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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893606/cochlear-brainstem-and-psychophysical-responses-show-spectrotemporal-tradeoff-in-human-auditory-processing
#1
Gavin M Bidelman, Shaum P Bhagat
Auditory filter theory posits a tradeoff in time-frequency analysis: high temporal precision is achievable only at the expense of poorer frequency resolution and vice versa. Here, we examined the hierarchy of brain mechanisms of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs through a series of physiological and behavioral measures aimed to tap temporal and spectral acuity at different levels of the auditory neuroaxis (cochlea→brainstem→percept). Cochlear and behavioral frequency selectivity was measured by stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE) and psychophysical tuning curves; temporal acuity was measured physiologically and behaviorally by paired click recovery of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and gap detection thresholds (GDTs), respectively...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#2
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871553/fascia-iliaca-block-associated-only-with-deep-sedation-in-high-risk-patients-taking-p2y12-receptor-inhibitors-for-intramedullary-femoral-fixation-in-intertrochanteric-hip-fracture-a-series-of-3-cases
#3
Carlos Rodrigues Almeida, Emília Milheiro Francisco, Vítor Pinho-Oliveira, José Pedro Assunção
OBJECTIVE: We present a series of 3 cases in which the impact in outcome was, first of all, related to the capacity to offer early and safer treatment to some hip fracture high-risk patients using a fascia iliaca block (FIB; ropivacaine 0,5% 20 cc and mepivacaine 1,3% 15 cc, given 30 minutes before incision) associated only with deep sedation, contributing to better practice and outcome. CASE REPORTS: All elderly patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists IV patients, under P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, suffering from an intertrochanteric fracture, and purposed for intramedullary femoral fixation (IMF)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784774/safety-of-intrathecal-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-patients-with-als
#4
Nathan P Staff, Nicolas N Madigan, Jonathan Morris, Mark Jentoft, Eric J Sorenson, Greg Butler, Dennis Gastineau, Allan Dietz, Anthony J Windebank
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety of intrathecal autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cell treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Participants with ALS were enrolled and treated in this phase I dose-escalation safety trial, ranging from 1 × 10(7) (single dose) to 1 × 10(8) cells (2 monthly doses). After intrathecal treatments, participants underwent standardized follow-up, which included clinical examinations, revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) questionnaire, blood and CSF sampling, and MRI of the neuroaxis...
November 22, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729180/combined-endovascular-and-microsurgical-treatment-of-a-complex-spinal-arteriovenous-fistula-associated-with-cloves-syndrome-in-an-adult-patient
#5
Mohammad R Boroumand, M Yashar S Kalani, Robert F Spetzler
CLOVES (congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, and scoliosis/skeletal/spinal anomalies) syndrome is a congenital and almost exclusively pediatric syndrome associated with vascular malformations of the neuroaxis. We report the case of a complex spinal arteriovenous fistula in an adult woman with CLOVES syndrome treated using a multidisciplinary approach with endovascular embolization and microsurgical technique, and review the medical literature on this disease.
October 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701372/may-pre-procedure-neuroaxial-ultrasound-improve-the-identification-of-potential-epidural-space-when-compared-with-anatomical-landmarks-a-prospective-randomized-study
#6
Paolo Perna, Antonio Gioia, Riccardo Ragazzi, Carlo A Volta, Massimo Innamorato
BACKGROUND: Regional epidural analgesia is considered the gold standard for pain treatment in labour but the epidural catheter placement may be a difficult procedure because of the difficulty in anatomical landmarks palpation. These difficulties increase in pregnant women. Pre-procedure neuroaxial ultrasound may facilitate the procedure. METHODS: Prospectic randomized controlled study conducted in the Labour Ward. We randomized two groups of women undergoing epidural analgesia: Group A (28 patients), with loss of resistance technique and Group B (30 patients) with US assisted procedure...
October 4, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677656/how-to-facilitate-early-diagnosis-of-cns-involvement-in-malignant-lymphoma
#7
Agnieszka Korfel, Martha Nowosielski, Javier Pardo-Moreno, Francisco Javier Penalver, Gabriele Buda, Hind Bennani, Myrto Costopoulos, Magali Le Garff-Tavernier, Carole Soussain, Mathias Schmid, Jose Alberto Orfao, Michael Glantz
Making the diagnosis of secondary CNS involvement in lymphoma can be difficult due to unspecific signs and symptoms, limited accessibility of brain/myelon parenchyma and low sensitivity and/or specifity of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination currently available. Areas covered: MRI of the total neuroaxis followed by CSF cytomorphology and flow cytometry are methods of choice when CNS lymphoma (CNSL) is suspected. To reduce the numerous pitfalls of these examinations several aspects should be considered...
November 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629698/studying-the-pathophysiologic-connection-between-cardiovascular-and-nervous-systems-using-stem-cells
#8
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615997/controlled-release-ibuprofen-poloxamer-gel-for-epidural-use-a-pharmacokinetic-study-using-microdialysis-in-pigs
#9
Anne Paavola, Christopher M Bernards, Per H Rosenberg
In order to avoid the risks of sideeffects of epidural local anesthetics and opioids, the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) epidurally would be an interesting option of analgesic therapy. The fairly short duration of action of spinally administered NSAIDs, e.g., ibuprofen, may be prolonged by using controlled release poloxamer gel formulation. Using a microdialysis technique we studied the epidural and intrathecal pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen after its epidural administration as a poloxamer 407 formulation or a solution formulation...
November 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608657/palmitoylethanolamide-reverses-paclitaxel-induced-allodynia-in-mice
#10
Giulia Donvito, Jenny L Wilkerson, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a serious complication associated with antineoplastic drugs. Although there are no medications available that effectively prevent CIPN, many classes of drugs have been used to treat this condition, including anticonvulsants, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and opioids. However, these therapeutic options yielded inconclusive results in CIPN clinical trials and produced assorted side effects with their prolonged use. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop efficacious and safe treatments for CIPN...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594753/anesthetic-management-of-urgent-cesarean-section-with-undiagnosed-transposition-of-great-arteries
#11
Nurullah Yilmaz, Ersin Koksal, Gokce Ultan Ozgen, Ersan Ozen, Ahmet Dilek, Deniz Karakaya, Fatma Ulger
We consider that general anesthesia will be an appropriate and safe method as regional methods could lead to significant time loss in the prevention or minimization of complications. High blockage required for regional anesthetic methods in pregnant women with TGA and the maintenance of hemodynamic stability may become difficult due to neuroaxial sympathectomy even if a successful neuroaxial block has been provided. Agents with minimal effect on cardiovascular functions should be preferred for anesthesia induction and maintenance and close hemodynamic monitoring should be done during intraoperative and postoperative periods...
June 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591472/non-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-and-epidural-anesthesia-for-an-emergency-open-cholecystectomy
#12
Bülent Serhan Yurtlu, Bengü Köksal, Volkan Hancı, Işıl Özkoçak Turan
Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery.
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591456/bilateral-greater-occipital-nerve-block-for-treatment-of-post-dural-puncture-headache-after-caesarean-operations
#13
Esra Uyar Türkyilmaz, Nuray Camgöz Eryilmaz, Nihan Aydin Güzey, Özlem Moraloğlu
BACKGROUND: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an important complication of neuroaxial anesthesia and more frequently noted in pregnant women. The pain is described as severe, disturbing and its location is usually fronto-occipital. The conservative treatment of PDPH consists of bed rest, fluid theraphy, analgesics and caffeine. Epidural blood patch is gold standard theraphy but it is an invasive method. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is formed of sensory fibers that originate in the C2 and C3 segments of the spinal cord and it is the main sensory nerve of the occipital region...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535492/intraoperative-management-and-early-postoperative-outcomes-of-pediatric-renal-transplants
#14
Katherine Taylor, Wooheon Thomas Kim, Malak Maharramova, Victor Figueroa, Smruthi Ramesh, Armando Lorenzo
INTRODUCTION: Smaller children are presenting for renal transplantation as the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Adult donor organs are more successful than pediatric deceased donor organs. An adult kidney may sequester ~75% of the circulating volume of a 5 year-old child and requires significantly increased cardiac output to maintain renal perfusion. Treatment includes volume, inotropic or vasopressor agents, or central neuroaxial blockade for sympatholysis. We describe the perioperative anesthestic management as a guide to clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495885/association-of-cobb-angle-progression-and-neuraxial-abnormality-on-mri-in-asymptomatic-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#15
M Z Faizah, K L Ng, B C Te, A Mohd Hafizuddin, L Nur Aifaa, M R Nurhanisah, B Azmi, A H Hamzaini
BACKGROUND: Detection of neuraxial abnormality in neurologically asymptomatic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is crucial prior to surgery. It can only be detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was not routinely done in this group of patient. On the other hand, whole spine radiographs for measurement of Cobb angle have been routinely included during clinic follow-up. This study aimed to determine the correlation between Cobb angle progression and neuraxial abnormality finding on MRI in asymptomatic AIS...
June 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445257/-bilateral-greater-occipital-nerve-block-for-treatment-of-post-dural-puncture-headache-after-caesarean-operations
#16
Esra Uyar Türkyilmaz, Nuray Camgöz Eryilmaz, Nihan Aydin Güzey, Özlem Moraloğlu
BACKGROUND: Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is an important complication of neuroaxial anesthesia and more frequently noted in pregnant women. The pain is described as severe, disturbing and its location is usually fronto-occipital. The conservative treatment of PDPH consists of bed rest, fluid theraphy, analgesics and caffeine. Epidural blood patch is gold standard theraphy but it is an invasive method. The greater occipital nerve (GON) is formed of sensory fibers that originate in the C2 and C3 segments of the spinal cord and it is the main sensory nerve of the occipital region...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410754/-management-of-acute-postoperative-pain-following-thoracotomy-state-of-the-art
#17
J Matek, P Michálek, S Trča, Z Krška
UNLABELLED: Postoperative pain management is an important part of complex perioperative care in patients undergoing thoracotomy, irrespective of the procedure type. Adequate pain relief leads to early mobilisation, improves respiratory functions and decreases global stress response. Thus, good perioperative pain management significantly reduces postoperative complications. Currently, numerous analgesic methods are available for the management of acute postthoracotomy pain including patient- or nurse-controlled systemic administration of analgesics, infiltration with local anaesthetics, intrapleural or intercostal nerve blockades and neuroaxial blocks (paravertebral, intrathecal, epidural)...
2016: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388793/adjunct-analgesic-drugs-to-local-anaesthetics-for-neuroaxial-blocks-in-children
#18
Märit Lundblad, Per-Arne Lönnqvist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews various adjunct drugs used in the context of neuroaxial blocks in children and to provide a literature and evidence-based suggestion for the rational use of such adjuncts. RECENT FINDINGS: Contrary to plain local anaesthetics, preservative-free morphine and clonidine, ketamine in neonatal rodents has been found to enhance apoptosis in the spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine has been shown to be equally effective as clonidine as an adjunct to caudal blocks...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385940/the-effect-of-regional-analgesia-on-vascular-tone-in-hip-arthroplasty-patients
#19
Enrique A Goytizolo, Ottokar Stundner, Sandra Hurtado Rúa, Dorothy Marcello, Valeria Buschiazzo, Ansara M Vaz, Stavros G Memtsoudis
BACKGROUND: While it is assumed that neuraxial analgesia and pain management may beneficially influence perioperative hemodynamics, few studies provided data quantifying such effects and none have assessed the potential contribution of the addition of a nerve block. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: This clinical trial compared the visual analog scale (VAS) scores and measurement of arterial tone using augmentation index of patients who received combined spinal-epidural (CSE) only to patients who received both CSE and lumbar plexus block...
July 2016: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279861/medulloblastoma-molecular-pathways-and-histopathological-classification
#20
Anna Borowska, Jarosław Jóźwiak
Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among pediatric patients, and medulloblastoma constitutes 20% of them. Currently, the treatment is risk-adapted. Maximum surgical resection is recommended, always followed by chemotherapy and neuroaxis radiotherapy. In spite of the improving survival rate, survivors succumb to treatment-induced side effects. To reduce toxic effects, molecular-targeted treatment is proposed. Medulloblastoma research is very robust, and new articles on the subject are published daily...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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