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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535593/simulating-soil-organic-carbon-stock-as-affected-by-land-cover-change-and-climate-change-hyrcanian-forests-northern-iran
#1
Azam Soleimani, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Ali Reza Massah Bavani, Mostafa Jafari, Rosa Francaviglia
Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535588/pedogenic-knowledge-aided-modelling-of-soil-inorganic-carbon-stocks-in-an-alpine-environment
#2
Ren-Min Yang, Fan Yang, Fei Yang, Lai-Ming Huang, Feng Liu, Jin-Ling Yang, Yu-Guo Zhao, De-Cheng Li, Gan-Lin Zhang
Accurate estimation of soil carbon is essential for accounting carbon cycling on the background of global environment change. However, previous studies made little contribution to the patterns and stocks of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in large scales. In this study, we defined the structure of the soil depth function to fit vertical distribution of SIC based on pedogenic knowledge across various landscapes. Soil depth functions were constructed from a dataset of 99 soil profiles in the alpine area of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535105/the-importance-of-economic-perspective-and-quantitative-approaches-in-oncology-value-frameworks-of-drug-selection-and-shared-decision-making
#3
A Reginald Waldeck, Marc F Botteman, Richard E White, Ben A van Hout
The debate around value in oncology drug selection has been prominent in recent years, and several professional bodies have furthered this debate by advocating for so-called value frameworks. Herein, we provide a viewpoint on these value frameworks, emphasizing the need to consider 4 key aspects: (1) the economic underpinnings of value; (2) the importance of the perspective adopted in the valuation; (3) the importance of the difference between absolute and relative measures of risk and measuring patient preferences; and (4) the recognition of multiple quality-of-life (QoL) domains, and the aggregation and valuation of those domains, through utilities within a multicriteria decision analysis, may allow prioritization of QoL above the tallying of safety events, particularly in a value framework focusing on the individual patient...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534175/-aseptic-loosening-of-total-ankle-replacement-two-stage-revision-with-bone-augmentation-of-osseous-defects-and-secondary-prosthesis-implantation
#4
A Barg, M Wiewiorski, V Valderrabano
OBJECTIVE: To remove loosened ankle prosthesis components, perform osseous defect augmentation, and reimplant definitive prosthesis components to preserve ankle range of motion. INDICATIONS: Aseptic loosening of the tibial and/or talar ankle prosthesis components with substantial bone defect. CONTRAINDICATIONS: General surgical/anesthesiological risks, infections, critical soft tissue conditions, nonmanageable hindfoot instability, neurovascular impairment of the lower extremity, neuroarthropathy, substantial nonreconstructable osseous defects with or without cysts on the tibial and/or talar side, noncompliance, primary total ankle replacement (TAR) using intramedullary fixation (stem fixation), severely reduced bone quality, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, smoking, unrealistic patients' expectations, high activity in sports...
May 22, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534067/microplastics-in-sediment-cores-from-asia-and-africa-as-indicators-of-temporal-trends-in-plastic-pollution
#5
Yukari Matsuguma, Hideshige Takada, Hidetoshi Kumata, Hirohide Kanke, Shigeaki Sakurai, Tokuma Suzuki, Maki Itoh, Yohei Okazaki, Ruchaya Boonyatumanond, Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, Steven Weerts, Brent Newman
Microplastics (<5 mm) were extracted from sediment cores collected in Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, and South Africa by density separation after hydrogen peroxide treatment to remove biofilms were and identified using FTIR. Carbonyl and vinyl indices were used to avoid counting biopolymers as plastics. Microplastics composed of variety of polymers, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethyleneterphthalates (PET), polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer (PEP), and polyacrylates (PAK), were identified in the sediment...
May 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533003/rectus-femoris-echo-intensity-correlates-with-muscle-strength-but-not-endurance-in-younger-and-older-men
#6
Jacob A Mota, Matt S Stock
We examined correlations between echo intensity and muscle strength and endurance. Rectus femoris echo intensity, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and time to task failure during a 50% MVC task were determined for 12 younger (mean age = 25 y) and 13 older (mean age = 74 y) men. Bivariate correlations between echo intensity and normalized MVC force were similar for younger and older men, but was only statistically significant for the latter (younger r = -0.559, p = 0.059; older r = -0.580, p = 0...
May 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532839/dry-ice-is-a-reliable-substrate-for-the-distribution-of-frozen-mouse-spermatozoa-a-multi-centric-study
#7
Marcello Raspa, Mo Guan, Renata Paoletti, Lluis Montoliu, Abdel Ayadi, Susan Marschall, Martin Fray, Ferdinando Scavizzi
Disseminating mouse stocks as frozen materials offers both ethical and logistical advantages over live animal shipment, minimizing the welfare issues and avoiding some of the complex custom regulations that are associated with live animal transportation. Embryo freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN2) at -196 °C has traditionally been the method of choice for archiving mouse lines. However, spermatozoa freezing is emerging as a more convenient alternative due to the application of innovative cryopreservation and recovery protocols...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532463/exploring-patient-centered-hospitals-a-systematic-review-to-understand-change
#8
Irene Gabutti, Daniele Mascia, Americo Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: The healthcare scenario in developed countries is changing deeply: patients, who are frequently affected by multi-pathological chronic conditions, have risen their expectations. Simultaneously, there exist dramatic financial pressures which require healthcare organizations to provide more and better services with equal (or decreasing) resources. In response to these challenges, hospitals are facing radical transformations by bridging, redesigning and engaging their organization and staff...
May 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531553/hiv-1-viral-load-measurement-in-venous-blood-and-fingerprick-blood-using-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-dbs-assay
#9
Ning Tang, Vihanga Pahalawatta, Andrea Frank, Zowie Bagley, Raquel Viana, John Lampinen, Gregor Leckie, Shihai Huang, Klara Abravaya, Carole L Wallis
BACKGROUND: HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530520/cardiovascular-disease-and-gout-real-world-experience-evaluating-patient-characteristics-treatment-patterns-and-health-care-utilization
#10
Michael H Pillinger, Sripal Bangalore, Alyssa B Klein, Scott Baumgartner, Robert Morlock
BACKGROUND: Gout, hyperuricemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prevalent conditions in the United States, and while they share common risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, relatively little is known about what patient and disease characteristics may link CVD with hyperuricemia and gout and how the presence of both diseases affects management decisions differently than for patients with gout alone. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in patient characteristics, patterns of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, and gout control in gout patients with and without cardiovascular comorbidity...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530518/antiplatelet-therapy-and-clinical-outcomes-following-myocardial-infarction-among-patients-in-a-u-s-employer-based-insurance-database
#11
Mehul D Patel, David Wu, Monica Reed Chase, Panagiotis Mavros, Kim Heithoff, Mary E Hanson, Ross J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Estimates of residual cardiovascular risks among patients who have experienced a recent acute myocardial infarction (MI) are predominantly derived from secondary prevention trial populations, patient registries, and population-based cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To generate real-world evidence of antiplatelet treatment and recurrent events following MI in patients on antiplatelet treatment among commercial, employer-based insured patients in a large administrative database...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#12
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528416/time-trends-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-benthic-and-pelagic-indicator-fishes-from-puget-sound-washington-usa
#13
James E West, Sandra M O'Neill, Gina M Ylitalo
We modeled temporal trends in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in two indicator fish species representing benthic and pelagic habitats in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. English sole (Parophrys vetulus, benthic) index sites and larger-scale Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii, pelagic) foraging areas represented a wide range of possible contamination conditions, with sampling locations situated adjacent to watersheds exhibiting high, medium and low development...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527740/reductions-of-plant-cover-induced-by-sheep-grazing-change-the-above-belowground-partition-and-chemistry-of-organic-c-stocks-in-arid-rangelands-of-patagonian-monte-argentina
#14
C Larreguy, A L Carrera, M B Bertiller
The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527145/an-appraisal-of-indonesia-s-immense-peat-carbon-stock-using-national-peatland-maps-uncertainties-and-potential-losses-from-conversion
#15
REVIEW
Matthew Warren, Kristell Hergoualc'h, J Boone Kauffman, Daniel Murdiyarso, Randall Kolka
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the world's tropical peatlands occur in Indonesia where rapid conversion and associated losses of carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services have brought peatland management to the forefront of Indonesia's climate mitigation efforts. We evaluated peat volume from two commonly referenced maps of peat distribution and depth published by Wetlands International (WI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and used regionally specific values of carbon density to calculate carbon stocks...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526841/organic-carbon-prediction-in-soil-cores-using-vnir-and-mir-techniques-in-an-alpine-landscape
#16
Xiaolin Jia, Songchao Chen, Yuanyuan Yang, Lianqing Zhou, Wu Yu, Zhou Shi
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), including visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) radiation, is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective technique for estimating soil organic carbon (SOC). We examined 24 soil cores (0-100 cm) from the Sygera Mountains on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, considering field-moist intact VNIR, air-dried ground VNIR and air-dried ground MIR spectra at 5-cm intervals. Preprocessed spectra were used to predict the SOC in the soil cores using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and a support vector machine (SVM)...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526550/impact-of-first-eye-versus-second-eye-cataract-surgery-on-visual-function-and-quality-of-life
#17
Nakul S Shekhawat, Michael V Stock, Elizabeth F Baze, Mary K Daly, David E Vollman, Mary G Lawrence, Amy S Chomsky
PURPOSE: To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded...
May 16, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526075/testing-times-trends-in-availability-price-and-market-share-of-malaria-diagnostics-in-the-public-and-private-healthcare-sector-across-eight-sub-saharan-african-countries-from-2009-to-2015
#18
Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526023/high-incidence-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-with-propionibacterium-acnes-after-the-use-of-a-stemless-shoulder-prosthesis-with-metaphyseal-screw-fixation-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-241-patients-propionibacter-infections-after-eclipse-tsa
#19
Lisa Johansson, Nils P Hailer, Hans Rahme
BACKGROUND: A stemless shoulder prosthesis with humeral metaphyseal screw fixation was introduced in order to save bone-stock and to facilitate reconstruction of biomechanics (Eclipse®). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of infection is different with this implant compared to conventional shoulder prosthesis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-one patients (54.8% females) were operated with a shoulder arthroplasty and followed for median 2.0 (0...
May 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525937/spatial-variability-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-three-gorges-reservoir-area-china
#20
Mingjun Teng, Lixiong Zeng, Wenfa Xiao, Zhiling Huang, Zhixiang Zhou, Zhaogui Yan, Pengcheng Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of the global carbon pool. It is a critical indicator of soil quality. We studied SOC content (SOCC) and SOC density (SOCD) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area in China. Soil samples from 306 sites across the study area were assessed for SOCC, SOCD and bulk density. Total SOC stocks in the TGR area were estimated at 5.82×10(-1)Pg. We examined relationships between SOCC and SOCD, and the environmental and land-use/land-cover (LULC) variables. The plow layer (0-0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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