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Galvanized pipes

Michael K DeSantis, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Michael R Schock, Darren A Lytle
Galvanic corrosion as a mechanism of toxic lead release into drinking water has been under scientific debate in the U.S. for over 30 years. Visual and mineralogical analysis of 28 lead pipe joints, excavated after 60+ years from eight U.S. water utilities, provided the first direct view of three distinct galvanic corrosion patterns in practice: (1) no evidence of galvanic corrosion; (2) galvanic corrosion with lead cathode; (3) galvanic corrosion with lead anode. Pattern 3 is consistent with empirical galvanic series (lead → brass → copper in order of increasing nobility) and poses the greatest risk of Pb exposure...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jingqing Liu, Huabin Shentu, Huanyu Chen, Ping Ye, Bing Xu, Yifu Zhang, Hamid Bastani, Hongxi Peng, Lei Chen, Tuqiao Zhang
The long-term stagnation in metal water supply pipes, usually caused by intermittent consumption patterns, will cause significant iron release and water quality deterioration, especially at the terminus of pipelines. Another common phenomenon at the terminus of pipelines is leakage, which is considered helpful by allowing seepage of low-quality drinking water resulting from long-term stagnation. In this study, the effect of laminar flow on alleviating water quality deterioration under different leakage conditions was investigated, and the potential thresholds of the flow rate, which can affect the iron release process, were discussed...
November 1, 2017: Water Research
Matthias Borris, Heléne Österlund, Jiri Marsalek, Maria Viklander
Implications of three sewer pipe materials (concrete, galvanized corrugated steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) for stormwater quality were explored in laboratory experiments, in which three types of stormwater, SW1-SW3, were circulated in 0.5 m long sewer pipe sections. SW1 and SW2 represented synthetic rainwater, without and with fine street sediment added (CTSS = 150 mg/L), respectively, and SW3 was actual stormwater with the same sediment addition as SW2. Following 20-min runs, with an equivalent distance of 500 m travelled by water particles, a number of statistically significant changes in the stormwater chemistry were observed: (i) pH of all the simulated stormwaters increased in the concrete pipe (from 7...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ahmed A Abokifa, Pratim Biswas
Partial replacement of lead service lines (LSLs) often results in the excessive long-term release of lead particulates due to the disturbance of pipe scale and galvanic corrosion. In this study, a modeling approach to simulate the release and transport of particulate and dissolved lead from full and partially replaced LSLs is developed. A mass-transfer model is coupled with a stochastic residential water demand generator to investigate the effect of normal household usage flow patterns on lead exposure. The model is calibrated by comparing simulation results against experimental measurements from pilot-scale setups where lead release under different flow rates and water chemistry scenarios was reported...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Aki Kogo, Sarah Jane Payne, Robert C Andrews
Partial lead service line replacements (PLSLR) were simulated using five recirculating pipe loops treated with either zinc orthophosphate (1mg/L as P), orthophosphate (1mg/L as P) or sodium silicate (10mg/L). Two pipe loops served as ⿿inhibitor-free⿿ (Pb-Cu) and ⿿galvanic free⿿ (Pb-PVC) controls. Changes in water quality (CSMR [0.2 or 1], conductivity [⿿330mS/cm or ⿿560mS/cm], chlorine [1.4mg/L]) were not observed to provide a significant impact on lead or copper release, although galvanic corrosion was shown to be a driving factor...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Kelsey J Pieper, Min Tang, Marc A Edwards
Flint, Michigan switched to the Flint River as a temporary drinking water source without implementing corrosion control in April 2014. Ten months later, water samples collected from a Flint residence revealed progressively rising water lead levels (104, 397, and 707 μg/L) coinciding with increasing water discoloration. An intensive follow-up monitoring event at this home investigated patterns of lead release by flow rate-all water samples contained lead above 15 μg/L and several exceeded hazardous waste levels (>5000 μg/L)...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
December 1, 2016: Water Research
Yang-Chen Cheng, Huei-Wen Chen, Wen-Ling Chen, Chia-Yang Chen, Gen-Shuh Wang
We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L)...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Justin St Clair, Clement Cartier, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Brandi Clark, Marc Edwards
In this 48-month pilot study, long-term impacts of copper:lead galvanic connections on lead release to water were assessed without confounding differences in pipe exposure prehistory or disturbances arising from cutting lead pipe. Lead release was tracked from three lead service line configurations, including (1) 100% lead, (2) traditional partial replacement with 50% copper upstream of 50% lead, and (3) 50% lead upstream of 50% copper as a function of flow rate, connection types, and sampling methodologies...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
M-S Hsu, M-Y Wu, Y-T Huang, C-H Liao
BACKGROUND: Chlorinated tap water in hospitals often contains low levels of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Measures are needed to ensure a safe water supply in hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections from these waterborne pathogens. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ClO2 treatment of a hospital water system on the levels of NFGNB and NTM in the water. METHODS: Our institution is a 1000-bed medical centre with two main buildings (B1 and B2)...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
(no author information available yet)
The Collegium Ramazzini reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates the Collegium's earlier statements with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARD). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARD will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue...
January 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Muzi Zheng, Chunguang He, Qiang He
Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i...
December 2015: Ecotoxicology
Hongxing Ren, Wei Wang, Yan Liu, Shuai Liu, Liping Lou, Dongqing Cheng, Xiaofang He, Xiaoyan Zhou, Shangde Qiu, Liusong Fu, Jingqing Liu, Baolan Hu
Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could cause several types of problems, such as the deterioration of water quality, corrosion of pipe walls, and potential proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, ten biofilm samples from different pipe materials, including ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP), gray cast iron pipe (GCIP), galvanized steel pipe (GSP), stainless steel clad pipe (SSCP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were collected from an actual DWDS to investigate the effect of pipe material on bacterial community...
December 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Emily Zhou, Sarah Jane O Payne, Ron Hofmann, Robert C Andrews
Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Carlos Galván Duque-Gastélum, Ivett Quiñones-Uriostegui, Felipe Mendoza, Gerardo Rodríguez
Ortheses are devices that assist in the function of the limbs, contributing with stability and support to the involved joints. KAFOs (knee-ankle-foot orthosis) are mainly indicated for people with muscular or neural diseases that affect the lower limbs. The actual designs of knee hinges for KAFOs compromise the stability and mobility of the limb. In this work, it was tested the feasibility of a design for a knee hinge for KAFO that should be able to modify its mechanical resistance depending on the gait phase...
July 2014: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Dana Bors, Josh Cummins, John Goodpaster
Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C)...
January 2014: Forensic Science International
Dana Bors, Josh Cummins, John Goodpaster
Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Karen D Ersche, Cindy C Hagan, Dana G Smith, Sanja Abbott, P Simon Jones, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Rainer Döffinger
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are the most common and cost-intensive health complications associated with drug addiction. There is wide belief that drug-dependent individuals expose themselves more regularly to disease-related pathogens through risky behaviors such as sharing pipes and needles, thereby increasing their risk for contracting an infectious disease. However, evidence is emerging indicating that not only lifestyle but also the immunomodulatory effects of addictive drugs, such as cocaine, may account for their high infection risk...
January 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
Jun-Jian Wang, Xin Liu, Tsz Wai Ng, Jie-Wen Xiao, Alex T Chow, Po Keung Wong
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation is commonly attributed to the reaction between natural organic matters and disinfectants, yet few have considered the contribution from disinfecting bacterial materials - the essential process of water disinfection. Here, we explored the DBP formation from chlorination and chloramination of Escherichia coli and found that most selected DBPs were detectable, including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, chloropicrin, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone. A positive correlation (P = 0...
May 15, 2013: Water Research
Clément Cartier, Evelyne Doré, Laurent Laroche, Shokoufeh Nour, Marc Edwards, Michèle Prévost
Release of lead from 80% partially replaced service lines was compared to full lead service lines using harvested-stabilized lead pipes and field brass connectors. After more than a year of stabilization, lead release was consistent with field samples. Over the relatively short duration partial replacement of lead pipe by copper pipe (3 months), generated high lead release, attributed to galvanic corrosion, resulting in a final outcome for lead release that was even worse than for a full lead pipe. Increased lead release was especially evident at higher flow rates...
February 1, 2013: Water Research
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