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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400496/pea-border-cell-maturation-and-release-involve-complex-cell-wall-structural-dynamics
#1
Jozef Mravec, Xiaoyuan Guo, Aleksander R Hansen, Julia Schückel, Stjepan Kresimir Kracun, Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Grégory Mouille, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Peter Ulvskov, David Domozych, William George Tycho Willats
The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases though, plant cells are programmed to detach and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event. To gain a deeper insight into the complex cellular dynamics underlying this process, we undertook a systematic, detailed analysis of pea (Pisum sativum) root tip cell walls...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384366/a-glyconutrient-sham-and-the-jenner-glycobiology-and-medicine-symposium
#2
Ronald L Schnaar, Hudson H Freeze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383803/expanding-the-scope-of-metabolic-glycan-labeling-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Yuntao Zhu, Xing Chen
Metabolic glycan labeling (MGL) has gained wide utility and has become a useful tool for probing glycosylation in living systems. For the past three decades, the development and application of MGL have been mostly focused on animal glycosylation. Recently, exploiting MGL for studying plant glycosylation has started to gain interest. Here, we describe a systematic evaluation of MGL for fluorescence imaging of root glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana. A collection of nineteen monosaccharide analogs containing a bioorthogonal group (i...
April 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#4
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
April 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346368/pathophysiological-significance-of-dermatan-sulfate-proteoglycans-revealed-by-human-genetic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Shuji Mizumoto, Tomoki Kosho, Shuhei Yamada, Kazuyuki Sugahara
The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#6
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338684/seven-enzymes-create-extraordinary-molecular-complexity-in-an-uncultivated-bacterium
#7
Michael F Freeman, Maximilian J Helf, Agneya Bhushan, Brandon I Morinaka, Jörn Piel
Uncultivated bacteria represent a massive resource of new enzymes and bioactive metabolites, but such bacteria remain functionally enigmatic. Polytheonamides are potent peptide cytotoxins produced by uncultivated bacteria that exist as symbionts in a marine sponge. Outside glycobiology, polytheonamides represent the most heavily post-translationally modified biomolecules that are derived from amino acids. The biosynthesis of polytheonamides involves up to 50 site-specific modifications to create a membrane-spanning β-helical structure...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304155/gas-phase-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-for-distinguishing-isomeric-carbohydrate-ions
#8
Sanjit S Uppal, Sarah E Beasley, Michele Scian, Miklos Guttman
The structural diversity of carbohydrates presents a major challenge for glycobiology and the analysis of glycoconjugates. Mass spectrometry has become a primary tool for glycan analysis thanks to its speed and sensitivity, but the information content regarding the glycan structure of protonated glycoconjugates is hindered by the inability to differentiate linkage and stereoisomers. Here, we examine a variety of protonated carbohydrate structures by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) to discover that the exchange rates are distinct for isomeric carbohydrates with even subtle structural differences...
March 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293867/binding-specificity-of-r-10g-and-tra-1-60-81-and-substrate-specificity-of-keratanase-ii-studied-with-chemically-synthesized-oligosaccharides
#9
Hiromi Nakao, Yuko Nagai, Aya Kojima, Hidenao Toyoda, Nobuko Kawasaki, Toshisuke Kawasaki
Recently, we established a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to hiPS/ hES cells, R-10G, which recognizes a type of keratan sulfate. Keratan sulfates (KS) comprise a family of glycosaminoglycans consisting of the repeating unit of [Gal-GlcNAc(6S)]. However, there is a diversity in the degree of sulfation at Gal and GlcNAc residues, and also in the mode of linkage, Galβ1 - 3GlcNAc (type 1) or Galβ1 - 4GlcNAc (type 2). To gain more insight into the binding specificity of R-10G, we carried out an ELISA test on avidin-coated plates using polyethylene glycol (PEG)3-biotinylated derivatives of a series of N-acetyllactosamine tetrasaccharides (keratan sulfates (KSs))...
March 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266743/the-hair-follicle-enigma
#10
Bruno A Bernard
The hair follicle is a mini organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behavior. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome mediated cell-cell interactions...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214389/synthesis-of-lacto-n-tetraose
#11
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third largest macromolecular component of breast milk and offer infants numerous health benefits, most of which stem from the development of a healthy microbiome. Characterization, quantification, and chemical derivatization of HMOs remains a frontier issue in glycobiology due to the challenge of isolating appreciable quantities of homogenous HMOs from breast milk. Herein, we report the synthesis of the human milk tetrasaccharide lacto-N-tetraose (LNT). LNT is ubiquitous in human breast milk as it is a core structure common to longer-chain HMOs and many glycolipids...
February 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177314/glycoblocks-a-schematic-three-dimensional-representation-for-glycans-and-their-interactions
#12
Stuart McNicholas, Jon Agirre
The close-range interactions provided by covalently linked glycans are essential for the correct folding of glycoproteins and also play a pivotal role in recognition processes. Being able to visualise protein-glycan and glycan-glycan contacts in a clear way is thus of great importance for the understanding of these biological processes. In structural terms, glycosylation sugars glue the protein together via hydrogen bonds, whereas non-covalently bound glycans frequently harness additional stacking interactions...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155831/chondroitin-application-in-the-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease
#13
Wiesław Tomaszewski
Chondroitin is an organic compound, belonging to the group of glycosaminoglycans. In the treatment of degenerative joint disease, aka osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulphate is applied as a medicine or a dietary supplement. The biological importance of chondroitin sulphate has been already largely determined. The newest data on glycobiology research suggest that proteoglycans, as well as their complex polysaccharide macroparticles not only are the structural elements, but also they participate in multiple metabolic processes at a molecular level as well as in the physiological processes, regulating this type of mechanisms...
November 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155147/lectin-histochemistry-historical-perspectives-state-of-the-art-and-the-future
#14
Susan A Brooks
Lectins, discovered more than 100 years ago and defined by their ability to selectively recognize specific carbohydrate structures, are ubiquitous in living organisms. Their precise functions are as yet under-explored and incompletely understood but they are clearly involved, through recognition of their binding partners, in a myriad of biological mechanisms involved in cell identity, adhesion, signaling, growth regulation, in health and disease. Understanding the complex "sugar code" represented by the glycome is a major challenge and at the forefront of current biological research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130769/secretory-expression-and-characterization-of-chinese-narcissus-gna-like-lectin-in-pichia-pastoris
#15
Xinyu Li, Pengpeng Zhang, Ning Zhang, Xiao Liang, Wenya Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Qiang Li
Narcissus tazetta lectin (NTL) is a GNA-like lectin, which has a wide potential application in medicine, agriculture, and glycobiology. In the present paper, the codon-optimized ntl gene was transformed into the yeast Pichia pastoris; SDS-PAGE gel and western blotting analysis revealed that the recombinant lectin was expressed successfully in Pichia yeast. The similarity between the recombinant NTL and the native NTL was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and hemagglutination assay further. In the 5-L scale fermentator, the protein yield was as high as 1...
January 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110657/maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-n-linked-glycans-in-cancer-tissues
#16
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090561/diversity-in-rotavirus-host-glycan-interactions-a-sweet-spectrum
#17
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Liya Hu, B V Venkataram Prasad, Mary K Estes
Interaction with cellular glycans is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents. Technological advances in glycobiology have expanded the repertoire of studies delineating host glycan-pathogen interactions. For rotavirus, the VP8* domain of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 is known to interact with cellular glycans. Sialic acid was considered the key cellular attachment factor for rotaviruses for decades. Although this is true for many rotavirus strains causing infections in animals, glycan array screens show that many human rotavirus strains bind nonsialylated glycoconjugates, called histo-blood group antigens, in a strain-specific manner...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067438/chemoselective-reactions-for-the-synthesis-of-glycoconjugates-from-unprotected-carbohydrates
#18
REVIEW
Klaus Villadsen, Manuel C Martos-Maldonado, Knud J Jensen, Mikkel B Thygesen
Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its "omics", glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates into glycoconjugates through the anomeric position...
January 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993942/the-minimum-information-required-for-a-glycomics-experiment-mirage-project-improving-the-standards-for-reporting-glycan-microarray-based-data
#19
EDITORIAL
Yan Liu, Ryan McBride, Mark Stoll, Angelina S Palma, Lisete Silva, Sanjay Agravat, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Matthew P Campbell, Catherine E Costello, Anne Dell, Stuart M Haslam, Niclas G Karlsson, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Daniel Kolarich, Milos V Novotny, Nicolle H Packer, Rene Ranzinger, Erdmann Rapp, Pauline M Rudd, Weston B Struwe, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, William S York, Joseph Zaia, Carsten Kettner, James C Paulson, Ten Feizi, David F Smith
MIRAGE (Minimum Information Required for A Glycomics Experiment) is an initiative that was created by experts in the fields of glycobiology, glycoanalytics and glycoinformatics to produce guidelines for reporting results from the diverse types of experiments and analyses used in structural and functional studies of glycans in the scientific literature. As a sequel to the guidelines for sample preparation (Struwe et al. 2016, Glycobiology, 26:907-910) and mass spectrometry  data (Kolarich et al. 2013, Mol. Cell Proteomics, 12:991-995), here we present the first version of guidelines intended to improve the standards for reporting data from glycan microarray analyses...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965934/editorial-glycosylation-changes-in-cancer-an-innovative-frontier-at-the-interface-of-cancer-and-glycobiology
#20
EDITORIAL
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Jose Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
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