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Sasirekha Ramani, Liya Hu, B V Venkataram Prasad, Mary K Estes
Interaction with cellular glycans is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many infectious agents. Technological advances in glycobiology have expanded the repertoire of studies delineating host glycan-pathogen interactions. For rotavirus, the VP8* domain of the outer capsid spike protein VP4 is known to interact with cellular glycans. Sialic acid was considered the key cellular attachment factor for rotaviruses for decades. Although this is true for many rotavirus strains causing infections in animals, glycan array screens show that many human rotavirus strains bind nonsialylated glycoconjugates, called histo-blood group antigens, in a strain-specific manner...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Klaus Villadsen, Manuel C Martos-Maldonado, Knud J Jensen, Mikkel Boas Thygesen
Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides or -lipids. Glycobiology and its 'omics', glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates into glycoconjugates through the anomeric position...
January 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yan Liu, Ryan McBride, Mark Stoll, Angelina S Palma, Lisete Silva, Sanjay Agravat, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Matthew P Campbell, Catherine E Costello, Anne Dell, Stuart M Haslam, Niclas G Karlsson, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Daniel Kolarich, Milos V Novotny, Nicolle H Packer, Rene Ranzinger, Erdmann Rapp, Pauline M Rudd, Weston B Struwe, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, William S York, Joseph Zaia, Carsten Kettner, James C Paulson, Ten Feizi, David F Smith
MIRAGE (Minimum Information Required for A Glycomics Experiment) is an initiative that was created by experts in the fields of glycobiology, glycoanalytics and glycoinformatics to produce guidelines for reporting results from the diverse types of experiments and analyses used in structural and functional studies of glycans in the scientific literature. As a sequel to the guidelines for sample preparation (Struwe et al. 2016, Glycobiology, 26:907-910) and mass spectrometry  data (Kolarich et al. 2013, Mol. Cell Proteomics, 12:991-995), here we present the first version of guidelines intended to improve the standards for reporting data from glycan microarray analyses...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Jose Osvaldo Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Irina M Ivanova, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Gerhard Saalbach, Ellis C O'Neill, Michael D Urbaniak, Michael A J Ferguson, Sudagar S Gurcha, Gurdyal S Besra, Robert A Field
Synthetic hexynyl α-D-mannopyranoside and its α-1,6-linked disaccharide counterpart were fluorescently labelled through CuAAC click chemistry with 3-azido-7-hydroxycoumarin. The resulting triazolyl-coumarin adducts, which were amenable to analysis by TLC, HPLC and mass spectrometry, proved to be acceptor substrates for α-1,6-ManT activities in mycobacterial membranes, as well as α- and β-GalT activities in trypanosomal membranes, benchmarking the potential of the fluorescent acceptor approach against earlier radiochemical assays...
January 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Zhen Qin, Shaoqing Yang, Liming Zhao, Xin You, Qiaojuan Yan, Zhengqiang Jiang
Carbohydrates are complex macromolecules in biological metabolism. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates is recognized as powerful tool to overcome the problems associated with large-scale synthesis of carbohydrates. Novel enzymes with significant transglycosylation ability are still in great demand in glycobiology studies. Here we report a novel glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16 elongating beta-transglycosylase from Paecilomyces thermophila (PtBgt16A), which efficiently catalyzes the synthesis of higher polymeric oligosaccharides using beta-1,3/1,4 oligosaccharides as donor/acceptor substrates...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jon Agirre, Gideon J Davies, Keith S Wilson, Kevin D Cowtan
With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density...
December 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Cornelis H Hokke, Angela van Diepen
Glycoproteins and glycolipids of parasitic helminths play important roles in biology and host-parasite interaction. This review discusses recent helminth glycomics studies that have been expanding our insights into the glycan repertoire of helminths. Structural data are integrated with biological and immunological observations to highlight how glycomics advances our understanding of the critical roles that glycans and glycan motifs play in helminth infection biology. Prospects and challenges in helminth glycomics and glycobiology are discussed...
December 6, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Glycobiology
Jerrard M Hayes, Mark R Wormald, Pauline M Rudd, Gavin P Davey
Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
Cédric Przybylski, Juan M Benito, Véronique Bonnet, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, José M García Fernández
Polycationic carbohydrates represent an attractive class of biomolecules for several applications and particularly as non viral gene delivery vectors. In this case, the establishment of structure-biological activity relationship requires sensitive and accurate characterization tools to both control and achieve fine structural deciphering. Electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) appears as a suitable approach to address these questions. In the study herein, we have investigated the usefulness of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to get structural data about five polycationic carbohydrates demonstrated as promising gene delivery agents...
December 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Chao Li, Lai-Xi Wang
Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host-pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, which are usually difficult to isolate in pure form from natural sources...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
N Chen, J Xie
The importance of oligosaccharides and their conjugates in various biological and pathological processes has stimulated growing interest in the development of (neo)glycoconjugates. Thanks to its high nucleophilicity, hydroxylamine has been employed as a powerful chemoselective ligation tool. Great effort has been focused on carbohydrates bearing aminooxy or N-hydroxy amino groups for organic synthesis, glycobiology and drug discovery. This review provides an overview of N-O linked carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, focusing particularly on the synthetic methodologies and chemical and physicochemical properties as well as biological and medical applications of N-glycosyl and O-glycosyl hydroxylamines, N-hydroxy amino and O-amino sugar as well as sugar aminooxy acid derivatives...
November 1, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Glycobiology
Shiyue Zhou, Xue Dong, Lucas Veillon, Yifan Huang, Yehia Mechref
The biosynthesis of glycans is a template-free process; hence compositionally identical glycans may contain highly heterogeneous structures. Meanwhile, the functions of glycans in biological processes are significantly influenced by the glycan structure. Structural elucidation of glycans is an essential component of glycobiology. Although NMR is considered the most powerful approach for structural glycan studies, it suffers from low sensitivity and requires highly purified glycans. Although mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods have been applied in numerous glycan structure studies, there are challenges in preserving glycan structure during ionization...
January 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Gour Chand Daskhan, Carlo Pifferi, Olivier Renaudet
The synthesis of heteroglycoclusters (hGCs) is being subjected to rising interest, owing to their potential applications in glycobiology. In this paper, we report an efficient and straightforward convergent protocol based on orthogonal chemoselective ligations to prepare structurally well-defined cyclopeptide-based homo- and heterovalent glycoconjugates displaying 5-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose (Gal), and/or N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). We first used copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and/or thiol-ene coupling to conjugate propargylated α-sialic acid 3, β-GlcNAc thiol 5, and β-Gal thiol 6 onto cyclopeptide scaffolds 7-9 to prepare tetravalent homoglycoclusters (10-12) and hGCs (13-14) with 2:2 combinations of sugars...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Rituparna Das, Balaram Mukhopadhyay
The development of glycobiology relies on the sources of particular oligosaccharides in their purest forms. As the isolation of the oligosaccharide structures from natural sources is not a reliable option for providing samples with homogeneity, chemical means become pertinent. The growing demand for diverse oligosaccharide structures has prompted the advancement of chemical strategies to stitch sugar molecules with precise stereo- and regioselectivity through the formation of glycosidic bonds. This Review will focus on the key developments towards chemical O-glycosylations in the current century...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Oliver R Baudendistel, Daniel E Wieland, Magnus S Schmidt, Valentin Wittmann
Ligation reactions at the anomeric center of carbohydrates have gained increasing importance in the field of glycobiology. Oxyamines are frequently used in labeling, immobilization, and bioconjugation of reducing carbohydrates. Herein, we present a systematic investigation of these ligation reactions under aqueous conditions. A series of four unprotected monosaccharides (glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and 2-deoxyglucose) and one disaccharide (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) was reacted with three primary and one secondary oxyamine...
November 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nathan J Hare, Ling Y Lee, Ian Loke, Warwick J Britton, Bernadette M Saunders, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of frontline alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Frederique Lisacek, Julien Mariethoz, Davide Alocci, Pauline M Rudd, Jodie L Abrahams, Matthew P Campbell, Nicolle H Packer, Jonas Ståhle, Göran Widmalm, Elaine Mullen, Barbara Adamczyk, Miguel A Rojas-Macias, Chunsheng Jin, Niclas G Karlsson
The access to biodatabases for glycomics and glycoproteomics has proven to be essential for current glycobiological research. This chapter presents available databases that are devoted to different aspects of glycobioinformatics. This includes oligosaccharide sequence databases, experimental databases, 3D structure databases (of both glycans and glycorelated proteins) and association of glycans with tissue, disease, and proteins. Specific search protocols are also provided using tools associated with experimental databases for converting primary glycoanalytical data to glycan structural information...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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