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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304155/gas-phase-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-for-distinguishing-isomeric-carbohydrate-ions
#1
Sanjit S Uppal, Sarah E Beasley, Michele Scian, Miklos Guttman
The structural diversity of carbohydrates presents a major challenge for glycobiology and the analysis of glycoconjugates. Mass spectrometry has become a primary tool for glycan analysis thanks to its speed and sensitivity, but the information content regarding the glycan structure of protonated glycoconjugates is hindered by the inability to differentiate linkage and stereoisomers. Here we examine a variety of protonated carbohydrate structures by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) to discover that the exchange rates are distinct for isomeric carbohydrates with even subtle structural differences...
March 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293867/binding-specificity-of-r-10g-and-tra-1-60-81-and-substrate-specificity-of-keratanase-ii-studied-with-chemically-synthesized-oligosaccharides
#2
Hiromi Nakao, Yuko Nagai, Aya Kojima, Hidenao Toyoda, Nobuko Kawasaki, Toshisuke Kawasaki
Recently, we established a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to hiPS/ hES cells, R-10G, which recognizes a type of keratan sulfate. Keratan sulfates (KS) comprise a family of glycosaminoglycans consisting of the repeating unit of [Gal-GlcNAc(6S)]. However, there is a diversity in the degree of sulfation at Gal and GlcNAc residues, and also in the mode of linkage, Galβ1 - 3GlcNAc (type 1) or Galβ1 - 4GlcNAc (type 2). To gain more insight into the binding specificity of R-10G, we carried out an ELISA test on avidin-coated plates using polyethylene glycol (PEG)3-biotinylated derivatives of a series of N-acetyllactosamine tetrasaccharides (keratan sulfates (KSs))...
March 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266743/the-hair-follicle-enigma
#3
Bruno A Bernard
The hair follicle is a mini organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behavior. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome mediated cell-cell interactions...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214389/synthesis-of-lacto-n-tetraose
#4
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third largest macromolecular component of breast milk and offer infants numerous health benefits, most of which stem from the development of a healthy microbiome. Characterization, quantification, and chemical derivatization of HMOs remains a frontier issue in glycobiology due to the challenge of isolating appreciable quantities of homogenous HMOs from breast milk. Herein, we report the synthesis of the human milk tetrasaccharide lacto-N-tetraose (LNT). LNT is ubiquitous in human breast milk as it is a core structure common to longer-chain HMOs and many glycolipids...
February 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177314/glycoblocks-a-schematic-three-dimensional-representation-for-glycans-and-their-interactions
#5
Stuart McNicholas, Jon Agirre
The close-range interactions provided by covalently linked glycans are essential for the correct folding of glycoproteins and also play a pivotal role in recognition processes. Being able to visualise protein-glycan and glycan-glycan contacts in a clear way is thus of great importance for the understanding of these biological processes. In structural terms, glycosylation sugars glue the protein together via hydrogen bonds, whereas non-covalently bound glycans frequently harness additional stacking interactions...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155831/chondroitin-application-in-the-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease
#6
Wiesław Tomaszewski
Chondroitin is an organic compound, belonging to the group of glycosaminoglycans. In the treatment of degenerative joint disease, aka osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulphate is applied as a medicine or a dietary supplement. The biological importance of chondroitin sulphate has been already largely determined. The newest data on glycobiology research suggest that proteoglycans, as well as their complex polysaccharide macroparticles not only are the structural elements, but also they participate in multiple metabolic processes at a molecular level as well as in the physiological processes, regulating this type of mechanisms...
November 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155147/lectin-histochemistry-historical-perspectives-state-of-the-art-and-the-future
#7
Susan A Brooks
Lectins, discovered more than 100 years ago and defined by their ability to selectively recognize specific carbohydrate structures, are ubiquitous in living organisms. Their precise functions are as yet under-explored and incompletely understood but they are clearly involved, through recognition of their binding partners, in a myriad of biological mechanisms involved in cell identity, adhesion, signaling, growth regulation, in health and disease. Understanding the complex "sugar code" represented by the glycome is a major challenge and at the forefront of current biological research...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130769/secretory-expression-and-characterization-of-chinese-narcissus-gna-like-lectin-in-pichia-pastoris
#8
Xinyu Li, Pengpeng Zhang, Ning Zhang, Xiao Liang, Wenya Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Qiang Li
Narcissus tazetta lectin (NTL) is a GNA-like lectin, which has a wide potential application in medicine, agriculture, and glycobiology. In the present paper, the codon-optimized ntl gene was transformed into the yeast Pichia pastoris; SDS-PAGE gel and western blotting analysis revealed that the recombinant lectin was expressed successfully in Pichia yeast. The similarity between the recombinant NTL and the native NTL was confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and hemagglutination assay further. In the 5-L scale fermentator, the protein yield was as high as 1...
January 27, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110657/maldi-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-n-linked-glycans-in-cancer-tissues
#9
R R Drake, T W Powers, E E Jones, E Bruner, A S Mehta, P M Angel
Glycosylated proteins account for a majority of the posttranslation modifications of cell surface, secreted, and circulating proteins. Within the tumor microenvironment, the presence of immune cells, extracellular matrix proteins, cell surface receptors, and interactions between stroma and tumor cells are all processes mediated by glycan binding and recognition reactions. Changes in glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented to occur and affect all of these associated adhesion and regulatory functions...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090561/diversity-in-rotavirus-host-glycan-interactions-a-sweet-spectrum
#10
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Liya Hu, B V Venkataram Prasad, Mary K Estes
Interaction with cellular glycans is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents. Technological advances in glycobiology have expanded the repertoire of studies delineating host glycan-pathogen interactions. For rotavirus, the VP8* domain of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 is known to interact with cellular glycans. Sialic acid was considered the key cellular attachment factor for rotaviruses for decades. Although this is true for many rotavirus strains causing infections in animals, glycan array screens show that many human rotavirus strains bind nonsialylated glycoconjugates, called histo-blood group antigens, in a strain-specific manner...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067438/chemoselective-reactions-for-the-synthesis-of-glycoconjugates-from-unprotected-carbohydrates
#11
Klaus Villadsen, Manuel C Martos-Maldonado, Knud J Jensen, Mikkel Boas Thygesen
Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides or -lipids. Glycobiology and its 'omics', glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates into glycoconjugates through the anomeric position...
January 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993942/the-minimum-information-required-for-a-glycomics-experiment-mirage-project-improving-the-standards-for-reporting-glycan-microarray-based-data
#12
EDITORIAL
Yan Liu, Ryan McBride, Mark Stoll, Angelina S Palma, Lisete Silva, Sanjay Agravat, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Matthew P Campbell, Catherine E Costello, Anne Dell, Stuart M Haslam, Niclas G Karlsson, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Daniel Kolarich, Milos V Novotny, Nicolle H Packer, Rene Ranzinger, Erdmann Rapp, Pauline M Rudd, Weston B Struwe, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, William S York, Joseph Zaia, Carsten Kettner, James C Paulson, Ten Feizi, David F Smith
MIRAGE (Minimum Information Required for A Glycomics Experiment) is an initiative that was created by experts in the fields of glycobiology, glycoanalytics and glycoinformatics to produce guidelines for reporting results from the diverse types of experiments and analyses used in structural and functional studies of glycans in the scientific literature. As a sequel to the guidelines for sample preparation (Struwe et al. 2016, Glycobiology, 26:907-910) and mass spectrometry  data (Kolarich et al. 2013, Mol. Cell Proteomics, 12:991-995), here we present the first version of guidelines intended to improve the standards for reporting data from glycan microarray analyses...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965934/editorial-glycosylation-changes-in-cancer-an-innovative-frontier-at-the-interface-of-cancer-and-glycobiology
#13
EDITORIAL
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Jose Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960097/fluorescent-mannosides-serve-as-acceptor-substrates-for-glycosyltransferase-and-sugar-1-phosphate-transferase-activities-in-euglena-gracilis-membranes
#14
Irina M Ivanova, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Gerhard Saalbach, Ellis C O'Neill, Michael D Urbaniak, Michael A J Ferguson, Sudagar S Gurcha, Gurdyal S Besra, Robert A Field
Synthetic hexynyl α-D-mannopyranoside and its α-1,6-linked disaccharide counterpart were fluorescently labelled through CuAAC click chemistry with 3-azido-7-hydroxycoumarin. The resulting triazolyl-coumarin adducts, which were amenable to analysis by TLC, HPLC and mass spectrometry, proved to be acceptor substrates for α-1,6-ManT activities in mycobacterial membranes, as well as α- and β-GalT activities in trypanosomal membranes, benchmarking the potential of the fluorescent acceptor approach against earlier radiochemical assays...
January 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956553/catalytic-mechanism-of-a-novel-glycoside-hydrolase-family-16-elongating-%C3%AE-transglycosylase
#15
Zhen Qin, Shaoqing Yang, Liming Zhao, Xin You, Qiaojuan Yan, Zhengqiang Jiang
Carbohydrates are complex macromolecules in biological metabolism. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates is recognized as a powerful tool to overcome the problems associated with large scale synthesis of carbohydrates. Novel enzymes with significant transglycosylation ability are still in great demand in glycobiology studies. Here we report a novel glycoside hydrolase family 16 "elongating" β-transglycosylase from Paecilomyces thermophila (PtBgt16A), which efficiently catalyzes the synthesis of higher polymeric oligosaccharides using β-1,3/1,4-oligosaccharides as donor/acceptor substrates...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940408/carbohydrate-structure-the-rocky-road-to-automation
#16
REVIEW
Jon Agirre, Gideon J Davies, Keith S Wilson, Kevin D Cowtan
With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density...
December 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939587/helminth-glycomics-glycan-repertoires-and-host-parasite-interactions
#17
Cornelis H Hokke, Angela van Diepen
Glycoproteins and glycolipids of parasitic helminths play important roles in biology and host-parasite interaction. This review discusses recent helminth glycomics studies that have been expanding our insights into the glycan repertoire of helminths. Structural data are integrated with biological and immunological observations to highlight how glycomics advances our understanding of the critical roles that glycans and glycan motifs play in helminth infection biology. Prospects and challenges in helminth glycomics and glycobiology are discussed...
December 6, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908958/society-for-glycobiology-awards-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895507/fc-gamma-receptors-glycobiology-and-therapeutic-prospects
#19
REVIEW
Jerrard M Hayes, Mark R Wormald, Pauline M Rudd, Gavin P Davey
Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871611/toward-a-suitable-structural-analysis-of-gene-delivery-carrier-based-on-polycationic-carbohydrates-by-electron-transfer-dissociation-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Cédric Przybylski, Juan M Benito, Véronique Bonnet, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, José M García Fernández
Polycationic carbohydrates represent an attractive class of biomolecules for several applications and particularly as non viral gene delivery vectors. In this case, the establishment of structure-biological activity relationship requires sensitive and accurate characterization tools to both control and achieve fine structural deciphering. Electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) appears as a suitable approach to address these questions. In the study herein, we have investigated the usefulness of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to get structural data about five polycationic carbohydrates demonstrated as promising gene delivery agents...
December 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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