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Sébastien Aubry, Jean-Philippe Nueffer, Mathieu Carrié
In highly anisotropic biological tissues such as muscle or tendons, calculating Young's modulus from the shear wave speed (csw) by using shear wave elastography (SWE) involves a complex transversally isotropic rheological model not yet used in common practice. To our knowledge, the effect of muscle anisotropy on csw of intra-muscular lesions has not yet been investigated. The objective of our study was to define the effect of an anisotropic medium on csw of intra-muscular gelatinous inclusions. We conducted a prospective monocentric, in vitro study in order to examine the quantitative and qualitative SWE behavior of a 9-mm gelatinous intra-muscular implant depending on the orientation of the probe relative to the muscle fibers...
October 11, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Catherine Sabourin-Poirier, Lyvia Fourcade, Josiane Chagnon-Choquet, Annie-Claude Labbé, Michel Alary, Fernand Guédou, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
We have previously shown that excess B lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF in plasma and on surface of blood dendritic cells (DC) of HIV-infected progressors coincides with B-cell dysregulations and increased frequencies of "precursor" innate marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells. In contrast, both blood BLyS levels and frequencies of this population remained unaltered in HIV elite-controllers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that control of BLyS and innate B-cell status could be associated with natural immunity against HIV infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Meng Li, Ji-Dong Gu
The accumulation of toxic inorganic nitrogen is one of the major water quality problems in intensive aquaculture systems, thus the N removal in aquaculture systems is an important issue for the sustainable development of aquaculture. To understand one of the major microbial N removal processes, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), phylogenetic diversity, and distribution of anammox bacteria in sediments of four different marine aquaculture zones in Hong Kong (HK) were investigated. The 16S rRNA genes analysis indicated that sequences detected from Cheung Sha Wan (CSW) and Sok Kwu Wan (SKW) were closely related to several clusters within the Scalindua genus of anammox bacteria, including a new habitat-specific group, while only several sequences related to Scalindua and Kuenenia were detected in Sham Wan (SW) and Yim Tin Tsai East (YTTE)...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Murli Manohar Gupta, Nikhil Agrawal
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Maree Bernoth, Oliver K Burmeister, Mark Morrison, Md Zahidul Islam, Fiona Onslow, Michelle Cleary
This study describes and evaluates an innovative program designed to reduce functional decline among seniors, using a participatory care approach and integrated health teams. The evaluation provides older people and community support workers (CSWs) with the opportunity to share their experiences of being involved with an innovative program to reduce functional decline (mobility, skin integrity, nutrition, mental health, continence) of older, community dwelling adults implemented by a Nursing Service in a major capital city in Australia...
June 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Siew Woh Choo, Avirup Dutta, Guat Jah Wong, Wei Yee Wee, Mia Yang Ang, Cheuk Chuen Siow
Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species...
2016: PloS One
Dongxing Xuan, Baojian Zhan, Chi Sun Poon, Wei Zheng
Concrete slurry waste (CSW) is generated from ready-mixed concrete plants during concrete production and is classified as a corrosive hazardous material. If it is disposed of at landfills, it would cause detrimental effects for our surrounding environment and ecosystems due to its high pH value as well as heavy metal contamination and accumulation. A new method in this study has been introduced to effectively reuse CSW in new construction products. In this method, the calcium-silicate rich CSW in the fresh state was considered as a cementitious paste as well as a CO2 capture medium...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Christian T Bautista, Eyako Wurapa, Warren B Sateren, Sara Morris, Bruce Hollingsworth, Jose L Sanchez
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis...
2016: Military Medical Research
Yeon Jin Jeon, Hyun Young Lee, In Ah Jung, Won-Kyoung Cho, Bin Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Marian P Laderoute, Louise J Larocque, Antonio Giulivi, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma
OBJECTIVE: The goals of the research were to determine if a foamy effect on macrophages was due to human endogenous retrovirus K102 (HERV-K102) replication, and to further address its potential significance in HIV-1 infection. METHODS: An RT-PCR HERV-K HML-2 pol method was used to screen the unknown HERV, and isolated bands were sent for sequencing. Confirmation of RNA expression was performed by a real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) pol ddCt method. Rabbit antibodies to Env peptides were used to assess expression by immunohistology and processing of Env by western blots...
2015: Open AIDS Journal
Alexander Rosu-Finsen, Jérôme Lasne, Andrew Cassidy, Martin R S McCoustra, David Field
Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is used to show that when 20 monolayer (ML) films of solid CO are laid down on solid water substrates at 20 to 24 K, the films polarize spontaneously. CO films were prepared on three types of water ice: porous amorphous solid water (CO-pASW), crystalline water (CO-CSW) and compact amorphous solid water (CO-cASW) with corresponding fields of 3.76 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-pASW, 2.87 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-CSW and 1.98 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-cASW...
February 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Odigie Bolaji Efosa, Achukwu Peter Uwadiegwu
BACKGROUND: llicit sexual behavior by commercial sex workers (CSW) may have a disproportionate impact on the reproductive health of a woman that often leads to cervicitis. This study aimed at examining the cytopathology, patterns, prevalence and burden of cervicitis in CSW in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. METHODS: Cervical smear was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method...
July 2015: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Cydni N Williams, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Susan L Bratton
OBJECT Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) cause postoperative hyponatremia in neurosurgery patients, can be difficult to distinguish clinically, and are associated with increased morbidity. The authors aimed to determine risk factors associated with CSW and SIADH among children undergoing surgery for intracranial tumors. METHODS This retrospective cohort study included children 0-19 years of age who underwent a first intracranial tumor surgery with postoperative hyponatremia (sodium ≤ 130 mEq/L)...
March 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
N Sawal, G D R Hans, G Verma
BACKGROUND: Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. AIMS: This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers...
July 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Georgina A Rivera-Ingraham, Kiam Barri, Mélanie Boël, Emilie Farcy, Anne-Laure Charles, Bernard Geny, Jehan-Hervé Lignot
Osmoregulating decapods such as the Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii possess two groups of spatially segregated gills: anterior gills serve mainly respiratory purposes, while posterior gills contain osmoregulatory structures. The co-existence of similar tissues serving different functions allows the study of differential adaptation, in terms of free radical metabolism, upon salinity change. Crabs were immersed for 2 weeks in seawater (SW, 37 ppt), diluted SW (dSW, 10 ppt) and concentrated SW (cSW, 45 ppt)...
January 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jan Leonard, Raymond E Garrett, Kristin Salottolo, Denetta S Slone, Charles W Mains, Matthew M Carrick, David Bar-Or
Electrolyte imbalances are common among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. Differentiating the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and CSW remains difficult and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CSW are unclear. Our intent was to review the literature on CSW within the TBI population, in order to report the incidence and timing of CSW after TBI, examine outcomes, and summarize the biochemical changes in patients who developed CSW...
November 11, 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Bin Han, Changbiao Wang, Zhaohui Tang, Yongkang Ren, Yali Li, Dayong Zhang, Yanhui Dong, Xinghua Zhao
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW) genome, which were present at a density of 36...
2015: PloS One
V Spatenkova, O Bradac, P de Lacy, P Skrabalek, P Suchomel
BACKGROUND: Dysnatraemias are common and carry a risk of poor prognosis in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and outcome of dysnatraemias in 344 SAH patients treated by a targeted sodium management regimen. METHODS: We performed a 10-year observational dysnatraemia study. Hyponatraemia was defined as serum sodium (SNa) below 135 mmol/l, hypernatraemia SNa above 150 mmol/l. RESULTS: Dysnatraemia occurred in 35...
October 23, 2015: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Xuehai Wu, Xiaolan Zhou, Liang Gao, Xing Wu, Li Fei, Ying Mao, Jin Hu, Liangfu Zhou
BACKGROUND: Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rare, is characterized by massive polyuria leading to severe water and electrolyte disturbances, and usually is associated with very high mortality mainly as a result of delayed diagnosis and improper management. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of 11 patients who developed combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome after traumatic brain injury to define distinctive features for timely diagnosis and proper management...
April 2016: World Neurosurgery
Robert J Brown, Brian P Epling, Ilene Staff, Gilbert Fortunato, James J Grady, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Natriuresis with polyuria is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Previous studies have shown an increased risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with hyponatremia and/or the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). However, natriuresis may occur in the absence of hyponatremia or hypovolemia and it is not known whether the increase in DCI in patients with CSW is secondary to a concomitant hypovolemia or because the physiology that predisposes to natriuretic peptide release also predisposes to cerebral vasospasm...
2015: BMC Neurology
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