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Parahippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192126/entorhinal-tau-pathology-episodic-memory-decline-and-neurodegeneration-in-aging
#1
Anne Maass, Samuel N Lockhart, Theresa M Harrison, Rachel K Bell, Taylor Mellinger, Kaitlin Swinnerton, Suzanne L Baker, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is an early site of tau accumulation and MTL dysfunction may underlie episodic memory decline in aging and dementia. Postmortem data indicate that tau pathology in the transentorhinal cortex is common by age 60, whereas spread to neocortical regions and worsening of cognition is associated with beta-amyloid (Aβ). We used [18F]AV-1451 and [11C]PiB PET, structural MRI, and neuropsychological assessment to investigate how in vivo tau accumulation in temporal lobe regions, Aβ, and MTL atrophy contribute to episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults (n=83; age=77±6yrs, 58% female)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159960/mapping-the-structural-and-functional-network-architecture-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-using-7t-mri
#2
Preya Shah, Danielle S Bassett, Laura E M Wisse, John A Detre, Joel M Stein, Paul A Yushkevich, Russell T Shinohara, John B Pluta, Elijah Valenciano, Molly Daffner, David A Wolk, Mark A Elliott, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla...
November 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067330/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-morphometric-predictors-of-item-and-relational-encoded-memories-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jesus J Gomar, J Daniel Ragland, Aziz M Uluğ, Amber Sousa, Edward D Huey, Concepcion Conejero-Goldberg, Peter Davies, Terry E Goldberg
INTRODUCTION: Episodic memory processes are supported by different subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). In contrast to a unitary model of memory recognition supported solely by the hippocampus, a current model suggests that item encoding engages perirhinal cortex, whereas relational encoding engages parahippocampal cortex and the hippocampus. However, this model has not been examined in the context of aging, neurodegeneration, and MTL morphometrics. METHODS: Forty-four healthy subjects (HSs) and 18 cognitively impaired subjects (nine mild cognitive impairment [MCI] and nine Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were assessed with the relational and item-specific encoding task (RISE) and underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023704/gabaa-receptor-subunits-in-the-human-amygdala-and-hippocampus-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-7-subunits
#4
Harald Stefanits, Ivan Milenkovic, Nina Mahr, Ekaterina Pataraia, Johannes A Hainfellner, Gabor G Kovacs, Werner Sieghart, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Thomas Czech
GABAergic neurotransmission in the amygdala contributes to the regulation of emotional processes in anxiety, stress, reward, mnestic functions, addiction, and epilepsy. Species-specific differences in the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors may account for distinct effects and side-effects of GABAergic agents. However, data on the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors in the human amygdala are lacking. Here, the expression of GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, β2, β2/3 and γ2 was studied in the human amygdala using immunohistochemistry...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652965/a-protocol-for-manual-segmentation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-subregions-in-7%C3%A2-tesla-mri
#5
D Berron, P Vieweg, A Hochkeppler, J B Pluta, S-L Ding, A Maass, A Luther, L Xie, S R Das, D A Wolk, T Wolbers, P A Yushkevich, E Düzel, L E M Wisse
Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL) anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T) MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC), perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36), parahippocampal cortex (PhC), and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub), CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578804/human-anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volumes-are-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-aging-prior-to-clinical-diagnosis
#6
Rosanna K Olsen, Lok-Kin Yeung, Alix Noly-Gandon, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Victoria M Smith, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
We investigated whether older adults without subjective memory complaints, but who present with cognitive decline in the laboratory, demonstrate atrophy in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Forty community-dwelling older adults were categorized based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance. Total gray/white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter hyperintensity load were quantified from whole-brain T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging scans, whereas hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregion volumes (CA1, dentate gyrus/CA2/3, subiculum, anterolateral and posteromedial entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) were quantified using high-resolution T2-weighted scans...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#7
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419566/perirhinal-accumulation-of-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-a-multiple-system-atrophy-patient-with-dementia
#8
Mari Saito, Makoto Hara, Momoko Ebashi, Akihiko Morita, Kyoko Okada, Taku Homma, Masahiko Sugitani, Kentaro Endo, Toshiki Uchihara, Satoshi Kamei
We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited...
October 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862600/a-harmonized-segmentation-protocol-for-hippocampal-and-parahippocampal-subregions-why-do-we-need-one-and-what-are-the-key-goals
#9
Laura E M Wisse, Ana M Daugherty, Rosanna K Olsen, David Berron, Valerie A Carr, Craig E L Stark, Robert S C Amaral, Katrin Amunts, Jean C Augustinack, Andrew R Bender, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Marina Boccardi, Martina Bocchetta, Alison Burggren, M Mallar Chakravarty, Marie Chupin, Arne Ekstrom, Robin de Flores, Ricardo Insausti, Prabesh Kanel, Olga Kedo, Kristen M Kennedy, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Karen F LaRocque, Xiuwen Liu, Anne Maass, Nicolai Malykhin, Susanne G Mueller, Noa Ofen, Daniela J Palombo, Mansi B Parekh, John B Pluta, Jens C Pruessner, Naftali Raz, Karen M Rodrigue, Dorothee Schoemaker, Andrea T Shafer, Trevor A Steve, Nanthia Suthana, Lei Wang, Julie L Winterburn, Michael A Yassa, Paul A Yushkevich, Renaud la Joie
The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI...
January 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797832/the-organization-of-mouse-and-human-cortico-hippocampal-networks-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#10
Eyal Bergmann, Gil Zur, Guy Bershadsky, Itamar Kahn
While the hippocampal memory system has been relatively conserved across mammals, the cerebral cortex has undergone massive expansion. A central question in brain evolution is how cortical development affected the nature of cortical inputs to the hippocampus. To address this question, we compared cortico-hippocampal connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in awake mice and humans. We found that fcMRI recapitulates anatomical connectivity, demonstrating sensory mapping within the mouse parahippocampal region...
December 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707964/functional-subdomains-within-scene-selective-cortex-parahippocampal-place-area-retrosplenial-complex-and-occipital-place-area
#11
Tolga Çukur, Alexander G Huth, Shinji Nishimoto, Jack L Gallant
Functional MRI studies suggest that at least three brain regions in human visual cortex-the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area (OPA; often called the transverse occipital sulcus)-represent large-scale information in natural scenes. Tuning of voxels within each region is often assumed to be functionally homogeneous. To test this assumption, we recorded blood oxygenation level-dependent responses during passive viewing of complex natural movies. We then used a voxelwise modeling framework to estimate voxelwise category tuning profiles within each scene-selective region...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187606/pinpointing-the-peripheral-bias-in-neural-scene-processing-networks-during-natural-viewing
#12
Christopher Baldassano, Li Fei-Fei, Diane M Beck
Peripherally presented stimuli evoke stronger activity in scene-processing regions than foveally presented stimuli, suggesting that scene understanding is driven largely by peripheral information. We used functional MRI to investigate whether functional connectivity evoked during natural perception of audiovisual movies reflects this peripheral bias. For each scene-sensitive region--the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial cortex, and occipital place area--we computed two measures: the extent to which its activity could be predicted by V1 activity (connectivity strength) and the eccentricities within V1 to which it was most closely related (connectivity profile)...
2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184985/differential-contributions-of-subregions-of-medial-temporal-lobe-to-memory-system-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-insights-from-fmri-study
#13
Jiu Chen, Xujun Duan, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Zhiliang Long, Duan Liu, Wenxiang Liao, Yongmei Shi, Huafu Chen, Zhijun Zhang
Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076491/epilepsy-related-cytoarchitectonic-abnormalities-along-white-matter-pathways
#14
G Russell Glenn, Jens H Jensen, Joseph A Helpern, Maria V Spampinato, Ruben Kuzniecky, Simon S Keller, Leonardo Bonilha
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of epilepsy. Unfortunately, the clinical outcomes of TLE cannot be determined based only on current diagnostic modalities. A better understanding of white matter (WM) connectivity changes in TLE may aid the identification of network abnormalities associated with TLE and the phenotypic characterisation of the disease. METHODS: We implemented a novel approach for characterising microstructural changes along WM pathways using diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI)...
September 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937015/connectivity-profiles-reveal-a-transition-subarea-in-the-parahippocampal-region-that-integrates-the-anterior-temporal-posterior-medial-systems
#15
Junjie Zhuo, Lingzhong Fan, Yong Liu, Yuanchao Zhang, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
UNLABELLED: Traditional anatomical studies of the parahippocampal region (PHR) defined the lateral portion into two subregions, the perirhinal (PRC) and parahippocampal (PHC) cortices. Based on this organization, several models suggested that the PRC and the PHC play different roles in memory through connections with different memory-related brain networks. To identify the key components of the human PHR, we used a well accepted connection-based parcellation method on two independent datasets...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924620/examining-hippocampal-function-in-schizophrenia-using-a-virtual-reality-spatial-navigation-task
#16
Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Ramón Landin-Romero, Francisco Portillo, Clara Bosque, Ausias Pomes, Bernhard Spanlang, Jose Carlos Franquelo, Cristina Teixido, Salvador Sarró, Raymond Salvador, Mel Slater, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
BACKGROUND: Structural pathology in the hippocampus is well-documented in schizophrenia, but brain functional changes have not been consistently found. We used spatial navigation in a virtual reality environment, a task that is known to produce robust hippocampal activation in healthy subjects, to examine task-related activations and de-activations in the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-seven DSM IV schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls underwent fMRI while they navigated to a goal through a virtual reality town...
April 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911698/functional-organization-of-the-parahippocampal-cortex-dissociable-roles-for-context-representations-and-the-perception-of-visual-scenes
#17
Oliver Baumann, Jason B Mattingley
The human parahippocampal cortex has been ascribed central roles in both visuospatial and mnemonic processes. More specifically, evidence suggests that the parahippocampal cortex subserves both the perceptual analysis of scene layouts as well as the retrieval of associative contextual memories. It remains unclear, however, whether these two functional roles can be dissociated within the parahippocampal cortex anatomically. Here, we provide evidence for a dissociation between neural activation patterns associated with visuospatial analysis of scenes and contextual mnemonic processing along the parahippocampal longitudinal axis...
February 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26827657/cortical-thinning-of-parahippocampal-subregions-in-very-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Sabine Krumm, Sasa L Kivisaari, Alphonse Probst, Andreas U Monsch, Julia Reinhardt, Stephan Ulmer, Christoph Stippich, Reto W Kressig, Kirsten I Taylor
The stereotypical pattern of neurofibrillary tangle spreading in the earliest stages of typical Alzheimer's dementia (AD) predicts that medial perirhinal cortex (mPRC) atrophy precedes entorhinal cortex (ERC) atrophy, whereas the status of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) remains unclear. Atrophy studies have focused on more advanced rather than early AD patients, and usually segment the entire PRC as opposed to the mPRC versus lateral PRC (lPRC). The present study therefore determined the extent of ERC, mPRC, lPRC, and PHC atrophy in very early AD (mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 26) patients and its presumed prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 28) compared to demographically matched controls...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805590/functional-connectivity-based-parcellation-of-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#19
Shao-Fang Wang, Maureen Ritchey, Laura A Libby, Charan Ranganath
Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26803496/impacts-of-cd33-genetic-variations-on-the-atrophy-rates-of-hippocampus-and-parahippocampal-gyrus-in-normal-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Wen-Ying Wang, Ying Liu, Hui-Fu Wang, Lin Tan, Fu-Rong Sun, Meng-Shan Tan, Chen-Chen Tan, Teng Jiang, Lan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu
The cluster of differentiation 33 (CD33) has been proved as a susceptibility locus associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) based on recent genetic studies. Numerous studies have shown that multiple neuroimaging measures are potent predictors of AD risk and progression, and these measures are also affected by genetic variations in AD. Figuring out the association between CD33 genetic variations and AD-related brain atrophy may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of CD33-related AD pathogenesis...
March 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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