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John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
Md Uzzal Hossain, Dongxing Xuan, Chi Sun Poon
With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants...
February 6, 2017: Waste Management
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Usha Kant Misra
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the frequency, severity, and causes of hyponatremia in stroke and its influence on outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive computed tomography- or magnetic resonance imaging-proven stroke patients within 7 days of stroke were included. Severity of stroke was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Hyponatremia was defined if 2 consecutive serum sodium levels were <135 mEq/L and hypernatremia if >145 mEq/L...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Zareen Kiran, Aisha Sheikh, Sehrish Nizar Ali Momin, Isra Majeed, Safia Awan, Owais Rashid, Najmul Islam
OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of sodium and water disturbances (SWDs) in patients undergoing sellar, suprasellar, and parasellar surgery (SSPS). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study on 115 patients in the Aga Khan University Hospital after ethical approval. Patients were 16 years old or older undergoing pituitary or sellar surgeries. We collected data on basic sociodemographic characteristics and clinical indication for surgery. We noted laboratory values for serum electrolytes, plasma and urine osmolality, urine sodium, and 24-hour fluid balance from the immediate postoperative day until discharge and follow-up...
March 2017: Endocrine Practice
Matthew D Jackson, Dawoud Al-Mahrouqi, Jan Vinogradov
Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Norma Daykin, Louise Mansfield, Annette Payne, Tess Kay, Catherine Meads, Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Adele Burnett, Paul Dolan, Guy Julier, Louise Longworth, Alan Tomlinson, Stefano Testoni, Christina Victor
AIMS: There is a growing recognition of the ways in which culture and sport can contribute to wellbeing. A strong evidence base is needed to support innovative service development and a 3-year research programme is being undertaken to capture best evidence of wellbeing impacts and outcomes of cultural and sporting activities in order to inform UK policy and practice. This article provides an overview of methods and findings from an initial coproduction process with key stakeholders that sought to explore and agree principles and parameters of the evidence review for culture, sport and wellbeing (CSW)...
October 27, 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
Sébastien Aubry, Jean-Philippe Nueffer, Mathieu Carrié
In highly anisotropic biological tissues such as muscle or tendons, calculating Young's modulus from the shear wave speed (csw) by using shear wave elastography (SWE) involves a complex transversally isotropic rheological model not yet used in common practice. To our knowledge, the effect of muscle anisotropy on csw of intra-muscular lesions has not yet been investigated. The objective of our study was to define the effect of an anisotropic medium on csw of intra-muscular gelatinous inclusions. We conducted a prospective monocentric, in vitro study in order to examine the quantitative and qualitative SWE behavior of a 9-mm gelatinous intra-muscular implant depending on the orientation of the probe relative to the muscle fibers...
January 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Catherine Sabourin-Poirier, Lyvia Fourcade, Josiane Chagnon-Choquet, Annie-Claude Labbé, Michel Alary, Fernand Guédou, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
We have previously shown that excess B lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS)/BAFF in plasma and on surface of blood dendritic cells (DC) of HIV-infected progressors coincides with B-cell dysregulations and increased frequencies of "precursor" innate marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells. In contrast, both blood BLyS levels and frequencies of this population remained unaltered in HIV elite-controllers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that control of BLyS and innate B-cell status could be associated with natural immunity against HIV infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Meng Li, Ji-Dong Gu
The accumulation of toxic inorganic nitrogen is one of the major water quality problems in intensive aquaculture systems, thus the N removal in aquaculture systems is an important issue for the sustainable development of aquaculture. To understand one of the major microbial N removal processes, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), phylogenetic diversity, and distribution of anammox bacteria in sediments of four different marine aquaculture zones in Hong Kong (HK) were investigated. The 16S rRNA genes analysis indicated that sequences detected from Cheung Sha Wan (CSW) and Sok Kwu Wan (SKW) were closely related to several clusters within the Scalindua genus of anammox bacteria, including a new habitat-specific group, while only several sequences related to Scalindua and Kuenenia were detected in Sham Wan (SW) and Yim Tin Tsai East (YTTE)...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Murli Manohar Gupta, Nikhil Agrawal
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Maree Bernoth, Oliver K Burmeister, Mark Morrison, Md Zahidul Islam, Fiona Onslow, Michelle Cleary
This study describes and evaluates an innovative program designed to reduce functional decline among seniors, using a participatory care approach and integrated health teams. The evaluation provides older people and community support workers (CSWs) with the opportunity to share their experiences of being involved with an innovative program to reduce functional decline (mobility, skin integrity, nutrition, mental health, continence) of older, community dwelling adults implemented by a Nursing Service in a major capital city in Australia...
June 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Siew Woh Choo, Avirup Dutta, Guat Jah Wong, Wei Yee Wee, Mia Yang Ang, Cheuk Chuen Siow
Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species...
2016: PloS One
Dongxing Xuan, Baojian Zhan, Chi Sun Poon, Wei Zheng
Concrete slurry waste (CSW) is generated from ready-mixed concrete plants during concrete production and is classified as a corrosive hazardous material. If it is disposed of at landfills, it would cause detrimental effects for our surrounding environment and ecosystems due to its high pH value as well as heavy metal contamination and accumulation. A new method in this study has been introduced to effectively reuse CSW in new construction products. In this method, the calcium-silicate rich CSW in the fresh state was considered as a cementitious paste as well as a CO2 capture medium...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Christian T Bautista, Eyako Wurapa, Warren B Sateren, Sara Morris, Bruce Hollingsworth, Jose L Sanchez
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis...
2016: Military Medical Research
Yeon Jin Jeon, Hyun Young Lee, In Ah Jung, Won-Kyoung Cho, Bin Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Marian P Laderoute, Louise J Larocque, Antonio Giulivi, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma
OBJECTIVE: The goals of the research were to determine if a foamy effect on macrophages was due to human endogenous retrovirus K102 (HERV-K102) replication, and to further address its potential significance in HIV-1 infection. METHODS: An RT-PCR HERV-K HML-2 pol method was used to screen the unknown HERV, and isolated bands were sent for sequencing. Confirmation of RNA expression was performed by a real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) pol ddCt method. Rabbit antibodies to Env peptides were used to assess expression by immunohistology and processing of Env by western blots...
2015: Open AIDS Journal
Alexander Rosu-Finsen, Jérôme Lasne, Andrew Cassidy, Martin R S McCoustra, David Field
Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is used to show that when 20 monolayer (ML) films of solid CO are laid down on solid water substrates at 20 to 24 K, the films polarize spontaneously. CO films were prepared on three types of water ice: porous amorphous solid water (CO-pASW), crystalline water (CO-CSW) and compact amorphous solid water (CO-cASW) with corresponding fields of 3.76 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-pASW, 2.87 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-CSW and 1.98 ± 0.15 × 10(7) V m(-1) for CO-cASW...
February 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Odigie Bolaji Efosa, Achukwu Peter Uwadiegwu
BACKGROUND: llicit sexual behavior by commercial sex workers (CSW) may have a disproportionate impact on the reproductive health of a woman that often leads to cervicitis. This study aimed at examining the cytopathology, patterns, prevalence and burden of cervicitis in CSW in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. METHODS: Cervical smear was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method...
July 2015: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Cydni N Williams, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Susan L Bratton
OBJECT Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) cause postoperative hyponatremia in neurosurgery patients, can be difficult to distinguish clinically, and are associated with increased morbidity. The authors aimed to determine risk factors associated with CSW and SIADH among children undergoing surgery for intracranial tumors. METHODS This retrospective cohort study included children 0-19 years of age who underwent a first intracranial tumor surgery with postoperative hyponatremia (sodium ≤ 130 mEq/L)...
March 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
N Sawal, G D R Hans, G Verma
BACKGROUND: Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. AIMS: This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers...
July 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
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