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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317507/identification-of-euglena-gracilis-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-phosphorylase-and-establishment-of-a-new-glycoside-hydrolase-gh-family-gh149
#1
Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Nicola J Patron, Bernard Henrissat, Martin Rejzek, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
Glycoside phosphorylases (EC 2.4.x.x) carry out the reversible phosphorolysis of glucan polymers, producing the corresponding sugar 1-phosphate and a shortened glycan chain. β-1,3-Glucan phosphorylase activities have been reported in the photosynthetic Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis, but the cognate protein sequences have not been identified to date. Continuing our efforts to understand the glycobiology of E. gracilis, we identified a candidate phosphorylase sequence, designated EgP1, by proteomic analysis of an enriched cellular protein lysate...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306434/focused-glycomic-profiling-with-an-integrated-microfluidic-lectin-barcode-system
#2
Yuqin Shang, Yong Zeng
Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges associated with the analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and the speed of lectin microarrays...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251719/expression-system-for-structural-and-functional-studies-of-human-glycosylation-enzymes
#3
Kelley W Moremen, Annapoorani Ramiah, Melissa Stuart, Jason Steel, Lu Meng, Farhad Forouhar, Heather A Moniz, Gagandeep Gahlay, Zhongwei Gao, Digantkumar Chapla, Shuo Wang, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Pradeep Kumar Prabhakar, Roy Johnson, Mitche Dela Rosa, Christoph Geisler, Alison V Nairn, Jayaraman Seetharaman, Sheng-Cheng Wu, Liang Tong, Harry J Gilbert, Joshua LaBaer, Donald L Jarvis
Vertebrate glycoproteins and glycolipids are synthesized in complex biosynthetic pathways localized predominantly within membrane compartments of the secretory pathway. The enzymes that catalyze these reactions are exquisitely specific, yet few have been extensively characterized because of challenges associated with their recombinant expression as functional products. We used a modular approach to create an expression vector library encoding all known human glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, and sulfotransferases, as well as other glycan-modifying enzymes...
December 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207682/over-forty-years-of-bladder-cancer-glycobiology-where-do-glycans-stand-facing-precision-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Rita Azevedo, Andreia Peixoto, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Luís Lima, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
The high molecular heterogeneity of bladder tumours is responsible for significant variations in disease course, as well as elevated recurrence and progression rates, thereby hampering the introduction of more effective targeted therapeutics. The implementation of precision oncology settings supported by robust molecular models for individualization of patient management is warranted. This effort requires a comprehensive integration of large sets of panomics data that is yet to be fully achieved. Contributing to this goal, over 40 years of bladder cancer glycobiology have disclosed a plethora of cancer-specific glycans and glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans) accompanying disease progressions and dissemination...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202341/bridging-the-structural-gap-of-glycoproteomics-with-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#5
REVIEW
Abhigya Mookherjee, Miklos Guttman
Over the past two decades mass spectrometry (MS) has enabled high throughput studies on the level of a complex proteome. While it has similarly advanced glycobiology, the level of progress has been more restrained. This is in large part due to the diversity and complexity of carbohydrate structures. While MS is now routinely used for glycobiology, it suffers from a critical limitation, that is the inability to resolve isobaric structures. Since so many structurally and functionally distinct carbohydrates are indistinguishable by MS, additional techniques are needed for detailed structural analysis...
December 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196602/identification-and-characterization-of-a-core-fucosidase-from-the-bacterium-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica
#6
Tiansheng Li, Mengjie Li, Linlin Hou, Yameng Guo, Lei Wang, Guiqin Sun, Li Chen
All reported α-L-fucosidases catalyze the removal of nonreducing terminal L-fucoses from oligosaccharides or their conjugates, while having no capacity to hydrolyze core fucoses in glycoproteins directly. Here, we identified an α-fucosidase from the bacterium Elizabethkingia meningoseptica with catalytic activity against core α-1,3-fucosylated substrates and named it core fucosidase I (cFase I). Using site-specific mutational analysis, we found that three acidic residues (Asp-242, Glu-302, and Glu-315) in the predicted active pocket are critical for cFase I activity, with Asp-242 and Glu-315 acting as a pair of classic nucleophile and acid/base residues and Glu-302 acting in an as yet undefined role...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181010/crystallizable-fragment-glycoengineering-for-therapeutic-antibodies-development
#7
REVIEW
Wei Li, Zhongyu Zhu, Weizao Chen, Yang Feng, Dimiter S Dimitrov
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics are the fastest growing class of human pharmaceuticals. They are typically IgG1 molecules with N-glycans attached to the N297 residue on crystallizable fragment (Fc). Different Fc glycoforms impact their effector function, pharmacokinetics, stability, aggregation, safety, and immunogenicity. Fc glycoforms affect mAbs effector functions including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) by modulating the Fc-FcγRs and Fc-C1q interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139490/synthesis-and-shift-reagent-assisted-full-nmr-assignment-of-bacterial-z8-e2-%C3%AF-undecaprenol
#8
Mijoon Lee, Dusan Hesek, Jaroslav Zajíček, Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The repeating isoprene unit is a fundamental biosynthetic motif. The repetitive structure presents challenges both for synthesis and for structural characterization. In this synthesis of the (Z8,E2,ω)-undecaprenol of prokaryotic glycobiology, we exemplify solutions to these challenges. Allylation of sulfone-derived carbanions controlled the stereochemistry, and its proof-of-structure was secured by Eu(hfc)3 complexation to disperse the overlaid resonances of its (1)H NMR spectrum.
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127943/quantum-dot-cramoll-lectin-as-novel-conjugates-to-glycobiology
#9
Cássia R A Cunha, Camila G Andrade, Maria I A Pereira, Paulo E Cabral Filho, Luiz B Carvalho, Luana C B B Coelho, Beate S Santos, Adriana Fontes, Maria T S Correia
The optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) make them useful tools for biology, especially when combined with biomolecules such as lectins. QDs conjugated to lectins can be used as nanoprobes for carbohydrate expression analysis, which can provide valuable information about glycosylation changes related to cancer and pathogenicity of microorganisms, for example. In this study, we evaluated the best strategy to conjugate Cramoll lectin to QDs and used the fluorescent labeling of Candida albicans cells as a proof-of-concept...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126854/biomedical-applications-of-glyconanoparticles-based-on-quantum-dots
#10
REVIEW
C R A Cunha, A D P R Oliveira, T V C Firmino, D P L A Tenório, G Pereira, L B Carvalho, B S Santos, M T S Correia, A Fontes
BACKGROUND: Quantum dots (QDs) are outstanding nanomaterials of great interest to life sciences. Their conjugation versatility added to unique optical properties, highlight these nanocrystals as very promising fluorescent probes. Among uncountable new nanosystems, in the last years, QDs conjugated to glycans or lectins have aroused a growing attention and their application as a tool to study biological and functional properties has increased. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review describes the strategies, reported in the literature, to conjugate QDs to lectins or carbohydrates, providing valuable information for the elaboration, improvement, and application of these nanoconjugates...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105004/special-issue-glycobiology-on-stem-cells-editorial
#11
EDITORIAL
Toshisuke Kawasaki, Robert K Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092007/grass-semi-automated-nmr-based-structure-elucidation-of-saccharides
#12
Roman R Kapaev, Philip V Toukach
Motivation: Carbohydrates play crucial roles in various biochemical processes and are useful for developing drugs and vaccines. However, in case of carbohydrates, the primary structure elucidation is usually a sophisticated task. Therefore, they remain the least structurally characterized class of biomolecules, and it hampers the progress in glycochemistry and glycobiology. Creating a usable instrument designed to assist researchers in natural carbohydrate structure determination would advance glycochemistry in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications...
October 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080446/recent-advances-in-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-for-improved-structural-characterization-of-glycans-and-glycoconjugates
#13
REVIEW
Zhengwei Chen, Matthew S Glover, Lingjun Li
Glycans and glycoconjugates are involved in regulating a vast array of cellular and molecular processes. Despite the importance of glycans in biology and disease, characterization of glycans remains difficult due to their structural complexity and diversity. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques have emerged as the premier analytical tools for characterizing glycans. However, traditional MS-based strategies struggle to distinguish the large number of coexisting isomeric glycans that are indistinguishable by mass alone...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072797/a-versatile-synthesis-of-pentacosafuranoside-subunit-reminiscent-of-mycobacterial-arabinogalactan-employing-one-strategic-glycosidation-protocol
#14
Sandip Pasari, Sujit Manmode, Gulab Walke, Srinivas Hotha
Oligosaccharides are involved in myriad of biological phenomena. Many glycobiological experiments can be undertaken if homogenous and well defined oligosaccharides are accessible. Mycobacterial cell wall contains arabinogalactan as one of the major constituents that is challenging for the chemical synthesis. Therefore, the major aim of this investigation is to synthesize a major oligosaccharide portion of the arabinogalactan. The pentacosafuranoside (25mer) synthesis involved installation of several arabinofuranosidic linkages through the neighbouring group participation for 1, 2-trans linkages and oxidation-reduction method for the 1, 2-cis Araf respectively...
October 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072708/preparation-of-glycoconjugates-from-unprotected-carbohydrates-for-protein-binding-studies
#15
Christian T Hjuler, Nicolai N Maolanon, Jørgen Sauer, Jens Stougaard, Mikkel B Thygesen, Knud J Jensen
Glycobiology, in particular the study of carbohydrate-protein interactions and the events that follow, has become an important research focus in recent decades. To study these interactions, many assays require homogeneous glycoconjugates in suitable amounts. Their synthesis is one of the methodological challenges of glycobiology. Here, we describe a versatile, three-stage protocol for the formation of glycoconjugates from unprotected carbohydrates, including those purified from natural sources, as exemplified here by rhizobial Nod factors and exopolysaccharide fragments...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058424/site-selective-copper-mediated-o-arylation-of-carbohydrate-derivatives
#16
Victoria Dimakos, Graham E Garrett, Mark S Taylor
Site-selective functionalization of hydroxy groups in sugar derivatives is a major challenge in carbohydrate synthesis. Methods for achieving this goal will provide efficient access to new sugar-derived chemical building blocks and will facilitate the preparation or late-stage modification of complex oligosaccharides for applications in glycobiology research and drug discovery. Here, we describe site-selective, copper-promoted couplings of boronic acids with carbohydrate derivatives. These reactions generate sugar-derived aryl ethers, a structural class that is challenging to generate by other means and has not previously been accessed in a site-selective fashion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058413/mining-high-complexity-motifs-in-glycans-a-new-language-to-uncover-the-fine-specificities-of-lectins-and-glycosidases
#17
Zachary Klamer, Ben Staal, Anthony R Prudden, Lin Liu, David F Smith, Geert-Jan Boons, Brian Haab
Knowledge of lectin and glycosidase specificities is fundamental to the study of glycobiology. The primary specificities of such molecules can be uncovered using well-established tools, but the complex details of their specificities are difficult to determine and describe. Here we present a language and algorithm for the analysis and description of glycan motifs with high complexity. The language uses human-readable notation and wildcards, modifiers, and logical operators to define motifs of nearly any complexity...
November 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029161/society-for-glycobiology-awards-2017
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935113/directed-evolution-of-glycopeptides-using-mrna-display
#19
Satoru Horiya, Jennifer K Bailey, Isaac J Krauss
Directed evolution is a useful method for the discovery of nucleic acids, peptides, or proteins that have desired binding abilities or functions. Because of the abundance and importance of glycosylation in nature, directed evolution of glycopeptides and glycoproteins is also highly desirable. However, common directed evolution platforms such as phage-, yeast-, or mammalian-cell display are limited for these applications by several factors. Glycan structure at each glycosylation site is not genetically encoded, and yeast and mammalian cells produce a heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms at each site on the protein...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935105/structure-guided-directed-evolution-of-glycosidases-a-case-study-in-engineering-a-blood-group-antigen-cleaving-enzyme
#20
David H Kwan
Directed evolution is an incredibly powerful strategy for engineering enzyme function. Applying this approach to glycosidases offers enormous potential for the development of highly specialized tools in chemical glycobiology. Performing enzyme directed evolution requires the generation, by random mutagenesis, of mutant libraries from which large numbers of variant enzymes must be screened in high-throughput assays. A structure-guided "semirational" method for library creation allows researchers to target specific amino acid positions for mutagenesis, concentrating mutations where they might be most effective in order to produce mutant libraries of a manageable size, minimizing screening effort while maximizing the chances of finding improved mutants...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
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