosis rate, changes of mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and electron transport chain were evaluated respectively. Expressions of B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) were detected by Western blot...
2011: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Dae-Hee Lee, Cuk-Seong Kim, Yong J Lee
Astaxanthin (AST) is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. We have investigated the role of AST in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced apoptosis of the substantia nigra (SN) neurons in the mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. In in vitro study, AST inhibits MPP+-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells...
January 2011: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ruriko Nakao, O Lynne Nelson, Jean Soon Park, Bridget D Mathison, Pam A Thompson, Boon P Chew
Astaxanthin is an antioxidant with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study evaluated the use of dietary astaxanthin to decrease oxidative stress and improve cardiac function, thereby providing a potential cardioprotective supplement. Female BALB/c mice (8 weeks of age) were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0, 0.02 or 0.08% astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography bi-weekly, and blood and tissue samples were collected at 8 weeks. Plasma astaxanthin concentrations increased (p<0...
July 2010: Anticancer Research
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