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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#1
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626561/enantioselective-carbohydrate-recognition-by-synthetic-lectins-in-water
#2
Pablo Ríos, Tiddo J Mooibroek, Tom S Carter, Christopher Williams, Miriam R Wilson, Matthew P Crump, Anthony P Davis
Carbohydrate receptors with a chiral framework have been generated by combining a tetra-aminopyrene and a C3-symmetrical triamine via isophthalamide spacers bearing water-solubilising groups. These "synthetic lectins" are the first to show enantiodiscrimination in aqueous solution, binding N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) with 16 : 1 enantioselectivity. They also show exceptional affinities. GlcNAc is bound with Ka up to 1280 M(-1), more than twice that measured for previous synthetic lectins, and three times the value for wheat germ agglutinin, the lectin traditionally employed to bind GlcNAc in glycobiological research...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621497/werner-reutter-a-visionary-pioneer-in-molecular-glycobiology
#3
EDITORIAL
Stephan Hinderlich, Rudolf Tauber, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Christian P R Hackenberger
A creative pioneer: Werner Reutter (1937-2016) was a scientist who both made fundamental discoveries in glycobiology and reached out to disciplines beyond his core field. Many of his former colleagues and students will remember his desire to exchange research ideas, which ultimately contributed to the birth of new research fields.
June 16, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620376/the-n-glycosylation-of-mouse-immunoglobulin-g-igg-fragment-crystallizable-differs-between-igg-subclasses-and-strains
#4
Noortje de Haan, Karli R Reiding, Jasminka Krištić, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc)-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578909/editorial-overview-a-feast-of-structural-glycobiology
#5
EDITORIAL
Ute Krengel, Thilo Stehle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509874/evaluation-of-the-mycobactericidal-effect-of-thio-functionalized-carbohydrate-derivatives
#6
Małgorzata Korycka-Machała, Anna Brzostek, Bożena Dziadek, Malwina Kawka, Tomasz Popławski, Zbigniew J Witczak, Jarosław Dziadek
Sugars with heteroatoms other than oxygen have attained considerable importance in glycobiology and in drug design since they are often more stable in blood plasma due to their resistance to enzymes, such as glycosidases, phosphorylases and glycosyltransferases. The replacement of oxygen atoms in sugars with sulfur forms thio-sugars, which are potentially useful for the treatment of diabetes and some bacterial and viral infections. Here, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of thio-functionalized carbohydrate derivatives...
May 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500031/labeling-glycans-on-living-cells-by-a-chemoenzymatic-glycoengineering-approach
#7
Ruben T Almaraz, Yanhong Li
Structural glycobiology has traditionally been a challenging field due to a limited set of tools available to investigate the diverse and complex glycan molecules. However, we cannot ignore that glycans play critical roles in health as well as in disease, and are present in more than 50% of all proteins and on over 80% of all surface proteins. Chemoenzymatic glycoengineering (CGE) methods are a powerful set of tools to synthesize complex glycans, but the full potential of these methods have not been explored in cell biology yet...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465241/n-glycan-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Shinobu Kitazume, Naoyuki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of dementia. Many evidence-based clinical trials have been performed, but no effective treatment has yet been developed. This suggests that our understanding of AD patho-mechanisms is still insufficient. In particular, the pathological roles of posttranslational modifications including glycosylation have remained poorly understood, but recent advances in glycobiology technology have gradually revealed that sugar modifications of AD-related molecules are profoundly involved in the onset and progression of this disease...
April 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400496/pea-border-cell-maturation-and-release-involve-complex-cell-wall-structural-dynamics
#9
Jozef Mravec, Xiaoyuan Guo, Aleksander Riise Hansen, Julia Schückel, Stjepan Krešimir Kračun, Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Grégory Mouille, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Peter Ulvskov, David S Domozych, William George Tycho Willats
The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384366/a-glyconutrient-sham-and-the-jenner-glycobiology-and-medicine-symposium
#10
Ronald L Schnaar, Hudson H Freeze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383803/expanding-the-scope-of-metabolic-glycan-labeling-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Yuntao Zhu, Xing Chen
Metabolic glycan labeling (MGL) has gained wide utility and has become a useful tool for probing glycosylation in living systems. For the past three decades, the development and application of MGL have mostly focused on animal glycosylation. Recently, exploiting MGL for studying plant glycosylation has gained interest. Here, we describe a systematic evaluation of MGL for fluorescence imaging of root glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nineteen monosaccharide analogues containing a bioorthogonal group (azide, alkyne, or cyclopropene) were synthesized and evaluated for metabolic incorporation into root glycans...
April 6, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#12
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346368/pathophysiological-significance-of-dermatan-sulfate-proteoglycans-revealed-by-human-genetic-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Shuji Mizumoto, Tomoki Kosho, Shuhei Yamada, Kazuyuki Sugahara
The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#14
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338684/seven-enzymes-create-extraordinary-molecular-complexity-in-an-uncultivated-bacterium
#15
Michael F Freeman, Maximilian J Helf, Agneya Bhushan, Brandon I Morinaka, Jörn Piel
Uncultivated bacteria represent a massive resource of new enzymes and bioactive metabolites, but such bacteria remain functionally enigmatic. Polytheonamides are potent peptide cytotoxins produced by uncultivated bacteria that exist as symbionts in a marine sponge. Outside glycobiology, polytheonamides represent the most heavily post-translationally modified biomolecules that are derived from amino acids. The biosynthesis of polytheonamides involves up to 50 site-specific modifications to create a membrane-spanning β-helical structure...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304155/gas-phase-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-for-distinguishing-isomeric-carbohydrate-ions
#16
Sanjit S Uppal, Sarah E Beasley, Michele Scian, Miklos Guttman
The structural diversity of carbohydrates presents a major challenge for glycobiology and the analysis of glycoconjugates. Mass spectrometry has become a primary tool for glycan analysis thanks to its speed and sensitivity, but the information content regarding the glycan structure of protonated glycoconjugates is hindered by the inability to differentiate linkage and stereoisomers. Here, we examine a variety of protonated carbohydrate structures by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) to discover that the exchange rates are distinct for isomeric carbohydrates with even subtle structural differences...
March 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293867/binding-specificity-of-r-10g-and-tra-1-60-81-and-substrate-specificity-of-keratanase-ii-studied-with-chemically-synthesized-oligosaccharides
#17
Hiromi Nakao, Yuko Nagai, Aya Kojima, Hidenao Toyoda, Nobuko Kawasaki, Toshisuke Kawasaki
Recently, we established a mouse monoclonal antibody specific to hiPS/ hES cells, R-10G, which recognizes a type of keratan sulfate. Keratan sulfates (KS) comprise a family of glycosaminoglycans consisting of the repeating unit of [Gal-GlcNAc(6S)]. However, there is a diversity in the degree of sulfation at Gal and GlcNAc residues, and also in the mode of linkage, Galβ1 - 3GlcNAc (type 1) or Galβ1 - 4GlcNAc (type 2). To gain more insight into the binding specificity of R-10G, we carried out an ELISA test on avidin-coated plates using polyethylene glycol (PEG)3-biotinylated derivatives of a series of N-acetyllactosamine tetrasaccharides (keratan sulfates (KSs))...
March 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266743/the-hair-follicle-enigma
#18
Bruno A Bernard
The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214389/synthesis-of-lacto-n-tetraose
#19
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third largest macromolecular component of breast milk and offer infants numerous health benefits, most of which stem from the development of a healthy microbiome. Characterization, quantification, and chemical derivatization of HMOs remains a frontier issue in glycobiology due to the challenge of isolating appreciable quantities of homogenous HMOs from breast milk. Herein, we report the synthesis of the human milk tetrasaccharide lacto-N-tetraose (LNT). LNT is ubiquitous in human breast milk as it is a core structure common to longer-chain HMOs and many glycolipids...
February 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177314/glycoblocks-a-schematic-three-dimensional-representation-for-glycans-and-their-interactions
#20
Stuart McNicholas, Jon Agirre
The close-range interactions provided by covalently linked glycans are essential for the correct folding of glycoproteins and also play a pivotal role in recognition processes. Being able to visualise protein-glycan and glycan-glycan contacts in a clear way is thus of great importance for the understanding of these biological processes. In structural terms, glycosylation sugars glue the protein together via hydrogen bonds, whereas non-covalently bound glycans frequently harness additional stacking interactions...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
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