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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165771/recent-perspectives-of-ependymomas-childhood-brain-tumors
#1
Z-D Zeng, F-L Liu, S-X Li
Ependymomas are childhood brain tumors that occur throughout the central nervous system, but are most common in the hindbrain, also known as the posterior fossa (PF). Current standard therapy comprises maximal safe surgery, and there is no scope for further increase in survival. Despite the histological similarity, ependymomas from throughout the neuroaxis likely comprise multiple independent entities, each with a distinct molecular pathogenesis. The present review article would discuss both genetics and epigenetics of ependymomas...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161549/ultrasound-guided-versus-conventional-injection-for-caudal-block-in-children-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-study
#2
Ali Ahiskalioglu, Ahmet Murat Yayik, Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu, Mursel Ekinci, Birzat Emre Gölboyu, Erkan Cem Celik, Haci Ahmet Alici, Akgun Oral, Saban Oguz Demirdogen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of ultrasound guided sacral hiatus injection and conventional sacral canal injection performed for caudal block in children. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Operating rooms of university hospital of Erzurum, Turkey. PATIENTS: One hundred-thirty four children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, between the ages of 5 and 12, scheduled for elective phimosis and circumcision surgery...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149877/key-bottlenecks-to-the-provision-of-safe-obstetric-anaesthesia-in-low-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-64-hospitals-in-uganda
#3
Isabella Epiu, Agnes Wabule, Andrew Kambugu, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in surgery and anaesthesia which significantly improve safety, many health facilities in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain chronically under-resourced with inability to cope effectively with serious obstetric complications (Knight et al., PLoS One 8:e63846, 2013). As a result many of these countries still have unacceptably high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. Recent data at the national referral hospitals in East Africa reported that none of the national referral hospitals met the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists (WFSA) international standards required to provide safe obstetric anaesthesia (Epiu I: Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131016/focal-transplantation-of-aberrant-glial-cells-carrying-the-sod1g93a-mutation-into-rat-spinal-cord-induces-extensive-gliosis
#4
Sofía Ibarburu, Emiliano Trias, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the potential of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) isolated from the spinal cord of adult SOD1G93A symptomatic rats to induce gliosis and neuronal damage following focal transplantation into the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type rats. METHODS: AbAs were obtained from the spinal cords of SOD1G93A symptomatic rats. One hundred thousand cells were injected using a glass micropipette into the lumbar spinal cords (L3-L5) of syngeneic wild-type adult rats...
November 1, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100889/hormone-dependent-medial-preoptic-lumbar-spinal-cord-autonomic-coordination-supporting-male-sexual-behaviors
#5
REVIEW
Donald W Pfaff, Michael J Baum
Testosterone (T) can act directly through neural androgen receptors (AR) to facilitate male sexual behavior; however, T's metabolites also can play complicated and interesting roles in the control of mating. One metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binds to AR with significantly greater affinity than that of T. Is that important behaviorally? Another metabolite, estradiol (E), offers a potential alternative route of facilitating male mating behavior by acting through estradiol receptors (ER). In this review we explore the roles and relative importance of T as well as E and DHT at various levels of the neuroaxis for the activation of male sex behavior in common laboratory animals and, when relevant research findings are available, in man...
October 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955586/reconstruction-of-atrophic-maxilla-by-anterior-iliac-crest-bone-grafting-via-neuroaxial-blockade-technique-a-case-report
#6
Erol Cansiz, Tolga A Sitilci, Aysenur Uzun, Sabri Cemil Isler
Anterior iliac crest bone grafting is a well-established modality in the treatment of alveolar bone deficiencies. However, this procedure may also have considerable postoperative morbidity which is mostly related to general anesthesia. Postoperative pain-related complications can be managed by neuroaxial blockade techniques which provide adequate surgical analgesia and reduce postoperative pain. This clinical report describes the reconstruction of a severely atrophic maxilla with anterior iliac crest bone grafting using combined spinal epidural anesthesia...
2017: J Istanb Univ Fac Dent
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889042/marginal-en-bloc-resection-of-c2-c3-chordoma-with-bilateral-vertebral-artery-preservation-and-mesh-cage-reconstruction-with-review-of-previously-published-cases
#7
Steven O Tenny, Landon D Ehlers, J Will Robbins, Christopher C Gillis
BACKGROUND: Chordomas arise from remnants of the notochord and occur throughout the neuroaxis. En bloc resection of chordomas can prove especially challenging in the upper cervical spine secondary to the unique structural anatomy and intimate relationship to the vertebral arteries and spinal cord. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the resection of a C2-C3 chordoma in a 55-year-old woman in 2-stage fashion with preservation of the vertebral arteries. First, a posterior instrumented fusion and removal of the posterior elements was performed, followed by an anterior transmandibular en bloc resection with cage reconstruction with kick-plate support achievable with off-the-shelf products...
September 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874243/central-regional-anaesthesia-in-patients-with-aortic-stenosis-a-systematic-review
#8
Sofia Johansson, Morten Nikolaj Lind
INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis is a valvular lesion that poses several haemodynamic challenges for the anaesthesiologist. The use of central regional anaesthesia is traditionally regarded as contraindicated in patients with severe aortic stenosis due to its sympatholytic effect, potentially causing loss of vascular tone and ultimately diminished cardiac output. The aim of this paper was to review current literature to find evidence for or against the use of neuroaxial blockade in patients with aortic stenosis...
September 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861801/intercellular-prion-like-conversion-and-transmission-of-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-sod1-in-cell-culture
#9
Leslie I Grad, Edward Pokrishevsky, Neil R Cashman
The prion hypothesis has extended to the fatal motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as a means to explain the spatiotemporal spread of pathology from one or more focal points through the neuroaxis. About 20% of inheritable cases of ALS are due to mutation in the gene encoding the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), causing the protein to misfold and form neurotoxic aggregates. Mutant SOD1 has been shown to impart its misfold onto natively folded wild-type SOD1 in living cells. Furthermore, misfolded wild-type SOD1 can itself induce further rounds of propagated SOD1 misfolding...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735458/the-efficacy-of-lapatinib-and-nilotinib-in-combination-with-radiation-therapy-in-a-model-of-nf2-associated-peripheral-schwannoma
#10
Iddo Paldor, Sara Abbadi, Nicolas Bonne, Xiaobu Ye, Fausto J Rodriguez, David Rowshanshad, MariaLisa Itzoe, Veronica Vigilar, Marco Giovannini, Henry Brem, Jaishri O Blakeley, Betty M Tyler
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), a neurogenetic condition manifest by peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) throughout the neuroaxis for which there are no approved therapies. In vitro and in vivo studies presented here examine agents targeting signaling pathways, angiogenesis, and DNA repair mechanisms. In vitro dose response assays demonstrated potent activity of lapatinib and nilotinib against the mouse schwannoma SC4 (Nf2 (-/-)) cell line. We then examined the efficacy of everolimus, nilotinib, lapatinib, bevacizumab and radiation (RT) as mono- and combination therapies in flank and sciatic nerve in vivo NF2-PNST models...
October 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658142/use-of-neuromuscular-blockers-and-neostigmine-for-general-anesthesia-and-its-association-with-neuraxial-blockade-a-retrospective-study
#11
Filipe Nadir Caparica Santos, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga, Fernando Eduardo Feres Junqueira, Rafaela Menezes Bezerra, Felipe Ferreira de Almeida, Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga, Vanessa Henriques Carvalho
This research aimed to assess the use of neuromuscular blockers (NMB) and its reversal, associated or not with neuraxial blockade, after general anesthesia.This retrospective study analyzed 1295 patients that underwent surgery with general anesthesia at Prof. Dr. José Aristodemo Pinotti Hospital in 2013. The study included patients aged >1 year, with complete, readable medical charts and anesthetic records.Rocuronium (ROC) was the most used NMB (96.7%), with an initial dose of 0.60 (0.52-0.74) mg/kg and total dose of 0...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632677/preexisting-ocular-motor-palsy-and-central-neuroaxial-block-a-reply-to-dr-nair
#12
Monica Del-Rio-Vellosillo, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran, Antonio Abengochea-Cotaina, Manuel Barbera-Alacreu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607937/contrast-media-induced-anaphylaxis-causing-a-stress-related-cardiomyopathy-post-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-case-report
#13
Rajeev Seecheran, Valmiki Seecheran, Sangeeta Persad, Sasha Lalla, Naveen Anand Seecheran
Anaphylaxis is a sudden-onset, severe hypersensitivity reaction that can be potentially fatal. It can often transition to refractory hemodynamic instability, eventually resulting in death. Stress-related cardiomyopathies (SRCs) have multifactorial etiologies, including being linked to excessive catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. This novel case report recounts a SRC caused by contrast-induced anaphylaxis within 1 hour post percutaneous coronary intervention. Both acutely life-threatening conditions may occur simultaneously and are implicated with devastating complications...
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551062/-alternative-approach-to-autonomic-instability-of-very-severe-tetanus-stellate-ganglion
#14
Başak Altıparmak, Ali İhsan Uysal, Eylem Yaşar, Semra Demirbilek
Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms. He was vaccinated against tetanus and referred to intensive care unit. As he had sudden difficulty in respiration, he was entubated. Midazolam, magnesium and esmolol infusion were started. Next day, muscle spasms progressed all over his body. Midazolam infusion was replaced with propofol and vecuronium...
May 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549524/-quadratus-lumborum-block-are-we-aware-of-its-side-effects-a-report-of-2-cases
#15
Miguel Sá, José Miguel Cardoso, Hugo Reis, Marta Esteves, José Sampaio, Isabel Gouveia, Pilar Carballada, Célia Pinheiro, Duarte Machado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The quadratus lumborum block was initially described in 2007 and aims at blocking the same nerves as the ones involved on the Transverse Abdominis Plane block, while accomplishing some visceral enervation as well due to closer proximity with the neuroaxis and sympathetic trunk. Given its versatility, we have successfully used it in a wide range of procedures. We report two cases where we believe the dispersion of local anesthetic is likely to have led to a previously undescribed complication...
May 23, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412561/metastatic-human-breast-cancer-to-the-spine-produces-mechanical-hyperalgesia-and-gait-deficits-in-rodents
#16
Rachel Sarabia-Estrada, Alejandro Ruiz-Valls, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Ana M Ampuero, Ismael Jimenez-Estrada, Samantha De Silva, Lydia J Bernhardt, Courtney Rory Goodwin, Ali Karim Ahmed, Yuxin Li, Neil A Phillips, Ziya L Gokaslan, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Metastases to the spine are a common source of severe pain in cancer patients. The secondary effects of spinal metastases include pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, and neurological deficits. As the disease progresses, pain severity can increase until it becomes refractory to medical treatments and leads to a decreased quality of life for patients. A key obstacle in the study of pain-induced spinal cancer is the lack of reliable and reproducible spine cancer animal models...
September 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381486/musculoskeletal-geometry-accounts-for-apparent-extrinsic-representation-of-paw-position-in-dorsal-spinocerebellar-tract
#17
Raeed H Chowdhury, Matthew C Tresch, Lee E Miller
Proprioception, the sense of limb position and motion, arises from individual muscle receptors. An important question is how and where in the neuroaxis our high level "extrinsic" sense of limb movement originates. In the 1990s, a series of papers detailed the properties of neurons in the dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) of the cat. Despite their direct projections from sensory receptors, it appeared that half of these neurons had consistent, high-level tuning to paw position rather than to joint angles (or muscle lengths)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363681/a-network-model-of-the-emotional-brain
#18
REVIEW
Luiz Pessoa
Emotion is often understood in terms of a circumscribed set of cortical and subcortical brain regions. I propose, instead, that emotion should be understood in terms of large-scale network interactions spanning the entire neuroaxis. I describe multiple anatomical and functional principles of brain organization that lead to the concept of 'functionally integrated systems', cortical-subcortical systems that anchor the organization of emotion in the brain. The proposal is illustrated by describing the cortex-amygdala integrated system and how it intersects with systems involving the ventral striatum/accumbens, septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brainstem...
May 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363328/cerebrospinal-fluid-cutaneous-fistula-following-obstetric-epidural-analgaesia-case-report
#19
J J Fedriani de Matos, A V Quintero Salvago, M D Gómez Cortés
Cutaneous fistula of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare complication of neuroaxial blockade. We report the case of a parturient in whom an epidural catheter was placed for labour analgesia and 12h after the catheter was removed, presented an abundant asymptomatic fluid leak from the puncture site, compatible in the cyto-chemical analysis with cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with acetazolamide, compression of skin orifice of the fluid leakage, antibiotic prophylaxis, hydration and rest, and progressed satisfactorily without requiring blood patch...
March 28, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323088/localization-of-the-corticospinal-tract-within-the-porcine-spinal-cord-implications-for-experimental-modeling-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Anna Victoria Leonard, Joshua York Menendez, Betty Maki Pat, Mark N Hadley, Candace Lorraine Floyd
Spinal cord injury (SCI) researchers have predominately utilized rodents for SCI modeling and experimentation. Unfortunately, a large number of novel therapies developed in rodent models have failed to demonstrate efficacy in human clinical trials which suggests that improved animal models are an important translational tool. Recently, porcine models of SCI have been identified as a valuable intermediary model for preclinical evaluation of promising therapies to aid clinical translation. However, the localization of the major spinal tracts in pigs has not yet been described...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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