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Hippocampal subregion

Qi-Gang Zhou, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Hoonkyo Suh
Hippocampus-dependent cognitive and emotional function appears to be regionally dissociated along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the hippocampus. Recent observations that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in both cognition and emotion raised an interesting question whether adult neurogenesis within specific subregions of the hippocampus contributes to these distinct functions. We examined the regional-specific and cell type-specific effects of fluoxetine, which requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis to function as an antidepressant, on the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Johanna Baumgaertel, Robert Haussmann, Antonia Gruschwitz, Annett Werner, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Genetic and environmental protective factors and risks modulate brain structure and function in neurodegenerative diseases and their preclinical stages. We wanted to investigate whether the years of formal education, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, would influence hippocampal structure in Alzheimer's disease patients, and whether apolipoprotein Eε4 (APOE4) carrier status and a first-degree family history of the disease would change a possible association. Fifty-eight Alzheimer's disease patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Isabel C Duarte, João Castelhano, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
INTRODUCTION: Hippocampal oscillations have been regularly described as playing a dominant role in spatial memory and navigation in rodents. In humans, the relative role of anterior versus posterior rhythms during navigational memory is not established. METHODS: Here, we tested this hypothesis using direct brain ECoG recordings in the anterior and posterior hippocampus of a patient, in a navigational task requiring spatial memory. We assessed multiple oscillatory bands during encoding and retrieval phases...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
It is well-established that the feed-forward connected main hippocampal areas, CA3, CA2 and CA1 work cooperatively during spatial navigation and memory. These areas are similar in terms of the prevalent types of neurons; however, they display different spatial coding and oscillatory dynamics. Understanding the temporal dynamics of these operations requires simultaneous recordings from these regions. However, simultaneous recordings from multiple regions and subregions in behaving animals have become possible only recently...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Clemens Schroeder, Min Tae M Park, Jürgen Germann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Lars Michels, Spyros Kollias, Sara L Kroll, Alfred Buck, Valerie Treyer, Egemen Savaskan, Paul G Unschuld, Roger M Nitsch, Andrea M Kälin, Christoph Hock, Anton F Gietl, Sandra E Leh
Aβ deposition is a driving force of Alzheimer's disease pathology and can be detected early by amyloid positron emission tomography. Identifying presymptomatic structural brain changes associated with Aβ deposition might lead to a better understanding of its consequences and provide early diagnostic information. In this respect we analyzed measures of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes along with hippocampal, thalamic and striatal shape and surface area by applying novel analysis strategies for structural magnetic resonance imaging...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
J C Morales-Medina, T Iannitti, A Freeman, H K Caldwell
In rodents, the removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB), i.e. olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), results in numerous alterations in neurotransmitter, endocrine and immunologic systems, as well as behavioral changes, similar to those observed in depressed patients. Because the behavioral deficits induced in OBX animals are reversed after repeated administration of antidepressants, this is a model often used to test the effectiveness of putative antidepressant agents. Recent evidence suggests that OBX results in the dysfunction of various cellular processes within the hippocampus, including decrease in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, disruption in long term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and CA3 subregions and neuronal atrophy in the CA1 subregion, along with downstream markers, all of which are consistent with abnormal neuronal activity in the hippocampus of clinically depressed populations...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Juhwan Kim, Seongwook Yoon, Sung-Ho Kim, Changjong Moon
Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are transiently and rapidly activated in response to various cellular stimuli. IEGs mediate diverse functions during pathophysiologic events by regulating cellular signal transduction. We investigated the temporal expression of several IEGs, including c-fos, early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration. Mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/6) administered TMT (2.6mg/kg intraperitoneally) presented severe neurodegenerative lesions in the dentate gyrus (DG) and showed behavioral seizure activity on days 1-4 post-treatment, after which the lesions and behavior recovered spontaneously over time...
September 7, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah, Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki, Mohammad Javad Zamiri
Hindlimb unloading (HU) can cause motion and cognition dysfunction, although its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the stereological parameters of the brain areas involved in motion (motor cortex) and spatial learning - memory (hippocampus) under an HU condition. Sixteen adult male rats, kept under a 12 : 12 h light-dark cycle, were divided into two groups of freely moving (n=8) and HU (n=8) rats. The volume of motor cortex and hippocampus, the numerical cell density of neurons in layers I, II-III, V, and VI of the motor cortex, the entire motor cortex as well as the primary motor cortex, and the numerical density of the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus subregions of the hippocampus were estimated...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
Kirsten S Evonuk, Sumanth D Prabhu, Martin E Young, Tara M DeSilva
The incidence of cognitive impairment in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients has increased, adversely impacting quality of life and imposing a significant economic burden. Brain imaging of CVD patients has detected changes in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for normal learning and memory. However, it is not clear whether adverse cardiac events or other associated co-morbidities impair cognition. Here, using a murine model of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), where the coronary artery was occluded for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion, we tested the hypothesis that acute myocardial infarction triggers impairment in cognitive function...
September 3, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
Sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) in the hippocampus are implied in memory consolidation, as shown by observational and interventional experiments. However, the mechanism of their generation remains unclear. Using two-dimensional silicon probe arrays, we investigated the propagation of SPW-Rs across the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions. Synchronous activation of CA2 ensembles preceded SPW-R-related population activity in CA3 and CA1 regions. Deep CA2 neurons gradually increased their activity prior to ripples and were suppressed during the population bursts of CA3-CA1 neurons (ramping cells)...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
Eske Christiane Gertje, John Pluta, Sandhitsu Das, Lauren Mancuso, Dasha Kliot, Paul Yushkevich, David Wolk
BACKGROUND: Volumetry of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its earliest symptomatic stage could be of great importance for interventions or disease modifying pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to demonstrate the first application of an automatic segmentation method of MTL subregions in a clinical population. Automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in a research population has previously been shown to detect evidence of neurodegeneration in MTL subregions and to help discriminate AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from a healthy comparison group...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Suk-Yu Yau, Ang Li, Jian-Bin Tong, Crystal Bostrom, Brian R Christie, Tatia M C Lee, Kwok-Fai So
BACKGROUND: Our previous work has shown that exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (40 mg/kg CORT) for two weeks induces dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region and behavioral deficits. However, it is unclear whether this treatment also affects the dentate gyrus (DG), a subregion of the hippocampus comprising a heterogeneous population of young and mature neurons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of CORT treatment on the dendritic complexity of mature and young granule cells in the DG...
September 21, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Ling-Yu Yang, Nigel H Greig, Ya-Ni Huang, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, David Tweedie, Qian-Sheng Yu, Barry J Hoffer, Yu Luo, Yu-Chieh Kao, Jia-Yi Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus has been detected after TBI. The hippocampal dysfunction may result in cognitive deficits in learning, memory, and spatial information processing. Our previous studies demonstrated that a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α oxygen analogue (PFT-α (O)), significantly reduced cortical cell death, which is substantial following controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI, and improved neurological functional outcomes via anti-apoptotic mechanisms...
August 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Creed M Stary, Xiaoyun Sun, YiBing Ouyang, Le Li, Rona G Giffard
Neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus are vulnerable to cerebral ischemia, while dentate gyrus (DG) neurons are more resistant. This effect is mediated by local astrocytes, and may reflect differences in subregional hippocampal expression of miR-29a. We investigated the role of miR-29a on survival of hippocampal astrocytes cultured selectively from CA1 and DG in response to glucose deprivation (GD). CA1 astrocytes exhibited more cell death and a greater decrease in miR-29a than DG astrocytes...
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Hussein N Yassine, Qingru Feng, Ida Azizkhanian, Varun Rawat, Katherine Castor, Alfred N Fonteh, Michael G Harrington, Ling Zheng, Bruce R Reed, Charles DeCarli, William J Jagust, Helena C Chui
Importance: Higher dietary intake of the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) has been associated with better cognitive performance in several epidemiological studies. Animal and in vitro studies also indicate that DHA prevents amyloid deposition in the brain. Objective: To determine the association between serum DHA levels, cerebral amyloidosis, and the volumes of brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Design, Settings, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of serum DHA levels together with measures of amyloid deposition (Pittsburgh Compound B index), brain volumes, and neuropsychological testing scores from 61 participants in the Aging Brain Study...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Ian Mahar, Angus MacIsaac, John Junghan Kim, Calvin Qiang, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Gustavo Turecki, Naguib Mechawar
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1's effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hyun-Bum Kim, Kelley M Swanberg, Hee-Sok Han, Jung-Chae Kim, Jun-Woo Kim, Sungon Lee, C Justin Lee, Sungho Maeng, Tae-Seong Kim, Ji-Ho Park
Ultrasound is a promising neural stimulation modality, but an incomplete understanding of its range and mechanism of effect limits its therapeutic application. We investigated the modulation of spontaneous hippocampal spike activity by ultrasound at a lower acoustic intensity and longer time scale than has been previously attempted, hypothesizing that spiking would change conditionally upon the availability of glutamate receptors. Using a 60-channel multielectrode array (MEA), we measured spontaneous spiking across organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures (N = 28) for 3 min each before, during, and after stimulation with low-intensity unfocused pulsed or sham ultrasound (spatial-peak pulse average intensity 780 μW/cm(2) ) preperfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 300 μM kynurenic acid (KA), or 0...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Ai-Hui Tang, Haiwen Chen, Tuo P Li, Sarah R Metzbower, Harold D MacGillavry, Thomas A Blanpied
Synaptic transmission is maintained by a delicate, sub-synaptic molecular architecture, and even mild alterations in synapse structure drive functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity and pathological disorders. Key to this architecture is how the distribution of presynaptic vesicle fusion sites corresponds to the position of receptors in the postsynaptic density. However, while it has long been recognized that this spatial relationship modulates synaptic strength, it has not been precisely described, owing in part to the limited resolution of light microscopy...
August 11, 2016: Nature
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Katharina Wetzestein, Verena Nowastowski, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Johann Steiner, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Theo Kraus, Alkomiet Hasan, Bernhard Bogerts, Christoph Schmitz, Andrea Schmitt
The hippocampus is involved in cognition as well as emotion, with deficits in both domains consistently described in schizophrenia. Moreover, the whole volumes of both the anterior and posterior region have been reported to be decreased in schizophrenia patients. While fewer oligodendrocyte numbers in the left and right cornu ammonis CA4 subregion of the posterior part of the hippocampus have been reported, the aim of this stereological study was to investigate cell numbers in either the dentate gyrus (DG) or subregions of the anterior hippocampus...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Aparajita Bhattacharya, Harsh Desai, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
Anatomical and behavioral studies, and in vivo and slice electrophysiology of the hippocampus suggest specific functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA3 subregions, but the underlying activity dynamics and repeatability of information processing remains poorly understood. To approach this problem, we engineered separate living networks of the DG and CA3 neurons that develop connections through 51 tunnels for axonal communication. Growing these networks on top of an electrode array enabled us to determine whether the subregion dynamics were separable and repeatable...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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