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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#1
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070483/increased-hippocampal-activation-in-apoe-4-carriers-and-non-carriers-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Tammy T Tran, Caroline L Speck, Aparna Pisupati, Michela Gallagher, Arnold Bakker
Increased fMRI activation in the hippocampus is recognized as a signature characteristic of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous work has localized this increased activation to the dentate gyrus/CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and showed a correlation with memory impairments in those patients. Increased hippocampal activation has also been reported in carriers of the ApoE-4 allelic variation independently of mild cognitive impairment although these findings were not localized to a hippocampal subregion...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039370/hippocampal-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-contributes-to-memory-impairment-and-is-consistent-with-spread-of-pathology
#3
David H Adamowicz, Subhojit Roy, David P Salmon, Douglas R Galasko, Lawrence A Hansen, Eliezer Masliah, Fred H Gage
: Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018680/distinctive-structural-and-effective-connectivity-changes-of-semantic-cognition-network-across-left-and-right-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#4
Xiaotong Fan, Hao Yan, Yi Shan, Kun Shang, Xiaocui Wang, Peipei Wang, Yongzhi Shan, Jie Lu, Guoguang Zhao
Occurrence of language impairment in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients is common and left mTLE patients always exhibit a primary problem with access to names. To explore different neuropsychological profiles between left and right mTLE patients, the study investigated both structural and effective functional connectivity changes within the semantic cognition network between these two groups and those from normal controls. We found that gray matter atrophy of left mTLE patients was more severe than that of right mTLE patients in the whole brain and especially within the semantic cognition network in their contralateral hemisphere...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997993/longitudinal-imaging-reveals-sub-hippocampal-dynamics-in-glutamate-levels-associated-with-histopathologic-events-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy-and-healthy-mice
#5
Rachelle Crescenzi, Catherine DeBrosse, Ravi P R Nanga, Matthew D Byrne, Guruprasad Krishnamoorthy, Kevin D'Aquilla, Hari Nath, Knashawn H Morales, Michiyo Iba, Hari Hariharan, Virginia M Y- Lee, John A Detre, Ravinder Reddy
Tauopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal intracellular aggregates of tau protein, and include Alzheimer's disease, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Glutamate metabolism is altered in neurodegenerative disorders manifesting in higher or lower concentrations of glutamate, its transporters or receptors. Previously, glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated that glutamate levels are reduced in regions of synapse loss in the hippocampus of a mouse model of late-stage tauopathy...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987205/mid-life-environmental-enrichment-increases-synaptic-density-in-ca1-in-a-mouse-model-of-a%C3%AE-associated-pathology-and-positively-influences-synaptic-and-cognitive-health-in-healthy-ageing
#6
Kimberley E Stuart, Anna E King, Carmen M Fernandez-Martos, Justin Dittmann, Mathew J Summers, James C Vickers
Early-life cognitive enrichment may reduce the risk of experiencing cognitive deterioration and dementia in later-life. However, an intervention to prevent or delay dementia is likely to be taken up in mid to later-life. Hence, we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment in wildtype mice and in a mouse model of Aβ neuropathology (APPSWE /PS1dE9 ) from 6 months of age. After 6 months of housing in standard laboratory cages, APPSWE /PS1dE9 (n = 27) and healthy wildtype (n = 21) mice were randomly assigned to either enriched or standard housing...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936516/neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-postconditioning-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-through-influencing-posttranslational-regulations-of-heat-shock-protein-27-in-adult-rats
#7
Lixuan Zhan, Liu Liu, Kongping Li, Baoxing Wu, Dandan Liu, Donghai Liang, Haixia Wen, Yanmei Wang, Weiwen Sun, Weiping Liao, En Xu
We previously reported that hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) ameliorated hippocampal neuronal death induced by transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) in adult rats. However, the mechanism of HPC-induced neuroprotection is still elusive. Notably, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has recently emerged as a potent neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia. Although its robust protective effect on stroke has been recognized, the mechanism of Hsp27-mediated neuroprotection is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism by which HPC modulates the posttranslational regulations of Hsp27 after tGCI...
December 9, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907826/extent-of-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-patients-with-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-correlates-with-neuronal-cell-loss-and-granule-cell-dispersion
#8
Barbara Schmeiser, Josef Zentner, Marco Prinz, Armin Brandt, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#9
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862600/a-harmonized-segmentation-protocol-for-hippocampal-and-parahippocampal-subregions-why-do-we-need-one-and-what-are-the-key-goals
#11
Laura E M Wisse, Ana M Daugherty, Rosanna K Olsen, David Berron, Valerie A Carr, Craig E L Stark, Robert S C Amaral, Katrin Amunts, Jean C Augustinack, Andrew R Bender, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Marina Boccardi, Martina Bocchetta, Alison Burggren, M Mallar Chakravarty, Marie Chupin, Arne Ekstrom, Robin de Flores, Ricardo Insausti, Prabesh Kanel, Olga Kedo, Kristen M Kennedy, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Karen F LaRocque, Xiuwen Liu, Anne Maass, Nicolai Malykhin, Susanne G Mueller, Noa Ofen, Daniela J Palombo, Mansi B Parekh, John B Pluta, Jens C Pruessner, Naftali Raz, Karen M Rodrigue, Dorothee Schoemaker, Andrea T Shafer, Trevor A Steve, Nanthia Suthana, Lei Wang, Julie L Winterburn, Michael A Yassa, Paul A Yushkevich, Renaud la Joie
The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI...
January 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#12
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836336/medial-temporal-lobe-subregional-morphometry-using-high-resolution-mri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
David A Wolk, Sandhitsu R Das, Susanne G Mueller, Michael W Weiner, Paul A Yushkevich
Autopsy studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have found that neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) demonstrates selective topography with relatively stereotyped subregional involvement at early disease stages, prompting interest in more granular measurement of these structures with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. We applied a novel, automated method for measurement of hippocampal subfields and extrahippocampal MTL cortical regions. The cohort included cognitively normal (CN) adults (n = 86), early mild cognitive impairment (n = 43), late MCI (n = 22), and mild AD (n = 40) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829866/electroacupuncture-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-and-improves-synaptic-plasticity-via-activation-of-the-pka-creb-signaling-pathway-in-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#14
Cai-Xia Zheng, Min Lu, Ya-Bi Guo, Feng-Xia Zhang, Hua Liu, Feng Guo, Xiao-Lin Huang, Xiao-Hua Han
Electroacupuncture (EA) has shown protective effects on cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are ill-understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cognitive function was ameliorated in cerebral hypoperfusion rats following EA and to investigate the role of PKA/CREB pathway. We used a rat 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model and delivered EA at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints. Morris water maze (MWM) task, electrophysiological recording, Golgi silver stain, Nissl stain, Western blot, and real-time PCR were employed...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815416/s-ketamine-rapidly-reverses-synaptic-and-vascular-deficits-of-hippocampus-in-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#15
Maryam Ardalan, Gregers Wegener, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce a rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof of this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads to an increase in synaptogenesis and vascularization within 24 hours after a single injection in a genetic rat model of depression. METHODS: Flinders Sensitive Line and Flinders Resistant Line rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797832/the-organization-of-mouse-and-human-cortico-hippocampal-networks-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#16
Eyal Bergmann, Gil Zur, Guy Bershadsky, Itamar Kahn
While the hippocampal memory system has been relatively conserved across mammals, the cerebral cortex has undergone massive expansion. A central question in brain evolution is how cortical development affected the nature of cortical inputs to the hippocampus. To address this question, we compared cortico-hippocampal connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in awake mice and humans. We found that fcMRI recapitulates anatomical connectivity, demonstrating sensory mapping within the mouse parahippocampal region...
December 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786023/microstructural-integrity-of-hippocampal-subregions-is-impaired-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Sandra E Leh, Clemens Schroeder, Jen-Kai Chen, M Mallar Chakravarty, Min Tae M Park, Bob Cheung, Sonja C Huntgeburth, Nadia Gosselin, Christoph Hock, Alain Ptito, Michael Petrides
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a large number of individuals and diffusion tensor imaging can be used to investigate microstructural integrity of brain tissue after mTBI. However, results have varied considerably between studies and gray matter (GM) integrity has been largely neglected in these investigations. Given impaired working memory processing after mTBI and its possible association with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated hippocampal integrity and parcellated this structure into five subregions: subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA 2/3, CA 4/dentate gyrus, and stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759049/regional-specific-effect-of-fluoxetine-on-rapidly-dividing-progenitors-along-the-dorsoventral-axis-of-the-hippocampus
#18
Qi-Gang Zhou, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Hoonkyo Suh
Hippocampus-dependent cognitive and emotional function appears to be regionally dissociated along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the hippocampus. Recent observations that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in both cognition and emotion raised an interesting question whether adult neurogenesis within specific subregions of the hippocampus contributes to these distinct functions. We examined the regional-specific and cell type-specific effects of fluoxetine, which requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis to function as an antidepressant, on the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699079/education-and-genetic-risk-modulate-hippocampal-structure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Johanna Baumgaertel, Robert Haussmann, Antonia Gruschwitz, Annett Werner, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Genetic and environmental protective factors and risks modulate brain structure and function in neurodegenerative diseases and their preclinical stages. We wanted to investigate whether the years of formal education, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, would influence hippocampal structure in Alzheimer's disease patients, and whether apolipoprotein Eε4 (APOE4) carrier status and a first-degree family history of the disease would change a possible association. Fifty-eight Alzheimer's disease patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688937/the-anterior-versus-posterior-hippocampal-oscillations-debate-in-human-spatial-navigation-evidence-from-an-electrocorticographic-case-study
#20
Isabel C Duarte, João Castelhano, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
INTRODUCTION: Hippocampal oscillations have been regularly described as playing a dominant role in spatial memory and navigation in rodents. In humans, the relative role of anterior versus posterior rhythms during navigational memory is not established. METHODS: Here, we tested this hypothesis using direct brain ECoG recordings in the anterior and posterior hippocampus of a patient, in a navigational task requiring spatial memory. We assessed multiple oscillatory bands during encoding and retrieval phases...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
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