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Lidiany C da Silva Carvalho, Philip M Fearnside, Marcelo T Nascimento, Reinaldo I Barbosa
Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) derived from charcoal particles (paleo + modern) deposited in the soil column has been little studied in the Amazon, and our understanding of the factors that control the spatial and vertical distribution of these materials in the region's forest soils is still unclear. The objective of this study was to test the effect of forest type and distance from the ignition source on the PyC stocks contained in macroscopic particles of soil charcoal (≥ 2 mm; 1-m depth) dispersed in ecotone forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
Andrew Stolbach, Vikhyat Bebarta, Michael Beuhler, Shaun Carstairs, Lewis Nelson, Michael Wahl, Paul M Wax, Charles McKay
First responders and health care providers must prepare to provide care for patients poisoned by acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor chemical warfare agents or pesticides. However, pre-deployed medical countermeasures (MCMs) may not be sufficient due to production and delivery interruption, rapid depletion of contents during a response, expiration of MCM components, or lack of local availability of approved MCMs. To augment supplies of community-based and forward-deployed nerve agent countermeasures, the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) supports several strategies: (1) The use of expired atropine, diazepam, and pralidoxime auto-injectors and vials if non-expired drugs are unavailable; and (2) Investigation, development, and identification of alternative countermeasures-commonly stocked drugs that are not approved for nerve agent poisoning but are in the same therapeutic class as approved drugs...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Ioana M Abbas, Holger Hoffmann, María Montes-Bayón, Michael G Weller
Mass spectrometry-based methods play a crucial role in the quantification of the main iron metabolism regulator hepcidin by singling out the bioactive 25-residue peptide from the other naturally occurring N-truncated isoforms (hepcidin-20, -22, -24), which seem to be inactive in iron homeostasis. However, several difficulties arise in the MS analysis of hepcidin due to the "sticky" character of the peptide and the lack of suitable standards. Here, we propose the use of amino- and fluoro-silanized autosampler vials to reduce hepcidin interaction to laboratory glassware surfaces after testing several types of vials for the preparation of stock solutions and serum samples for isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS)...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
A Gopalakrishnan, N Vineesh, Shihab Ismail, Muktha Menon, K V Akhilesh, N S Jeena, M P Paulton, P Vijayagopal
Mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is a commercially important fish. The genetic stock structure of L. argentimaculatus from Indian waters was identified using mitochondrial ATPase 6 and ATPase 8, and cytochrome b (Cytb) genes. A 842 bp region of ATPase 6/8 genes and 1105 bp region of Cytb gene were amplified in 120 samples from six different locations along the Indian coast and obtained 58 and 66 haplotypes, respectively. The high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity values along with mismatch distribution, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs analysis suggested a genetic bottleneck events or founder effect, with subsequent population expansion in L...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
Huiying Liu, Zhaorong Mi, Li Lin, Yonghui Wang, Zhenhua Zhang, Fawei Zhang, Hao Wang, Lingli Liu, Biao Zhu, Guangmin Cao, Xinquan Zhao, Nathan J Sanders, Aimée T Classen, Peter B Reich, Jin-Sheng He
The structure and function of alpine grassland ecosystems, including their extensive soil carbon stocks, are largely shaped by temperature. The Tibetan Plateau in particular has experienced significant warming over the past 50 y, and this warming trend is projected to intensify in the future. Such climate change will likely alter plant species composition and net primary production (NPP). Here we combined 32 y of observations and monitoring with a manipulative experiment of temperature and precipitation to explore the effects of changing climate on plant community structure and ecosystem function...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yongcun Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Shuijin Hu, Xudong Zhang, Zhu Ouyang, Ganlin Zhang, Biao Huang, Shiwei Zhao, Jinshui Wu, Deti Xie, Bo Zhu, Dongsheng Yu, Xianzhang Pan, Shengxiang Xu, Xuezheng Shi
China's croplands have experienced drastic changes in management practices, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue treatments, since the 1980s. There is an ongoing debate about the impact of these changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) and its implications. Here we report results from an extensive study that provided direct evidence of cropland SOC sequestration in China. Based on the soil sampling locations recorded by the Second National Soil Survey of China in 1980, we collected 4,060 soil samples in 2011 from 58 counties that represent the typical cropping systems across China...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fei Lu, Huifeng Hu, Wenjuan Sun, Jiaojun Zhu, Guobin Liu, Wangming Zhou, Quanfa Zhang, Peili Shi, Xiuping Liu, Xing Wu, Lu Zhang, Xiaohua Wei, Limin Dai, Kerong Zhang, Yirong Sun, Sha Xue, Wanjun Zhang, Dingpeng Xiong, Lei Deng, Bojie Liu, Li Zhou, Chao Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Jiansheng Cao, Yao Huang, Nianpeng He, Guoyi Zhou, Yongfei Bai, Zongqiang Xie, Zhiyao Tang, Bingfang Wu, Jingyun Fang, Guohua Liu, Guirui Yu
The long-term stressful utilization of forests and grasslands has led to ecosystem degradation and C loss. Since the late 1970s China has launched six key national ecological restoration projects to protect its environment and restore degraded ecosystems. Here, we conducted a large-scale field investigation and a literature survey of biomass and soil C in China's forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems across the regions where the six projects were implemented (∼16% of the country's land area). We investigated the changes in the C stocks of these ecosystems to evaluate the contributions of the projects to the country's C sink between 2001 and 2010...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xuli Tang, Xia Zhao, Yongfei Bai, Zhiyao Tang, Wantong Wang, Yongcun Zhao, Hongwei Wan, Zongqiang Xie, Xuezheng Shi, Bingfang Wu, Gengxu Wang, Junhua Yan, Keping Ma, Sheng Du, Shenggong Li, Shijie Han, Youxin Ma, Huifeng Hu, Nianpeng He, Yuanhe Yang, Wenxuan Han, Hongling He, Guirui Yu, Jingyun Fang, Guoyi Zhou
China's terrestrial ecosystems have functioned as important carbon sinks. However, previous estimates of carbon budgets have included large uncertainties owing to the limitations of sample size, multiple data sources, and inconsistent methodologies. In this study, we conducted an intensive field campaign involving 14,371 field plots to investigate all sectors of carbon stocks in China's forests, shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to better estimate the regional and national carbon pools and to explore the biogeographical patterns and potential drivers of these pools...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guillermo Rodrigo, Nigel G Stocks
Noise in gene expression is pervasive and, in some cases, even fulfills a functional role. Cancer cell populations exploit noise to increase heterogeneity as a defense against therapies. What lies behind this picture is a phenomenon of stochastic resonance led by the collective, rather than by individual cells.
April 14, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Travis Wassermann, Eleanor K Reimer, Marie McKinnon, Wendy Stock
A 67-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia experienced refractory hypokalemia while taking low-dose posaconazole.….
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Anja Oelert, Manuela Kittel, Martin Hahn, Hermann Haase, Michael Jünger
In five patients who suffered from chronic venous insufficiency clinical stage C4 (n = 3) and C6 (n = 2) the capillary blood pressure was measured twice by means of invasive direct cannulation of nailfold capillaries of the toe. During one measurement course the patients wore below knee medical compression stockings (40 mmHg) during the other they did not have compression therapy. With the patient in supine position, the CP was investigated by the servo-nulling technique under resting conditions and under dynamic conditions: the calf-muscle/ankle joint venous pump was simulated by means of inflating a blood pressure cuff, which surrounded the mid lower leg, to 60 mmHg for 60 s...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Azeem Tariq, Anna Gunina, Norbert Lamersdorf
Initial changes in soil structure and C stocks were studied under short-rotation coppices (SRC) planted on former cropland near Göttingen, Central Germany. Plantations were established either as monocultures with willow (Willow-SRC) or poplar (Poplar-SRC), or as an agroforestry system with willow strips and grassland alleys in between (Willow-AF). A neighbouring cropland served as a control. Three sampling campaigns were applied in this study. The first sampling was conducted at a fine scale to reveal the differences in soil C with depth (i...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
J Sreekanth, Tao Cui, Trevor Pickett, David Rassam, Mat Gilfedder, Damian Barrett
Large scale development of coal seam gas (CSG) is occurring in many sedimentary basins around the world including Australia, where commercial production of CSG has started in the Surat and Bowen basins. CSG development often involves extraction of large volumes of water that results in depressurising aquifers that overlie and/or underlie the coal seams thus perturbing their flow regimes. This can potentially impact regional aquifer systems that are used for many purposes such as irrigation, and stock and domestic water...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Arun Jyoti Nath, Rattan Lal, Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi, Ashesh Kumar Das
The "4 per Thousand" initiative was launched at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in December 2015 to address global climate change through the aspirational goal of increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stock of the world to 40-cm depth by an average annual rate of 4%. Small landholders (SLHs), often faced with difficult bio-physical and socio-economic conditions, are the principal managers of soil in India. There are 117 million SLHs representing 85% of the total operational holdings, cultivating over 72 million ha of land, and meeting 50-60% of India's food requirement...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mafalda Pardal
BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are associations of cannabis users that collectively organize the cultivation and distribution of cannabis. As this middle ground supply model has been active in Belgium for over a decade, this paper aims to examine CSCs' supply practices, noting any shifts from previously reported features of the model. METHODS: We draw on interviews with directors of seven currently active Belgian CSCs (n = 21) and their cannabis growers (n = 23)...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kenichi Shibata, Kohei Obase, Kiminori Itoh, Takashi Amemiya
Starvation is one of the most common forms of stress experienced in the wild life. Such conditions associate the other forms of stress such as acid, heat, oxidation, and so on. Organisms acclimate to such stresses and acquire the stress tolerances, which often trade-off their growth rates. To investigate whether starvation and the associated stresses may cause the changes in the growth and the central carbon metabolism, we stock-cultured the yeast S. cerevisiae on YNB agar plates up to a month and subsequently cultured in YNB broth...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Gauthier Ligot, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo, Xavier Morin, Sébastien Bauwens, Fidele Baya, Yves Brostaux, Jean-Louis Doucet, Adeline Fayolle
Although the importance of large trees regarding biodiversity and carbon stock in old-growth forests is undeniable, their annual contribution to biomass production and carbon uptake remains poorly studied at the stand level. To clarify the role of large trees in biomass production, we used data of tree growth, mortality and recruitment monitored during 20 years in 10×4-ha plots in a species rich tropical forest (Central African Republic). Using a random block design, three different silvicultural treatments, control, logged, and logged + thinned, were applied in the 10 plots...
April 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Paul Terwase Lyam, Joaquín Duque-Lazo, Walter Durka, Frank Hauenschild, Jan Schnitzler, Ingo Michalak, Oluwatoyin Temitayo Ogundipe, Alexandra Nora Muellner-Riehl
Climate change is predicted to impact species' genetic diversity and distribution. We used Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, an economically important species distributed in the Sudano-Sahelian savannah belt of West Africa, to investigate the impact of climate change on intraspecific genetic diversity and distribution. We used ten nuclear and two plastid microsatellite markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and differentiation across thirteen sites in West Africa. We projected suitable range, and potential impact of climate change on genetic diversity using a maximum entropy approach, under four different climate change scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Angela Stocks, Donna Simcoe, Dikran Toroser, Lisa DeTora
OBJECTIVE: To provide clarity on the professional medical writer as author or contributor by examining what "a substantial contribution" and "accountability" mean with respect to authorship in a biomedical publication. These terms relate to criteria 1 and 4 of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the ICMJE and Good Publication Practice authorship guidelines, which recommend that individuals not meeting all four authorship criteria should be acknowledged as contributors...
April 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Naomi L Stock, Michael C Doran, Ron F Bonners, Raymond E March
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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