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Glycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692249/the-emergence-of-phenolic-glycans-as-virulence-factors-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Danielle D Barnes, Mimmi L E Lundahl, Ed Lavelle, Eoin M Scanlan
Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide. The global epidemic, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has prompted renewed interest in the development of novel vaccines for disease prevention and control. The cell envelope of M. tuberculosis is decorated with an assortment of glycan structures, including glycolipids, that are involved in disease pathogenesis. Phenolic glycolipids and the structurally related para-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, display potent immunomodulatory activities and have particular relevance for both understanding the interaction of the bacterium with the host immune system and also in the design of new vaccine and therapeutic candidates...
July 10, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684994/glycoscience-synchrotron-synchrotron-radiation-applied-to-structural-glycoscience
#2
REVIEW
Serge Pérez, Daniele de Sanctis
Synchrotron radiation is the most versatile way to explore biological materials in different states: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, solution, colloids and multiscale architectures. Steady improvements in instrumentation have made synchrotrons the most flexible intense X-ray source. The wide range of applications of synchrotron radiation is commensurate with the structural diversity and complexity of the molecules and macromolecules that form the collection of substrates investigated by glycoscience. The present review illustrates how synchrotron-based experiments have contributed to our understanding in the field of structural glycobiology...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683920/computational-glycobiology-mechanistic-studies-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-implication-for-inhibitor-design
#3
Andrew P Montgomery, Kela Xiao, Xingyong Wang, Danielle Skropeta, Haibo Yu
Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are families of essential and structurally related enzymes, which catalyze the creation, modification, and degradation of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates to maintain essentially all kingdoms of life. CAZymes play a key role in many biological processes underpinning human health and diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's diseases, AIDS) and have thus emerged as important drug targets in the fight against pathogenesis. The realization of the full potential of CAZymes remains a significant challenge, relying on a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of catalysis...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682619/structure-reactivity-relationships-of-conformationally-armed-disaccharide-donors-and-their-use-in-the-synthesis-of-a-hexasaccharide-related-to-the-capsular-polysaccharide-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-type-37
#4
Thibault Angles d'Ortoli, Christoffer Hamark, Göran Widmalm
To advance the field of glycobiology, efficient synthesis methods of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates are a requisite. In glycosylation reactions using superarmed donors, both selectivity and reactivity issues must be considered, and we herein investigate these aspects for differently protected β-linked 2-O-glycosylated glucosyl donors carrying bulky tert-butyldimethylsilyl groups to different extents. The acceptors in reactions being secondary alcohols presents a challenging situation with respect to steric crowding...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649240/decoding-the-role-of-glycans-in-malaria
#5
REVIEW
Pollyanna S Gomes, Daniel F Feijó, Alexandre Morrot, Celio G Freire-de-Lima
Complications arising from malaria are a concern for public health authorities worldwide, since the annual caseload in humans usually exceeds millions. Of more than 160 species of Plasmodium, only 4 infect humans, with the most severe cases ascribed to Plasmodium falciparum and the most prevalent to Plasmodium vivax. Over the past 70 years, since World War II, when the first antimalarial drugs were widely used, many efforts have been made to combat this disease, including vectorial control, new drug discoveries and genetic and molecular approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#6
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626561/enantioselective-carbohydrate-recognition-by-synthetic-lectins-in-water
#7
Pablo Ríos, Tiddo J Mooibroek, Tom S Carter, Christopher Williams, Miriam R Wilson, Matthew P Crump, Anthony P Davis
Carbohydrate receptors with a chiral framework have been generated by combining a tetra-aminopyrene and a C3-symmetrical triamine via isophthalamide spacers bearing water-solubilising groups. These "synthetic lectins" are the first to show enantiodiscrimination in aqueous solution, binding N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) with 16 : 1 enantioselectivity. They also show exceptional affinities. GlcNAc is bound with Ka up to 1280 M(-1), more than twice that measured for previous synthetic lectins, and three times the value for wheat germ agglutinin, the lectin traditionally employed to bind GlcNAc in glycobiological research...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621497/werner-reutter-a-visionary-pioneer-in-molecular-glycobiology
#8
EDITORIAL
Stephan Hinderlich, Rudolf Tauber, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Christian P R Hackenberger
A creative pioneer: Werner Reutter (1937-2016) was a scientist who both made fundamental discoveries in glycobiology and reached out to disciplines beyond his core field. Many of his former colleagues and students will remember his desire to exchange research ideas, which ultimately contributed to the birth of new research fields.
July 4, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620376/the-n-glycosylation-of-mouse-immunoglobulin-g-igg-fragment-crystallizable-differs-between-igg-subclasses-and-strains
#9
Noortje de Haan, Karli R Reiding, Jasminka Krištić, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc)-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578909/editorial-overview-a-feast-of-structural-glycobiology
#10
EDITORIAL
Ute Krengel, Thilo Stehle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509874/evaluation-of-the-mycobactericidal-effect-of-thio-functionalized-carbohydrate-derivatives
#11
Małgorzata Korycka-Machała, Anna Brzostek, Bożena Dziadek, Malwina Kawka, Tomasz Popławski, Zbigniew J Witczak, Jarosław Dziadek
Sugars with heteroatoms other than oxygen have attained considerable importance in glycobiology and in drug design since they are often more stable in blood plasma due to their resistance to enzymes, such as glycosidases, phosphorylases and glycosyltransferases. The replacement of oxygen atoms in sugars with sulfur forms thio-sugars, which are potentially useful for the treatment of diabetes and some bacterial and viral infections. Here, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of thio-functionalized carbohydrate derivatives...
May 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500031/labeling-glycans-on-living-cells-by-a-chemoenzymatic-glycoengineering-approach
#12
Ruben T Almaraz, Yanhong Li
Structural glycobiology has traditionally been a challenging field due to a limited set of tools available to investigate the diverse and complex glycan molecules. However, we cannot ignore that glycans play critical roles in health as well as in disease, and are present in more than 50% of all proteins and on over 80% of all surface proteins. Chemoenzymatic glycoengineering (CGE) methods are a powerful set of tools to synthesize complex glycans, but the full potential of these methods have not been explored in cell biology yet...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465241/n-glycan-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Shinobu Kitazume, Naoyuki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of dementia. Many evidence-based clinical trials have been performed, but no effective treatment has yet been developed. This suggests that our understanding of AD patho-mechanisms is still insufficient. In particular, the pathological roles of posttranslational modifications including glycosylation have remained poorly understood, but recent advances in glycobiology technology have gradually revealed that sugar modifications of AD-related molecules are profoundly involved in the onset and progression of this disease...
April 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400496/pea-border-cell-maturation-and-release-involve-complex-cell-wall-structural-dynamics
#14
Jozef Mravec, Xiaoyuan Guo, Aleksander Riise Hansen, Julia Schückel, Stjepan Krešimir Kračun, Maria Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Grégory Mouille, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Peter Ulvskov, David S Domozych, William George Tycho Willats
The adhesion of plant cells is vital for support and protection of the plant body and is maintained by a variety of molecular associations between cell wall components. In some specialized cases, though, plant cells are programmed to detach, and root cap-derived border cells are examples of this. Border cells (in some species known as border-like cells) provide an expendable barrier between roots and the environment. Their maturation and release is an important but poorly characterized cell separation event...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384366/a-glyconutrient-sham-and-the-jenner-glycobiology-and-medicine-symposium
#15
Ronald L Schnaar, Hudson H Freeze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383803/expanding-the-scope-of-metabolic-glycan-labeling-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Yuntao Zhu, Xing Chen
Metabolic glycan labeling (MGL) has gained wide utility and has become a useful tool for probing glycosylation in living systems. For the past three decades, the development and application of MGL have mostly focused on animal glycosylation. Recently, exploiting MGL for studying plant glycosylation has gained interest. Here, we describe a systematic evaluation of MGL for fluorescence imaging of root glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nineteen monosaccharide analogues containing a bioorthogonal group (azide, alkyne, or cyclopropene) were synthesized and evaluated for metabolic incorporation into root glycans...
July 4, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376491/glycobiology-modifications-in-intratumoral-hypoxia-the-breathless-side-of-glycans-interaction
#17
REVIEW
Antônio F Silva-Filho, Wanessa L B Sena, Luiza R A Lima, Lidiane V N Carvalho, Michelly C Pereira, Lucas G S Santos, Renata V C Santos, Lucas B Tavares, Maira G R Pitta, Moacyr J B M Rêgo
Post-translational and co-translational enzymatic addition of glycans (glycosylation) to proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates, is a powerful regulator of the molecular machinery involved in cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, and signal transduction, and is usually seen in both in vivo and in vitro cancer models. Glycosyltransferases can alter the glycosylation pattern of normal cells, subsequently leading to the establishment and progression of several diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, a growing amount of research has shown that different oxygen tensions, mainly hypoxia, leads to a markedly altered glycosylation, resulting in altered glycan-receptor interactions...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346368/pathophysiological-significance-of-dermatan-sulfate-proteoglycans-revealed-by-human-genetic-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Shuji Mizumoto, Tomoki Kosho, Shuhei Yamada, Kazuyuki Sugahara
The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs) have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338836/a-novel-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-the-perspective-of-glyco-immunology
#19
Shinichiro Shinzaki, Hideki Iijima, Hironobu Fujii, Yoshihiro Kamada, Tetsuji Naka, Tetsuo Takehara, Eiji Miyoshi
Oligosaccharide modifications play an essential role in various inflammatory diseases and cancers, but their pathophysiologic roles, especially in inflammation, are not clear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intractable chronic inflammatory disorder with an unknown aetiology, and the number of patients with IBD is increasing throughout the world. Certain types of immunosuppressant drugs, such as corticosteroids, are effective for IBD, suggesting that immune function is closely associated with the pathophysiology of IBD...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338684/seven-enzymes-create-extraordinary-molecular-complexity-in-an-uncultivated-bacterium
#20
Michael F Freeman, Maximilian J Helf, Agneya Bhushan, Brandon I Morinaka, Jörn Piel
Uncultivated bacteria represent a massive resource of new enzymes and bioactive metabolites, but such bacteria remain functionally enigmatic. Polytheonamides are potent peptide cytotoxins produced by uncultivated bacteria that exist as symbionts in a marine sponge. Outside glycobiology, polytheonamides represent the most heavily post-translationally modified biomolecules that are derived from amino acids. The biosynthesis of polytheonamides involves up to 50 site-specific modifications to create a membrane-spanning β-helical structure...
April 2017: Nature Chemistry
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