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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471549/glutamate-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice-display-schizophrenia-like-behavioral-abnormalities-and-ca1-specific-hippocampal-dysfunction
#1
Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#2
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466043/neuropathologic-features-of-the-hippocampus-and-amygdala-in-cats-with-familial-spontaneous-epilepsy
#3
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Masaya Tsuboi, James Ken Chambers, Michio Fujita, Kazuyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE To investigate epilepsy-related neuropathologic changes in cats of a familial spontaneous epileptic strain (ie, familial spontaneous epileptic cats [FSECs]). ANIMALS 6 FSECs, 9 age-matched unrelated healthy control cats, and 2 nonaffected (without clinical seizures)dams and 1 nonaffected sire of FSECs. PROCEDURES Immunohistochemical analyses were used to evaluate hippocampal sclerosis, amygdaloid sclerosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and granule cell pathological changes. Values were compared between FSECs and control cats...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463730/long-term-potentiation-expands-information-content-of-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-synapses
#4
Cailey Bromer, Thomas M Bartol, Jared B Bowden, Dusten D Hubbard, Dakota C Hanka, Paola V Gonzalez, Masaaki Kuwajima, John M Mendenhall, Patrick H Parker, Wickliffe C Abraham, Terrence J Sejnowski, Kristen M Harris
An approach combining signal detection theory and precise 3D reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy (3DEM) was used to investigate synaptic plasticity and information storage capacity at medial perforant path synapses in adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in vivo. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) markedly increased the frequencies of both small and large spines measured 30 minutes later. This bidirectional expansion resulted in heterosynaptic counterbalancing of total synaptic area per unit length of granule cell dendrite...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462702/cell-type-specific-intrinsic-perithreshold-oscillations-in-hippocampal-gabaergic-interneurons
#5
Young-Jin Kang, Hannah Elisabeth Smashey Lewis, Mason William Young, Gubbi Govindaiah, Lazar John Greenfield, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Sang-Hun Lee
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning, memory, and spatial processing through coordinated network activity including theta and gamma oscillations. Recent evidence suggests that hippocampal subregions (e.g., CA1) can generate these oscillations at the network level, at least in part, through GABAergic interneurons. However, it is unclear whether specific GABAergic interneurons generate intrinsic theta and/or gamma oscillations at the single cell level. Since major types of CA1 interneurons (i.e., parvalbumin-positive basket cells (PVBCs), cannabinoid type 1 receptor-positive basket cells (CB1 BCs), Schaffer collateral-associated cells (SCAs), neurogliaform cells and ivy cells) are thought to play key roles in network theta and gamma oscillations in the hippocampus, we tested the hypothesis that these cells generate intrinsic perithreshold oscillations at the single cell level...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410048/a-daily-single-dose-of-a-novel-modafinil-analogue-ce-123-improves-memory-acquisition-and-memory-retrieval
#6
Martina Kristofova, Yogesh D Aher, Marija Ilic, Bojana Radoman, Predrag Kalaba, Vladimir Dragacevic, Nilima Y Aher, Johann Leban, Volker Korz, Lisa Zanon, Winfried Neuhaus, Marcus Wieder, Thierry Langer, Ernst Urban, Harald H Sitte, Harald Hoeger, Gert Lubec, Jana Aradska
Dopamine reuptake inhibitors have been shown to improve cognitive parameters in various tasks and animal models. We recently reported a series of modafinil analogues, of which the most promising, 5-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl) thiazole (CE-123), was selected for further development. The present study aims to characterize pharmacological properties of CE-123 and to investigate the potential to enhance memory performance in a rat model. In vitro transporter assays were performed in cells expressing human transporters...
February 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404409/the-influence-of-dat1-comt-and-bdnf-genetic-polymorphisms-on-total-and-subregional-hippocampal-volumes-in-early-onset-heavy-cannabis-users
#7
Albert Batalla, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yann Chye, Murat Yücel, Carles Soriano-Mas, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Marta Torrens, José A S Crippa, Rocío Martín-Santos
Introduction: Hippocampal neuroanatomy is affected by genetic variations in dopaminergic candidate genes and environmental insults, such as early onset of chronic cannabis exposure. Here, we examine how hippocampal total and subregional volumes are affected by cannabis use and functional polymorphisms of dopamine-relevant genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine transporter (DAT1), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes. Material and Methods: We manually traced total hippocampal volumes and automatically segmented hippocampal subregions using high-resolution MRI images, and performed COMT, DAT1, and BDNF genotyping in 59 male Caucasian young adults aged 18-30 years...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397273/anxiety-cells-in-a-hippocampal-hypothalamic-circuit
#8
Jessica C Jimenez, Katy Su, Alexander R Goldberg, Victor M Luna, Jeremy S Biane, Gokhan Ordek, Pengcheng Zhou, Samantha K Ong, Matthew A Wright, Larry Zweifel, Liam Paninski, René Hen, Mazen A Kheirbek
The hippocampus is traditionally thought to transmit contextual information to limbic structures where it acquires valence. Using freely moving calcium imaging and optogenetics, we show that while the dorsal CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in place cells, ventral CA1 (vCA1) is enriched in anxiety cells that are activated by anxiogenic environments and required for avoidance behavior. Imaging cells defined by their projection target revealed that anxiety cells were enriched in the vCA1 population projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) but not to the basal amygdala (BA)...
January 30, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378218/ensemble-support-vector-machine-classification-of-dementia-using-structural-mri-and-mini-mental-state-examination
#9
Lauge Sørensen, Mads Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The International Challenge for Automated Prediction of MCI from MRI Data offered independent, standardized comparison of machine learning algorithms for multi-class classification of normal control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), converting MCI (cMCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain imaging and general cognition. NEW METHOD: We proposed to use an ensemble of support vector machines (SVMs) that combined bagging without replacement and feature selection...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372037/neuroprotective-effect-of-berberine-chloride-on-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-damage-in-experimental-model-of-vascular-dementia
#10
Mahila Lotfi Aski, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Mehdi Khaksari, Zeynab Hafizi, Zeynab Pirmoradi, Somayeh Niknazar, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjerdi
Objectives: The major objective of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of berberine chloride on vascular dementia. Berberine, as an ancient medicine in China and India, is the main active component derived from the Berberis sp. Several studies have revealed the beneficial effects of berberine in various neurodegenerative disorders. Materials and Methods: To induce vascular dementia, chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion was performed on male Wistar rats...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355945/essential-role-of-hippocampal-noradrenaline-in-the-regulation-of-spatial-working-memory-and-tdp-43-tissue-pathology
#11
Roberta Pintus, Margherita Riggi, Cecilia Cannarozzo, Andrea Valeri, Gioacchino de Leo, Maurizio Romano, Rosario Gulino, Giampiero Leanza
Extensive loss of noradrenaline-containing neurons and fibers is a nearly invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the exact noradrenergic contribution to cognitive and histopathological changes in AD is still unclear. Here, this issue was addressed following selective lesioning and intrahippocampal implantation of embryonic noradrenergic progenitors in developing rats. Starting from about 3 months and up to 12 months post-surgery, animals underwent behavioural tests to evaluate sensory-motor, as well as spatial learning and memory, followed by post-mortem morphometric analyses...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350438/astrocytic-glutamine-synthetase-is-expressed-in-the-neuronal-somatic-layers-and-down-regulated-proportionally-to-neuronal-loss-in-the-human-epileptic-hippocampus
#12
Ismini E Papageorgiou, Nektarios A Valous, Bernd Lahrmann, Hana Janova, Zin-Juan Klaft, Arend Koch, Ulf C Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy, Frank L Heppner, Niels Grabe, Niels Halama, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Kann
Human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) features subregion-specific hippocampal neurodegeneration and reactive astrogliosis, including up-regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase (GS). However, the regional astrocytic expression pattern of GFAP and GS upon MTLE-associated neurodegeneration still remains elusive. We assessed GFAP and GS expression in strict correlation with the local neuronal number in cortical and hippocampal surgical specimens from 16 MTLE patients using immunohistochemistry, stereology and high-resolution image analysis for digital pathology and whole-slide imaging...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344864/laser-capture-microdissection-in-traumatic-brain-injury-research-obtaining-hippocampal-subregions-and-pools-of-injured-neurons-for-genomic-analyses
#13
Deborah R Boone, Harris A Weisz, Stacy L Sell, Helen L Hellmich
The methods presented here are based on our laboratory's 15 years of experience using laser capture microdissection to obtain samples for the study of gene expression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a well-established rat model of experimental TBI. Here, we describe how to use the ArcturusXT laser capture microdissection system to capture swaths of specific regions of the rat hippocampus as well as specific neuronal populations defined by Fluoro-Jade C staining. Staining with Fluoro-Jade C identifies a neuron that is in the process of degeneration...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#14
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340757/comparing-brain-activity-patterns-during-spontaneous-exploratory-and-cue-instructed-learning-using-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-freely-behaving-rats
#15
A Mannewitz, J Bock, S Kreitz, A Hess, J Goldschmidt, H Scheich, Katharina Braun
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities...
January 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312826/heteroassociative-storage-of-hippocampal-pattern-sequences-in-the-ca3-subregion
#16
Raphael Y de Camargo, Renan S Recio, Marcelo B Reyes
Background: Recent research suggests that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus has properties of both autoassociative network, due to its ability to complete partial cues, tolerate noise, and store associations between memories, and heteroassociative one, due to its ability to store and retrieve sequences of patterns. Although there are several computational models of the CA3 as an autoassociative network, more detailed evaluations of its heteroassociative properties are missing. Methods: We developed a model of the CA3 subregion containing 10,000 integrate-and-fire neurons with both recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections, and which exhibits coupled oscillations in the gamma and theta ranges...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299377/memory-and-the-hippocampal-formation-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Dana DeMaster, Chad Johnson, Jenifer Juranek, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
Introduction: Previous research indicates disruption of learning and memory in children who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: This research evaluates the impact of pediatric TBI on volumetric differences along the long axis of the hippocampus, a region of the brain that is critical for explicit memory. Methods: Structural brain data and behavioral measures were collected 6 weeks following TBI or extracranial injury (EI), in children aged 8-15 years and from a group of age matched typically developing controls (TDC)...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286444/generalized-psychophysiological-interaction-ppi-analysis-of-memory-related-connectivity-in-individuals-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Theresa M Harrison, Donald G McLaren, Teena D Moody, Jamie D Feusner, Susan Y Bookheimer
In neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in the brain. The degree of correlation of the BOLD signal in spatially independent regions of the brain defines the functional connectivity of those regions. During a cognitive fMRI task, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis can be used to examine changes in the functional connectivity during specific contexts defined by the cognitive task. An example of such a task is one that engages the memory system, asking participants to learn pairs of unrelated words (encoding) and recall the second word in a pair when presented with the first word (retrieval)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286168/age%C3%A2-dependent-alteration-in-the-expression-of-oligodendrocyte%C3%A2-specific-protein-in-the-gerbil-hippocampus
#19
Hyang-Ah Lee, Joon Ha Park, Dae Won Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Hyeyoung Kim, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Yoohun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Oligodendrocytes are myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system. Research into the effects of aging on oligodendrocyte protein expression remains limited. The present study aimed to determine the alterations in oligodendrocyte‑specific protein (OSP) expression in the gerbil hippocampus at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 months of age with western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. OSP expression levels in the hippocampus were highest at 6 months of age. OSP immunoreactivity was identified in numerous cell bodies at 1 month, although the number of OSP immunoreactive cells was different according to hippocampal subregion...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279051/early-gestational-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-persistent-cell-loss-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-adult-male-rats
#20
Arvind Palanisamy, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
BACKGROUND: Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. FINDINGS: Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions...
December 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
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