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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670825/thalamic-functional-connectivity-and-its-association-with-behavioral-performance-in-older-age
#1
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Joanne R Hale, Rebecca S Wilson, Andrew P Bagshaw
Introduction: Despite the thalamus' dense connectivity with both cortical and subcortical structures, few studies have specifically investigated how thalamic connectivity changes with age and how such changes are associated with behavior. This study investigated the effect of age on thalamo-cortical and thalamo-hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) and the association between thalamic FC and visual-spatial memory and reaction time (RT) performance in older adults. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from younger ( n  = 20) and older ( n  = 20) adults...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670138/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-and-parietal-cortical-contributions-to-real-world-autobiographical-episodic-and-autobiographical-semantic-memory
#2
Thackery I Brown, Jesse Rissman, Tiffany E Chow, Melina R Uncapher, Anthony D Wagner
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649304/sedentary-behavior-associated-with-reduced-medial-temporal-lobe-thickness-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#3
Prabha Siddarth, Alison C Burggren, Harris A Eyre, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
Atrophy of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) occurs with aging, resulting in impaired episodic memory. Aerobic fitness is positively correlated with total hippocampal volume, a heavily studied memory-critical region within the MTL. However, research on associations between sedentary behavior and MTL subregion integrity is limited. Here we explore associations between thickness of the MTL and its subregions (namely CA1, CA23DG, fusiform gyrus, subiculum, parahippocampal, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex,), physical activity, and sedentary behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614654/automated-multi-atlas-segmentation-of-hippocampal-and-extrahippocampal-subregions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-at-3t-and-7t-what-atlas-composition-works-best
#4
Long Xie, Russell T Shinohara, Ranjit Ittyerah, Hugo J Kuijf, John B Pluta, Kim Blom, Mirjam Kooistra, Yael D Reijmer, Huiberdina L Koek, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Hongzhi Wang, Peter R Luijten, Mirjam I Geerlings, Sandhitsu R Das, Geert Jan Biessels, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich, Laura E M Wisse
BACKGROUND: Multi-atlas segmentation, a popular technique implemented in the Automated Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) software, utilizes multiple expert-labelled images ("atlases") to delineate medial temporal lobe substructures. This multi-atlas method is increasingly being employed in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and is therefore becoming important to know how the construction of the atlas set in terms of proportions of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or AD affects segmentation accuracy...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610762/hippocampal-pathophysiology-commonality-shared-by-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Soichiro Nakahara, Megumi Adachi, Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Katsunori Tajinda, Theo G M van Erp
Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606418/ventral-hippocampal-ca1-and-ca3-differentially-mediate-learned-approach-avoidance-conflict-processing
#6
Anett Schumacher, Franz R Villaruel, Alicia Ussling, Sadia Riaz, Andy C H Lee, Rutsuko Ito
Approach-avoidance conflict arises when an animal encounters a stimulus that is associated simultaneously with positive and negative valences [1]. The effective resolution of approach-avoidance conflict is critical for survival and is believed to go awry in a number of mental disorders, such as anxiety and addiction. An accumulation of evidence from both rodents and humans suggests that the ventral hippocampus (anterior in humans) plays a key role in approach-avoidance conflict processing [2-8], with one influential model proposing that this structure modulates behavioral inhibition in the face of conflicting goals by increasing the influence of negative valences [9]...
March 28, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597156/longitudinal-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#7
Christian K Tamnes, Marieke G N Bos, Ferdi C van de Kamp, Sabine Peters, Eveline A Crone
Detailed descriptions of the development of the hippocampus promise to shed light on the neural foundation of development of memory and other cognitive functions, as well as the emergence of major mental disorders. Hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure with a well characterized internal complexity, but development of its distinct subregions in humans has remained poorly described. We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a large longitudinal sample (270 participants, 678 scans) using an automated segmentation tool and mixed models to delineate the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from childhood to adulthood...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596899/proteomic-characterization-of-hippocampus-of-chronically-socially-isolated-rats-treated-with-fluoxetine-depression-like-behaviour-and-fluoxetine-mechanism-of-action
#8
Ivana Perić, Victor Costina, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Peter Findeisen, Dragana Filipović
Due to the severity of depressive symptoms, there remains a necessity in defining the underlying mechanisms of depression and the precise actions of antidepressants in alleviating these symptoms. Proteomics is a powerful and promising tool for discovering novel pathways of cellular responses to disease and treatment. As chronic social isolation (CSIS) is a valuable animal model for studying depression, we performed a comparative subproteomic study of rat hippocampus to explore the effect of six weeks of CSIS and the therapeutic effect of chronic fluoxetine (Flx) treatment (last three weeks of CSIS; 15 mg/kg/day)...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593510/chronic-stress-alters-behavior-in-the-forced-swim-test-and-underlying-neural-activity-in-animals-exposed-to-alcohol-prenatally-sex-and-time-dependent-effects
#9
Vivian Y Y Lam, Charlis Raineki, Lily E Takeuchi, Linda Ellis, Todd S Woodward, Joanne Weinberg
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response has been suggested to play a role in vulnerability to stress-related disorders, such as depression. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may result in HPA dysregulation, which in turn may predispose individuals to the effects of stress exposure throughout life, and increase their risk of developing depression compared to unexposed individuals. We examined the immediate and delayed effects of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in adulthood on behavior of PAE animals in the forced swim test (FST) and the neurocircuitry underlying behavioral, emotional, and stress regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592955/characterizing-the-human-hippocampus-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-computational-atlas-derived-from-ex-vivo-mri-and-histology
#10
Daniel H Adler, Laura E M Wisse, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, Song-Lin Ding, Long Xie, Jiancong Wang, Salmon Kadivar, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Michael I Miller, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
Although the hippocampus is one of the most studied structures in the human brain, limited quantitative data exist on its 3D organization, anatomical variability, and effects of disease on its subregions. Histological studies provide restricted reference information due to their 2D nature. In this paper, high-resolution (∼200 × 200 × 200 μm3 ) ex vivo MRI scans of 31 human hippocampal specimens are combined using a groupwise diffeomorphic registration approach into a 3D probabilistic atlas that captures average anatomy and anatomic variability of hippocampal subfields...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588221/a-brief-period-of-sleep-deprivation-causes-spine-loss-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-mice
#11
Frank Raven, Peter Meerlo, Eddy A Van der Zee, Ted Abel, Robbert Havekes
Sleep and sleep loss have a profound impact on hippocampal function, leading to memory impairments. Modifications in the strength of synaptic connections directly influences neuronal communication, which is vital for normal brain function, as well as the processing and storage of information. In a recently published study, we found that as little as five hours of sleep deprivation impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation, which was accompanied by a reduction in dendritic spine numbers in hippocampal area CA1...
March 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#12
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562190/subregion-specific-proteomic-signature-in-the-hippocampus-for-recognition-processes-in-adult-mice
#13
Lukas M von Ziegler, Nathalie Selevsek, Ry Y Tweedie-Cullen, Eloïse Kremer, Isabelle M Mansuy
The hippocampal formation is a brain structure essential for higher-order cognitive functions. It has a complex anatomical organization and cellular composition, and hippocampal subregions have different properties and functional roles. In this study, we used SWATH-MS to determine whether the proteomes of hippocampus areas CA1 and CA3 can explain the commonalities or specificities of these subregions in basal conditions and after recognition memory. We show that the proteomes of areas CA1 and CA3 are largely different in basal conditions and that differential changes and dynamics in protein expression are induced in these areas after recognition of an object or object location...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535044/hippocampal-representations-as-a-function-of-time-subregion-and-brain-state
#14
Katherine D Duncan, Margaret L Schlichting
How does the hippocampus represent interrelated experiences in memory? We review prominent yet seemingly contradictory theoretical perspectives, which propose that the hippocampus distorts experiential representations to either emphasize their distinctiveness or highlight common elements. These fundamentally different kinds of memory representations may be instantiated in the brain via conjunctive separated codes and adaptively differentiated codes on the one hand, or integrated relational codes on the other...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518573/protracted-hippocampal-development-is-associated-with-age-related-improvements-in-memory-during-early-childhood
#15
Tracy Riggins, Fengji Geng, Morgan Botdorf, Kelsey Canada, Lisa Cox, Gregory R Hancock
The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for memory. Previous studies have shown that age-related differences in specialization along the longitudinal axis of this structure (i.e., subregions) and within its internal circuitry (i.e., subfields) relate to age-related improvements in memory in school-age children and adults. However, the influence of age on hippocampal development and its relations with memory ability earlier in life remains under-investigated. This study examined effects of age and sex on hippocampal subregion (i...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507311/voxel-wise-comparisons-of-cellular-microstructure-and-diffusion-mri-in-mouse-hippocampus-using-3d-bridging-of-optically-clear-histology-with-neuroimaging-data-3d-bond
#16
H B Stolp, G Ball, P-W So, J-D Tournier, M Jones, C Thornton, A D Edwards
A key challenge in medical imaging is determining a precise correspondence between image properties and tissue microstructure. This comparison is hindered by disparate scales and resolutions between medical imaging and histology. We present a new technique, 3D Bridging of Optically-clear histology with Neuroimaging Data (3D-BOND), for registering medical images with 3D histology to overcome these limitations. Ex vivo 120 × 120 × 200 μm resolution diffusion-MRI (dMRI) data was acquired at 7 T from adult C57Bl/6 mouse hippocampus...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501525/hippocampal-plasticity-mechanisms-mediating-experience-dependent-learning-change-over-time
#17
Ana Paula Crestani, Rodrigo Ordoñez Sierra, Adriano Machado, Josué Haubrich, Krislei Martin Scienza, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Jorge Alberto Quillfeldt
The requirement of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity for memory formation is well described. However, the plasticity mechanisms for memory can be modified by experience, such that a future similar learning becomes independent of NMDARs. This effect has often been reported in learning events conducted with a few days interval. In this work, we asked whether the NMDAR-independency is permanent or the brain regions and plasticity mechanisms of experience-dependent learning may change over time. Considering that contextual memories undergo a gradual reorganization over time, becoming progressively independent from the hippocampus and dependent upon cortical regions, we investigated the brain regions mediating a new related learning conducted at a remote time-point, when the first memory was already cortically established...
February 28, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471549/glutamate-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice-display-schizophrenia-like-behavioral-abnormalities-and-ca1-specific-hippocampal-dysfunction
#18
Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#19
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466043/neuropathologic-features-of-the-hippocampus-and-amygdala-in-cats-with-familial-spontaneous-epilepsy
#20
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Masaya Tsuboi, James Ken Chambers, Michio Fujita, Kazuyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE To investigate epilepsy-related neuropathologic changes in cats of a familial spontaneous epileptic strain (ie, familial spontaneous epileptic cats [FSECs]). ANIMALS 6 FSECs, 9 age-matched unrelated healthy control cats, and 2 nonaffected (without clinical seizures)dams and 1 nonaffected sire of FSECs. PROCEDURES Immunohistochemical analyses were used to evaluate hippocampal sclerosis, amygdaloid sclerosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and granule cell pathological changes. Values were compared between FSECs and control cats...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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