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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562995/a-study-of-atrial-and-brain-natriuretic-peptides-in-tuberculous-meningitis-and-acute-encephalitis
#2
U K Misra, J Kalita, M Kumar, A Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: To report atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES), and evaluate their relationship with hyponatraemia. METHODS: Consecutive patients with TBM and AES were included in the study. Hyponatraemia was categorised as cerebral salt wasting (CSW), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and a miscellaneous group based on clinical and laboratory criteria...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507771/tailoring-and-field-testing-the-use-of-a-knowledge-translation-peer-support-shared-decision-making-strategy-with-first-nations-inuit-and-m%C3%A3-tis-people-making-decisions-about-their-cancer-care-a-study-protocol
#3
Janet Jull, Maegan Mazereeuw, Amanada Sheppard, Alethea Kewayosh, Richard Steiner, Ian D Graham
Plain English summary: Tailoring and testing a peer support decision making strategy with First Nations, Inuit and Métis people making decisions about their cancer care: A study protocol.First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) people face higher risks for cancer compared to non-FNIM populations. They also face cultural barriers to health service use. Within non-FNIM populations an approach to health decision making, called shared decision making (SDM), has been found to improve the participation of people in their healthcare...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486798/mobility-and-increased-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-in-south-africa-a-mixed-method-systematic-review-protocol
#4
Armstrong Dzomba, Kaymarlin Govender, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Frank Tanser
BACKGROUND: In South Africa (home of the largest HIV epidemic globally), there are high levels of mobility. While studies produced in the recent past provide useful perspectives to the mobility-HIV risk linkage, systematic analyses are needed for in-depth understanding of the complex dynamics between mobility and HIV risk. We plan to undertake an evidence-based review of existing literature connecting mobility and increased risky sexual behavior as well as risk of HIV acquisition in South Africa...
February 27, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429446/congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-in-south-africa
#5
Y Ganie, C Aldous, Y Balakrishna, R Wiersma
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by deficiency of the 21-hydoxylase (21-OH) enzyme is the most common form of CAH worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency, and its clinical presentation and biochemical profiles in affected children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective subset analysis of 44 children with confirmed CAH. RESULTS: All the children had classic CAH...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305775/when-self-worth-is-tied-to-one-s-sexual-and-romantic-relationship-associations-with-well-being-in-couples-coping-with-genito-pelvic-pain
#6
Maria Glowacka, Sophie Bergeron, Justin Dubé, Natalie O Rosen
Contingent self-worth (CSW; the pursuit of self-esteem via a particular domain in one's life) impacts well-being based on one's perceived success or failure in the contingent domain. In a community sample, individuals with sexual problems reported greater sexual CSW-self-worth dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship-than those without problems. Couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a genito-pelvic pain condition, perceive failures in their sexual relationship, which could be associated with more pain and poorer well-being...
January 5, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227745/florida-state-university-s-institute-for-family-violence-studies
#7
Karen Oehme
This article outlines the role of the Institute for Family Violence Studies (IFVS) within the Florida State University College of Social Work in navigating issues intersecting social work and the law ( http://familyvio.csw.fsu.edu/ ). By developing comprehensive state and national trainings for unique populations and conducting interdisciplinary research, the IFVS promotes public policy that benefits healthy families and decreases family and intimate partner violence. The crucial role of staff and students, the IFVS's collaborative alliances, and funding sources are highlighted...
January 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171338/effects-of-a-dual-swallow-attention-task-on-swallow-and-cognitive-performance-measures
#8
Thejaswi Dodderi, Nikita E Philip, Kalpana Mutum
Research evidence has mounted that cognitive distracters can be detrimental to concurrent motor performance. Yet, few investigations have probed how cognitive distracters might impact dysphagia (swallowing impairment) though secondary tasks, like watching television, now compete with swallowing in a 21st-century lifestyle. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether cognitive distracters while swallowing alter swallowing or cognitive performance among healthy young adults. Participants were 30 healthy volunteers 18-24 years of age who underwent a baseline swallow task (BST), a baseline cognitive task (BCT), and a dual task (DT) in randomized order...
February 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162524/the-impact-of-aneurysm-location-on-incidence-and-etiology-of-hyponatremia-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#9
Haydn Hoffman, Robert Ziechmann, Grahame Gould, Lawrence S Chin
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting (CSW) are the most common etiologies. Whether or not the location of the ruptured aneurysm is associated with the etiology of hyponatremia is unknown. We sought to determine whether or not the incidence of SIADH and CSW after aSAH differed based on aneurysm location. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 335 consecutive patients who presented with aSAH at a single institution was performed...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143851/phylogenetic-diversity-and-distribution-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-amoa-genes-in-the-east-china-sea-during-spring
#10
Takafumi Kataoka, Koji Suzuki, Tomohisa Irino, Masanobu Yamamoto, Seigo Higashi, Hongbin Liu
Microbial nitrification is a key process in the nitrogen cycle in the continental shelf ecosystems. The genotype compositions and abundance of the ammonia monooxygenase gene, amoA, derived from ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in two size fractions (2-10 and 0.2-2 µm), were investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) in May 2008 using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Four sites were selected across the continental shelf edge: continental shelf water (CSW), Kuroshio branch water (KBW), transition between CSW and KBW (TCSKB) and coastal KBW (CKBW)...
March 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130840/what-works-for-wellbeing-a-systematic-review-of-wellbeing-outcomes-for-music-and-singing-in-adults
#11
Norma Daykin, Louise Mansfield, Catherine Meads, Guy Julier, Alan Tomlinson, Annette Payne, Lily Grigsby Duffy, Jack Lane, Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Adele Burnett, Tess Kay, Paul Dolan, Stefano Testoni, Christina Victor
AIMS: The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing ( https://whatworkswellbeing.org/ ). OBJECTIVE: To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. METHODS: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases...
January 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106785/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-three-different-mechanisms-of-dysnatremia-onset-after-a-child-s-craniopharyngioma-surgery
#12
Vera Spatenkova, Jan Hradil, Petr Suchomel
Craniopharyngioma, due to its sellar location, can be perioperatively complicated by different types of dysnatremia. We present a rare postoperative onset of a combination of three different mechanisms of dysnatremia with N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and renal function parameters in a boy with a good outcome after craniopharyngioma surgery: 1/ Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) onset immediately after the operation, hypernatremia with peak serum sodium (SNa) 158 mmol/l) caused by free water polyuria (electrolyte-free water clearance, EWC 0...
October 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092678/spectrum-of-female-commercial-sex-work-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#13
Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbéko Simaléko, Richard Ngbale, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Bélec
Classification of professional and non-professional female sex workers (FSWs) into different categories, never previously reported in the Central African Republic (CAR), may be useful to assess the dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, design operational intervention programmes to combat HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and to adapt these programmes to the broad spectrum of sexual transactions in the CAR. Our study proposes a socio-behavioural classification of FSWs living in the CAR and engaged in transactional and commercial sex...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041148/comparison-between-broadband-bessel-beam-launchers-based-on-either-bessel-or-hankel-aperture-distribution-for-millimeter-wave-short-pulse-generation
#14
Santi C Pavone, Agnese Mazzinghi, Angelo Freni, Matteo Albani
In this paper, a comparison is presented between Bessel beam launchers at millimeter waves based on either a cylindrical standing wave (CSW) or a cylindrical inward traveling wave (CITW) aperture distribution. It is theoretically shown that CITW launchers are better suited for the generation of electromagnetic short pulses because they maintain their performances over a larger bandwidth than those realizing a CSW aperture distribution. Moreover, the wavenumber dispersion of both the launchers is evaluated both theoretically and numerically...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981193/organ-utilization-from-increased-infectious-risk-donors-an-observational-study
#15
Arnaud G L'Huillier, Atul Humar, Clare Payne, Deepali Kumar
BACKGROUND: Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. METHODS: Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database...
December 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956031/impact-of-oxygen-chemistry-on-model-interstellar-grain-surfaces
#16
A Rosu-Finsen, M R S McCoustra
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to probe the effect of atomic and molecular oxygen (O and O2 ) beams on amorphous silica (aSiO2 ) and water (H2 O) surfaces (porous-amorphous solid water; p-ASW, compact amorphous solid water; c-ASW, and crystalline solid water; CSW). Altering the deposition method of O2 is shown to result in different desorption energies of O2 due to differences in O2 film morphology when deposited on the aSiO2 surface...
February 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903640/it-s-all-about-the-money-for-some-consequences-of-financially-contingent-self-worth
#17
Lora E Park, Deborah E Ward, Kristin Naragon-Gainey
Financial success is an important goal, yet striving for it is often associated with negative outcomes. One reason for this paradox is that financial pressures may be tied to basing self-worth on financial success. Studies 1a to 1c developed a measure of Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (Financial CSW), and found that it predicted more financial social comparisons, financial hassles, stress, anxiety, and less autonomy. In response to a financial (vs. academic) threat, higher Financial CSW participants experienced less autonomy, perceived financial problems more negatively, and disengaged from their financial problems (Study 2)...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818794/comprehensive-and-comparative-ecotoxicological-and-human-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-reef-surface-sediments-and-coastal-seawaters-of-iranian-coral-islands-persian-gulf
#18
Ali Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Amirhossein Shadmehri Toosi
The concentration and spatial distribution along with ecotoxicological risk of 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated in the reef surface sediments (RSSs) and coastal seawater (CSW) of ten coral Islands from the Persian Gulf, Iran, in January 2015. For all sampling sites, assessment of ecological risk was undertaken using several approaches. Mean concentration of ∑30PAHs varied between 70 and 884ngL-l with an overall mean value of 464ngL-l in the CSW, while the RSS ranged from 274 to 1098ngg-1 dw with a total average of 619ngg-1 dw...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681272/comparative-rna-sequencing-analysis-of-er-based-hsp90-functions-and-signal-pathways-in-tribolium-castaneum
#19
Wenfeng Xiong, Mengfan Zhai, Xiaojuan Yu, Luting Wei, Jinjuan Mao, Juanjuan Liu, Jia Xie, Bin Li
Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, is a major agriculture pest that damages stored grains and cereal products. Heat-shock protein 90 of T. castaneum (Tchsp90) has been reported to play pivotal roles in heat stress response, development, reproduction, and life span. However, the signaling pathway of Tchsp90 remains unclear. Thus, the global transcriptome profiles between RNA interference (RNAi)-treated insects (ds-Tchsp90) and control insects of T. castaneum were investigated and compared by RNA sequencing...
January 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665121/role-of-snow-deposition-of-perfluoroalkylated-substances-at-coastal-livingston-island-maritime-antarctica
#20
Paulo Casal, Yifeng Zhang, Jonathan W Martin, Mariana Pizarro, Begoña Jiménez, Jordi Dachs
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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