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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776308/characteristics-of-iron-corrosion-scales-and-water-quality-variations-in-drinking-water-distribution-systems-of-different-pipe-materials
#1
Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624744/occurrence-of-nonylphenol-and-bisphenol-a-in-household-water-pipes-made-of-different-materials
#2
Yang-Chen Cheng, Huei-Wen Chen, Wen-Ling Chen, Chia-Yang Chen, Gen-Shuh Wang
We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L)...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989344/long-term-behavior-of-simulated-partial-lead-service-line-replacements
#3
Justin St Clair, Clement Cartier, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Brandi Clark, Marc Edwards
In this 48-month pilot study, long-term impacts of copper:lead galvanic connections on lead release to water were assessed without confounding differences in pipe exposure prehistory or disturbances arising from cutting lead pipe. Lead release was tracked from three lead service line configurations, including (1) 100% lead, (2) traditional partial replacement with 50% copper upstream of 50% lead, and (3) 50% lead upstream of 50% copper as a function of flow rate, connection types, and sampling methodologies...
January 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944904/efficacy-of-chlorine-dioxide-disinfection-to-non-fermentative-gram-negative-bacilli-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-a-hospital-water-system
#4
M-S Hsu, M-Y Wu, Y-T Huang, C-H Liao
BACKGROUND: Chlorinated tap water in hospitals often contains low levels of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Measures are needed to ensure a safe water supply in hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections from these waterborne pathogens. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ClO2 treatment of a hospital water system on the levels of NFGNB and NTM in the water. METHODS: Our institution is a 1000-bed medical centre with two main buildings (B1 and B2)...
May 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686520/the-18th-collegium-ramazzini-statement-the-global-health-dimensions-of-asbestos-and-asbestos-related-diseases
#5
(no author information available yet)
The Collegium Ramazzini reaffirms its long-standing position that responsible public health action is to ban all extraction and use of asbestos, including chrysotile. This current statement updates the Collegium's earlier statements with a focus on global health dimensions of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases (ARD). The ARD epidemic will likely not peak for at least a decade in most industrialized countries and for several decades in industrializing countries. Asbestos and ARD will continue to present challenges in the arena of occupational medicine and public health, as well as in clinical research and practice, and have thus emerged as a global health issue...
January 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26407709/fate-of-free-chlorine-in-drinking-water-during-distribution-in-premise-plumbing
#6
Muzi Zheng, Chunguang He, Qiang He
Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i...
December 2015: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26311220/pyrosequencing-analysis-of-bacterial-communities-in-biofilms-from-different-pipe-materials-in-a-city-drinking-water-distribution-system-of-east-china
#7
Hongxing Ren, Wei Wang, Yan Liu, Shuai Liu, Liping Lou, Dongqing Cheng, Xiaofang He, Xiaoyan Zhou, Shangde Qiu, Liusong Fu, Jingqing Liu, Baolan Hu
Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could cause several types of problems, such as the deterioration of water quality, corrosion of pipe walls, and potential proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, ten biofilm samples from different pipe materials, including ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP), gray cast iron pipe (GCIP), galvanized steel pipe (GSP), stainless steel clad pipe (SSCP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were collected from an actual DWDS to investigate the effect of pipe material on bacterial community...
December 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061205/factors-affecting-lead-release-in-sodium-silicate-treated-partial-lead-service-line-replacements
#8
Emily Zhou, Sarah Jane O Payne, Ron Hofmann, Robert C Andrews
Water quality parameters affecting sodium silicate performance in partial lead service line replacements were examined using a fractional factorial experimental design and static pipe systems. An external copper wire was used to create a galvanic connection between a former lead service line and a new copper pipe. The pipe systems were filled with lab prepared water made to mimic real water quality. Water was changed on a three times per week basis. A 2(4-1) fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the impact of alkalinity (15 mg L(-1) or 250 mg L(-1) as CaCO3), nitrate (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as N), natural organic matter (1 mg L(-1) or 7 mg L(-1) as dissolved organic carbon), and disinfectant type (1 mg L(-1) chlorine or 3 mg L(-1) monochloramine), resulting in eight treatment conditions...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25264797/-feasibility-of-the-construction-of-a-magnetorheological-joint-for-a-lower-limb-orthosis-in-valve-configuration
#9
Carlos Galván Duque-Gastélum, Ivett Quiñones-Uriostegui, Felipe Mendoza, Gerardo Rodríguez
Ortheses are devices that assist in the function of the limbs, contributing with stability and support to the involved joints. KAFOs (knee-ankle-foot orthosis) are mainly indicated for people with muscular or neural diseases that affect the lower limbs. The actual designs of knee hinges for KAFOs compromise the stability and mobility of the limb. In this work, it was tested the feasibility of a design for a knee hinge for KAFO that should be able to modify its mechanical resistance depending on the gait phase...
July 2014: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24378308/the-anatomy-of-a-pipe-bomb-explosion-the-effect-of-explosive-filler-container-material-and-ambient-temperature-on-device-fragmentation
#10
Dana Bors, Josh Cummins, John Goodpaster
Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C)...
January 2014: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24147889/the-anatomy-of-a-pipe-bomb-explosion-measuring-the-mass-and-velocity-distributions-of-container-fragments
#11
Dana Bors, Josh Cummins, John Goodpaster
Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps...
January 2014: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24090796/aberrant-disgust-responses-and-immune-reactivity-in-cocaine-dependent-men
#12
Karen D Ersche, Cindy C Hagan, Dana G Smith, Sanja Abbott, P Simon Jones, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Rainer Döffinger
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are the most common and cost-intensive health complications associated with drug addiction. There is wide belief that drug-dependent individuals expose themselves more regularly to disease-related pathogens through risky behaviors such as sharing pipes and needles, thereby increasing their risk for contracting an infectious disease. However, evidence is emerging indicating that not only lifestyle but also the immunomodulatory effects of addictive drugs, such as cocaine, may account for their high infection risk...
January 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23499193/disinfection-byproduct-formation-from-chlorination-of-pure-bacterial-cells-and-pipeline-biofilms
#13
Jun-Jian Wang, Xin Liu, Tsz Wai Ng, Jie-Wen Xiao, Alex T Chow, Po Keung Wong
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation is commonly attributed to the reaction between natural organic matters and disinfectants, yet few have considered the contribution from disinfecting bacterial materials - the essential process of water disinfection. Here, we explored the DBP formation from chlorination and chloramination of Escherichia coli and found that most selected DBPs were detectable, including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, chloropicrin, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone. A positive correlation (P = 0...
May 15, 2013: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23174535/impact-of-treatment-on-pb-release-from-full-and-partially-replaced-harvested-lead-service-lines-lsls
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Clément Cartier, Evelyne Doré, Laurent Laroche, Shokoufeh Nour, Marc Edwards, Michèle Prévost
Release of lead from 80% partially replaced service lines was compared to full lead service lines using harvested-stabilized lead pipes and field brass connectors. After more than a year of stabilization, lead release was consistent with field samples. Over the relatively short duration partial replacement of lead pipe by copper pipe (3 months), generated high lead release, attributed to galvanic corrosion, resulting in a final outcome for lead release that was even worse than for a full lead pipe. Increased lead release was especially evident at higher flow rates...
February 1, 2013: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22900550/potential-reversal-and-the-effects-of-flow-pattern-on-galvanic-corrosion-of-lead
#15
Roger B Arnold, Marc Edwards
Simplistic conventional models predict that a greater mass of lead will be released from lead pipes exposed to higher velocity and flow durations. However, if galvanic Pb-Cu connections are present, or if a highly protective Pb(IV) scale can be formed, reduced flow can markedly increase the mass of lead release to water and resultant consumer exposure. Three chemical mechanisms were identified that can reduce lead release at higher flow including (1) formation of Pb(IV), (2) potential reversal of Pb:Cu couples, after which galvanic corrosion sacrifices copper and lead is protected, and (3) reduced formation of corrosive microenvironments at lead surfaces in galvanic couples...
October 16, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22863027/impact-of-water-treatment-on-the-contribution-of-faucets-to-dissolved-and-particulate-lead-release-at-the-tap
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Clément Cartier, Shokoufeh Nour, Benoit Richer, Elise Deshommes, Michèle Prévost
A field study was performed in a building complex to investigate the extent and sources of lead (Pb) release in tap water and brass material was found to be the main contributor in the very first draw (250 mL). Based on these results, a pilot installation was built to study Pb leaching from old and new faucets in the presence and absence of a connection to Cu piping. Four water quality conditions were tested: i) no treatment; ii) addition of 0.8 mg P/L of orthophosphate; iii) pH adjustment to 8.4; and iv) adjustment to a higher chloride to sulfate mass ratio (CSMR; ratio from 0...
October 15, 2012: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22835836/impact-of-galvanic-corrosion-on-lead-release-from-aged-lead-service-lines
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yin Wang, He Jing, Vrajesh Mehta, Gregory J Welter, Daniel E Giammar
Partial lead service line replacement (PLSLR) may be performed when tap water lead concentrations exceed the action level and in association with water main replacement or other maintenance. Partially replacing lead pipes with copper tubing can create a galvanic couple if the lead and copper are connected by a metal coupling, which can potentially enhance lead release by galvanic corrosion. The effect of two types of couplings, brass and plastic, on lead release after a simulated PLSLR was investigated in a set of laboratory-scale experiments...
October 15, 2012: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22677500/effect-of-flow-rate-and-lead-copper-pipe-sequence-on-lead-release-from-service-lines
#18
Clément Cartier, Roger B Arnold, Simoni Triantafyllidou, Michèle Prévost, Marc Edwards
A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion...
September 1, 2012: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22177303/-exposure-level-and-risk-factors-of-heavy-metal-in-prenatal-period-among-shanghai-infants
#19
Xiao-Dan Yu, Chong-Huai Yan, Xiao-Ming Shen, Ying Tian, Lu-Lu Cao, Xiao-Gang Yu, Mei-Qin Wu, Li Zhao, Jun-Xia Liu, Xin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the exposure level and risk factors of heavy metal among Shanghai infants in their prenatal period. METHODS: A total of 1652 pregnant or puerperal women were recruited from 10 midwifery-qualified hospitals in Shanghai since October 2008 to October 2009, by the stratified cluster sampling method. They answered the questionnaire and their umbilical cord blood and serum were collected to detect the content of Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd, As and Tl. The risk factors were analyzed by single and multiple regression methods respectively...
September 2011: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20738129/corrosive-microenvironments-at-lead-solder-surfaces-arising-from-galvanic-corrosion-with-copper-pipe
#20
Caroline K Nguyen, Kendall R Stone, Abhijeet Dudi, Marc A Edwards
As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies...
September 15, 2010: Environmental Science & Technology
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