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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916145/vdac1-downregulation-causes-mitochondrial-disintegration-leading-to-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-mice
#1
Meghraj Singh Baghel, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Our previous report on hippocampal proteome analysis suggested the involvement of voltage-dependent anion channel (Vdac) 1 in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further silencing of Vdac1 in young mice reduced the recognition memory. Vdac1 is a porin protein present abundantly on outer mitochondrial membrane. It acts as a transporter of energy metabolites ATP/ADP and Ca2+ ions and helps in communication between mitochondrial matrix and cytosol. As Vdac1-associated energy metabolism may be affected during amnesia, we determined the downstream function of Vdac1 in the present study...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915214/ventral-striatal-dysfunction-in-cocaine-dependence-difference-mapping-for-subregional-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#2
Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Research of dopaminergic deficits has focused on the ventral striatum (VS) with many studies elucidating altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in individuals with cocaine dependence (CD). The VS comprises functional subregions and delineation of subregional changes in rsFC requires careful consideration of the differences between addicted and healthy populations. In the current study, we parcellated the VS using whole-brain rsFC differences between CD and non-drug-using controls (HC). Voxels with similar rsFC changes formed functional clusters...
June 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909179/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-status-in-healthy-older-african-americans-is-associated-with-deficits-in-pattern-separation-and-hippocampal-hyperactivation
#3
Neha Sinha, Chelsie N Berg, Nicholas J Tustison, Ashlee Shaw, Diane Hill, Michael A Yassa, Mark A Gluck
African Americans are 1.4 times more likely than European Americans to carry the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive function in older African Americans and how they relate to genetic risk for AD. In particular, no past study on African Americans has examined the effect of APOE ε4 status on pattern separation-mnemonic discrimination performance and its corresponding neural computations in the hippocampus...
May 26, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899533/chronic-infection-with-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-induces-alterations-in-the-hippocampus-associated-with-memory-loss
#4
Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, María Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez, Rodrigo Arreola, María Elizbeth Álvarez-Sánchez, Mario Juárez-Ortega, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Jorge Morales-Montor, Lenin Pavón, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
Murine leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), is a chronic disease that closely resembles human leprosy. Even though this disease does not directly involve the nervous system, we investigated a possible effect on working memory during this chronic infection in Balb/c mice. We evaluated alterations in the dorsal region of the hippocampus and measured peripheral levels of cytokines at 40, 80, and 120 days post-infection. To evaluate working memory, we used the T-maze while a morphometric analysis was conducted in the hippocampus regions CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) to measure morphological changes...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893987/laser-ablation-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgical-and-cognitive-outcomes-with-and-without-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#5
Cristian Donos, Joshua Breier, Elliott Friedman, Patrick Rollo, Jessica Johnson, Lauren Moss, Stephen Thompson, Melissa Thomas, Omotola Hope, Jeremy Slater, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVES: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive surgical technique for focal epilepsy. A major appeal of LITT is that it may result in fewer cognitive deficits, especially when targeting dominant hemisphere mesial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy. To evaluate this, as well as to determine seizure outcomes following LITT, we evaluated the relationships between ablation volumes and surgical or cognitive outcomes in 43 consecutive patients undergoing LITT for MTL epilepsy...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878234/somatic-gene-transfer-using-a-recombinant-adenoviral-vector-raav9-encoding-pseudophosphorylated-human-thr175-tau-in-adult-rat-hippocampus-induces-tau-pathology
#6
Alexander J Moszczynski, Jason Gopaul, Patrick McCunn, Kathryn Volkening, Madeline Harvey, Robert Bartha, Susanne Schmid, Michael J Strong
Aberrant phosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein tau (tau) is associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases where it is a contributes to neurotoxicity. We have observed that phosphorylation at Thr175 tau (pThr175 tau) exerts toxicity when expressed as a pseudophosphorylated tau construct (Thr175Asp) in vitro. To determine whether pThr175 tau can induce tau pathology in vivo with an accompanying clinical phenotype, we used a recombinant adenoviral expression vector (rAAV9) to express a GFP-tagged Thr175Asp tau protein construct in adult female Sprague-Dawley rat hippocampus...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802248/neuroglobin-mediates-neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-postconditioning-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-through-preserving-the-activity-of-na-k-atpases
#7
Haixia Wen, Liu Liu, Lixuan Zhan, Donghai Liang, Luxi Li, Dandan Liu, Weiwen Sun, En Xu
Hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) is an innovative neuroprotective strategy with cytoprotective effects on the hippocampal neurons against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) in adult rats. However, its molecular mechanisms have not yet been adequately elucidated. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an endogenous neuroprotectant with hypoxia-inducible property, and its role in experimental stroke has been increasingly attractive. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the involvement of Ngb in HPC-mediated neuroprotection and to further investigate its underlying molecular mechanism...
May 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791910/melatonin-attenuates-histopathological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-infantile-rats-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#8
Mehmet Turgut, Meral Baka, Yiğit Uyanıkgil
OBJECTIVE/AIM: Hydrocephalus is defined as an incapacitating neurological disorder characterized by ventricular enlargement in children, but the effects of melatonin on this hydrocephalus have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present experiment, we attempted to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on hydrocephalus-induced hippocampal changes in infantile rats. METHODS: In this study, we randomly divided 45 Swiss albino rats aged 2 weeks into 3 groups: group I, the control group received a sham injection with needle insertion only; groups II and III were given kaolin injections before treatment - group II, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with an isotonic NaCl solution, and group III, the hydrocephalus plus melatonin group, was treated with 0...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789029/pediatric-brain-development-in-down-syndrome-a-field-in-its-infancy
#9
Taralee Hamner, Manisha D Udhnani, Karol Z Osipowicz, Nancy Raitano Lee
OBJECTIVES: As surprisingly little is known about the developing brain studied in vivo in youth with Down syndrome (DS), the current review summarizes the small DS pediatric structural neuroimaging literature and begins to contextualize existing research within a developmental framework. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was completed, effect sizes from published studies were reviewed, and results are presented with respect to the DS cognitive behavioral phenotype and typical brain development...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782904/intracellular-s1p-levels-dictates-fate-of-different-regions-of-the-hippocampus-following-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Sherif Rashad, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Daisuke Saigusa, Xiaobo Han, Mika Sato-Maeda, Ritsumi Saito, Akira Uruno, Miki Fujimura, Shuntaro Ikawa, Masayuki Yamamoto, Teiji Tominaga
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid molecule produced by the action of sphingosine kinases (SphK) on sphingosine. It possesses various intracellular functions through its interactions with intracellular proteins or via its action on five G-protein-coupled cell membrane receptors. Following transient global cerebral ischaemia (tGCI), only the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus undergoes apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated S1P levels and S1P processing enzyme expression in different hippocampal areas following tGCI in rats...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778641/subregional-volumes-of-the-hippocampus-in-relation-to-cognitive-function-and-risk-of-dementia
#11
Tavia E Evans, Hieab H H Adams, Silvan Licher, Frank J Wolters, Aad van der Lugt, M Kamran Ikram, Michael J O'Sullivan, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram
BACKGROUND: Total hippocampal volume has been consistently linked to cognitive function and dementia. Yet, given its complex and parcellated internal structure, the role of subregions of the hippocampus in cognition and risk of dementia remains relatively underexplored. We studied subregions of the hippocampus in a large population-based cohort to further understand their role in cognitive impairment and dementia risk. METHODS: We studied 5035 dementia- and stroke-free persons from the Rotterdam Study, aged over 45 years...
May 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778627/impaired-spatial-processing-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#12
Mohamed Ghilan, Luis Bettio, Athena Noonan, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Brian R Christie
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual impairment. The Fmr1-/y mouse model has been previously shown to have deficits in context discrimination tasks but not in the elevated plus-maze. To further characterize this FXS mouse model and determine whether hippocampal-mediated behaviours are affected in these mice, dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent spatial processing and Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1)-dependent temporal order discrimination tasks were evaluated. In agreement with previous findings of long-term potentiation deficits in the DG of this transgenic model of FXS, the results reported here demonstrate that Fmr1-/y mice perform poorly in the DG-dependent metric change spatial processing task...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774448/the-expression-alteration-of-bc1-rna-and-its-interaction-with-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a-post-status-epilepticus
#13
Xiangchang Zeng, Wenjing Zong, Qing Gao, Siyu Chen, Lulu Chen, Guirong Zeng, Weihua Huang, Zhenyu Li, Chang Zeng, Yuanyuan Xie, Xiaohui Li, Bo Xiao, Dongsheng-Ouyang, Kai Hu
Abnormal dendritic sprouting and synaptic remodelling are important pathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy. BC1 RNA is a translation repressor involved in the regulation of the dendritic protein synthesis and mRNA transport, which is essential for dendritic development and plasticity. The expression alteration of BC1 RNA in the pilocarpine induced epilepsy model remains unknown. It is unclear if the interactions between BC1 RNA and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) exists in this model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression changes of BC1 RNA and its interactions with eIF4A post-status epilepticus (SE)...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772389/hippocampal-microglia-modifications-in-c57bl-6-pah-enu2-and-btbr-pah-enu2-phenylketonuria-pku-mice-depend-on-the-genetic-background-irrespective-of-disturbed-sleep-patterns
#14
Els van der Goot, Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Femke M Hormann, Ulrich L M Eisel, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A Van der Zee
Toxic levels of phenylalanine in blood and brain is a characteristic of (untreated) phenylketonuria (PKU), leading to cognitive deficits in PKU mice. In addition, our recent findings showed that PKU mice (as well as PKU patients) have a disturbed sleep/wake cycle. As a consequence, sleep loss may contribute to cognitive deficits in PKU. Sleep loss has been linked to increased activation of microglia in the hippocampus. In this study, we set out to examine morphological features of the microglia population in the hippocampus of the mouse PKU model, using both the C57Bl/6 and the BTBR strain and their wild-type controls (age 5...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764396/functional-connectivity-of-hippocampal-subregions-in-ptsd-relations-with-symptoms
#15
Bailee L Malivoire, Todd A Girard, Ronak Patel, Candice M Monson
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal hippocampal activity; however, the functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus with other brain regions in PTSD and its relations with symptoms warrants further attention. We investigated subregional hippocampal FC in PTSD during a resting state compared with a trauma-exposed control (TEC) group. Based on extant research, we targeted the FCs of the anterior and posterior hippocampal subregions with the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the posterior cingulate (PCC)...
May 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722553/protective-role-of-zinc-against-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-exposure-to-cadmium-during-gestation-and-lactation-periods-on-hippocampal-volume-of-pups-tested-in-early-adulthood
#16
Safa Ben Mimouna, Marouane Chemek, Sana Boughammoura, Zohra Haouas, Imed Messaoudi
The present study was conducted to assess the possible effect of cadmium (Cd) throughout gestation and lactation on the volume of the subregion of the hippocampus as well as the potential protective role of zinc (Zn) against Cd neurotoxicity. For this purpose, female rats received either tap water, Cd, Zn or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation and lactation. At postnatal day 35 (PND35), the male pups were sacrificed, and their brains were taken for histologic, chemical, and biochemical analysis...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705007/altered-brain-cannabinoid-1-receptor-mrna-expression-across-postnatal-development-in-the-mam-model-of-schizophrenia
#17
Felipe V Gomes, Jessica R Edelson, David W Volk, Anthony A Grace
Altered cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression has been reported in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia, a developmental mental illness that usually emerges in late adolescence/early adulthood. However, the developmental period at which changes in the CB1R expression appear in schizophrenia is unknown. To gain insight into this factor, we assessed the postnatal developmental trajectory of CB1R expression in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia. Using in situ hybridization with film and grain analyses, CB1R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in multiple brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), secondary motor cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum, dorsal subregions and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus, of MAM-treated rats and normal controls at three developmental periods [juvenile - postnatal day (PD) 30; adolescence - PD45; and adulthood - PD85]...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681453/dissociable-structural-and-functional-hippocampal-outputs-via-distinct-subiculum-cell-classes
#18
Mark S Cembrowski, Matthew G Phillips, Salvatore F DiLisio, Brenda C Shields, Johan Winnubst, Jayaram Chandrashekar, Erhan Bas, Nelson Spruston
The mammalian hippocampus, comprised of serially connected subfields, participates in diverse behavioral and cognitive functions. It has been postulated that parallel circuitry embedded within hippocampal subfields may underlie such functional diversity. We sought to identify, delineate, and manipulate this putatively parallel architecture in the dorsal subiculum, the primary output subfield of the dorsal hippocampus. Population and single-cell RNA-seq revealed that the subiculum can be divided into two spatially adjacent subregions associated with prominent differences in pyramidal cell gene expression...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670825/thalamic-functional-connectivity-and-its-association-with-behavioral-performance-in-older-age
#19
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Joanne R Hale, Rebecca S Wilson, Andrew P Bagshaw
Introduction: Despite the thalamus' dense connectivity with both cortical and subcortical structures, few studies have specifically investigated how thalamic connectivity changes with age and how such changes are associated with behavior. This study investigated the effect of age on thalamo-cortical and thalamo-hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the association between thalamic FC and visual-spatial memory and reaction time (RT) performance in older adults. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from younger ( n  = 20) and older ( n  = 20) adults...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670138/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-and-parietal-cortical-contributions-to-real-world-autobiographical-episodic-and-autobiographical-semantic-memory
#20
Thackery I Brown, Jesse Rissman, Tiffany E Chow, Melina R Uncapher, Anthony D Wagner
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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