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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023704/gabaa-receptor-subunits-in-the-human-amygdala-and-hippocampus-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-7-subunits
#1
Harald Stefanits, Ivan Milenkovic, Nina Mahr, Ekaterina Pataraia, Johannes A Hainfellner, Gabor G Kovacs, Werner Sieghart, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Thomas Czech
GABAergic neurotransmission in the amygdala contributes to the regulation of emotional processes in anxiety, stress, reward, mnestic functions, addiction, and epilepsy. Species-specific differences in the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors may account for distinct effects and side-effects of GABAergic agents. However, data on the distribution and composition of GABAA receptors in the human amygdala are lacking. Here, the expression of GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, β2, β2/3 and γ2 was studied in the human amygdala using immunohistochemistry...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988234/dynamics-of-goldfish-subregional-hippocampal-pallium-activity-throughout-spatial-memory-formation
#2
Francisco M Ocaña, Sara Uceda, Jorge L Arias, Cosme Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948088/linking-kindling-to-increased-glutamate-release-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-hippocampus-through-the-stxbp5-tomosyn-1-gene
#3
Seth R Batten, Elena A Matveeva, Sidney W Whiteheart, Thomas C Vanaman, Greg A Gerhardt, John T Slevin
INTRODUCTION: In kindling, repeated electrical stimulation of certain brain areas causes progressive and permanent intensification of epileptiform activity resulting in generalized seizures. We focused on the role(s) of glutamate and a negative regulator of glutamate release, STXBP5/tomosyn-1, in kindling. METHODS: Stimulating electrodes were implanted in the amygdala and progression to two successive Racine stage 5 seizures was measured in wild-type and STXBP5/tomosyn-1(-/-) (Tom(-/-)) animals...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939403/piperine-restores-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-impairments-insights-into-oxidative-balance-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-hippocampus
#4
Mohsen Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohammad Golparvar Azizi, Mohammad Reza Esmaeili, Mohammad Gol, Sohrab Kazemi, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Soheila Hosseinzadeh
Piperine has been shown to have antioxidant activity and a cognitive-enhancing effect following long-term oral administration. In a comparative study of memantine, the current investigation threw light on the cognitive benefits of piperine. Lipid peroxidation and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and hippocampus in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of the Alzheimer's type was measured. After reaching a criterion in a memory test, STZ-induced rats received piperine [2...
September 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#5
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922832/fast-spiking-parvalbumin-interneurons-are-frequently-myelinated-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-mice-and-humans
#6
J Stedehouder, J J Couey, D Brizee, B Hosseini, J A Slotman, C M F Dirven, G Shpak, A B Houtsmuller, S A Kushner
Myelination, the insulating ensheathment of axons by oligodendrocytes, is thought to both optimize signal propagation and provide metabolic support. Despite the well-established physiological importance of myelination to neuronal function, relatively little is known about the myelination of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that a large fraction of myelin in mouse cerebral cortex ensheaths GABAergic interneurons, reaching up to 80% in hippocampal subregions. Moreover, we find that a very high proportion of neocortical and hippocampal parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exhibit axonal myelination...
October 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917699/the-impact-of-aging-on-subregions-of-the-hippocampal-complex-in-healthy-adults
#7
Florian Kurth, Nicolas Cherbuin, Eileen Luders
The hippocampal complex, an anatomical composite of several subregions, is known to decrease in size with increasing age. However, studies investigating which subregions are particularly prone to age-related tissue loss revealed conflicting findings. Possible reasons for such inconsistencies may reflect differences between studies in terms of the cohorts examined or techniques applied to define and measure hippocampal subregions. In the present study, we enhanced conventional MR-based information with microscopically defined cytoarchitectonic probabilities to investigate aging effects on the hippocampal complex in a carefully selected sample of 96 healthy subjects (48 males/48 females) aged 18-69 years...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886957/differential-vulnerability-of-hippocampal-subfields-and-anteroposterior-hippocampal-subregions-in-healthy-cognitive-aging
#9
Nikolai V Malykhin, Yushan Huang, Stanislau Hrybouski, Fraser Olsen
In the present study, we investigated whether hippocampal subfields (cornu ammonis 1-3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and anteroposterior hippocampal subregions (head, body, and tail) follow the same trajectory with age using structural magnetic resonance imaging. We recruited 129 healthy volunteers, aged 18-85 years. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired on a 4.7T system. Hippocampal subfields and subregions were manually segmented using reliable volumetric protocols. We found that all effects of age on the hippocampal volumes were nonlinear and were mainly found in the hippocampal body, while the hippocampal head and the tail volumes were not associated with age...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884957/long-term-sequelae-of-hippocampal-lesions-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia-a-multiparametric-mri-study
#10
Xiaochuan Wang, Ran Zhang, Wenping Wei, Haibo Jiang, Zhongming Gao, Jianzhong Lin, Jiaxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: MRI signal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity in the hippocampus in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) are resolved within several days after the onset of TGA. PURPOSE: To use multiparametric MRI to unravel the sequelae of TGA. STUDY TYPE: A prospective longitudinal study. POPULATION: Eight TGA patients. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0T Siemens Tim Trio MRI scanner with T1 -weighted MPRAGE, diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging, and multiecho gradient-recalled echo sequences...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883785/early-postnatal-but-not-late-adult-neurogenesis-is-impaired-in-the-pitx3-mutant-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Moritz D Brandt, Diana Krüger-Gerlach, Andreas Hermann, Anne K Meyer, Kwang-Soo Kim, Alexander Storch
The generation of new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus has functional implications for hippocampal formation. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in various animal models of hippocampal dysfunction such as dementia and depression, which are both common non-motor-symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). As dopamine plays an important role in regulating precursor cell proliferation, the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in PD may be related to the reduced neurogenesis observed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain: subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866684/functional-connectivity-pattern-of-the-internal-hippocampal-network-in-awake-pigeons-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#12
Mehdi Behroozi, Felix Ströckens, Xavier Helluy, Martin Stacho, Onur Güntürkün
In the last two decades, the avian hippocampus has been repeatedly studied with respect to its architecture, neurochemistry, and connectivity pattern. We review these insights and conclude that we unfortunately still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions. To fill this gap, we need information on the functional connectivity pattern of the hippocampal network. These data could complement our structural connectivity knowledge. To this end, we conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859888/postnatal-development-of-gabaergic-interneurons-and-perineuronal-nets-in-mouse-temporal-cortex-subregions
#13
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Shozo Aoki, Takeshi Ishihara
In human neuropsychiatric disorders, there are functional and anatomical abnormalities of GABAergic interneurons in each temporal cortex subregion. Furthermore, accumulation of amyloid-β is observed in the temporal cortex in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Each subregion of the temporal cortex has an important role in coordinating the input and output of the hippocampus. When subregions of the temporal cortex are impaired, memory and learning ability decrease. GABAergic interneurons control excitatory neurons, forming the cortico-cortical and cortico-hippocampal networks...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858612/on-the-integration-of-space-time-and-memory
#14
REVIEW
Howard Eichenbaum
The hippocampus is famous for mapping locations in spatially organized environments, and several recent studies have shown that hippocampal networks also map moments in temporally organized experiences. Here I consider how space and time are integrated in the representation of memories. The brain pathways for spatial and temporal cognition involve overlapping and interacting systems that converge on the hippocampal region. There is evidence that spatial and temporal aspects of memory are processed somewhat differently in the circuitry of hippocampal subregions but become fully integrated within CA1 neuronal networks as independent, multiplexed representations of space and time...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856235/regional-tau-deposition-and-subregion-atrophy-of-medial-temporal-structures-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-combined-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Masayo Ogawa, Harumasa Takano, Yuma Yokoi, Masuhiro Sakata, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855140/prenatal-stress-induced-gender-specific-alterations-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunit-expression-and-response-to-a%C3%AE-in-offspring-hippocampal-cells
#16
Yuan Fang, Hui Li, Lirong Chang, Yizhi Song, Longhui Ma, Liying Lu, Zunshu Du, Yan Li, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu
Prenatal stress (PS) is one of adverse life events during pregnancy, which may increase vulnerability to cognitive impairment in adult offspring. Aβ synaptotoxicity is one important pathological factor for cognitive impairment, and PS-induced cognitive disorder is closely associated with N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which acts as a key mediator of Aβ synaptotoxicity. In the present study, we tried to explore whether PS affects offspring's Aβ levels and NMDAR subunit expression in a gender-specific manner in hippocampal CA and DG subregions, and whether PS affects synaptic proteins and NMDAR subunit expression in cultured offspring hippocampal cells exposed to Aβ...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772124/proximodistal-heterogeneity-of-hippocampal-ca3-pyramidal-neuron-intrinsic-properties-connectivity-and-reactivation-during-memory-recall
#17
Qian Sun, Alaba Sotayo, Alejandro S Cazzulino, Anna M Snyder, Christine A Denny, Steven A Siegelbaum
The hippocampal CA3 region is classically viewed as a homogeneous autoassociative network critical for associative memory and pattern completion. However, recent evidence has demonstrated a striking heterogeneity along the transverse, or proximodistal, axis of CA3 in spatial encoding and memory. Here we report the presence of striking proximodistal gradients in intrinsic membrane properties and synaptic connectivity for dorsal CA3. A decreasing gradient of mossy fiber synaptic strength along the proximodistal axis is mirrored by an increasing gradient of direct synaptic excitation from entorhinal cortex...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723918/heterogeneity-of-p53-dependent-genomic-responses-following-ethanol-exposure-in-a-developmental-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#18
Maria Camargo Moreno, Sandra M Mooney, Frank A Middleton
Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704930/mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-by-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-activation-contributes-to-hippocampal-neuronal-damage-following-status-epilepticus
#19
Yi-Chen Lai, J Scott Baker, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, William J Craigen, Anne E Anderson
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the neuropathology associated with status epilepticus (SE) and is implicated in the development of epilepsy. While excitotoxic mechanisms are well-known mediators affecting mitochondrial health following SE, whether hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) also contributes to SE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be examined. Here we first evaluated the temporal evolution of poly-ADP-ribosylated protein levels in hippocampus following kainic acid-induced SE as a marker for PARP-1 activity, and found that PARP-1 was hyperactive at 24 h following SE...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638322/neural-signals-related-to-outcome-evaluation-are-stronger-in-ca1-than-ca3
#20
Sung-Hyun Lee, Namjung Huh, Jong Won Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Inah Lee, Min W Jung
We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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