keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Hippocampal subregion

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449268/ventral-but-not-dorsal-hippocampus-inactivation-impairs-reward-memory-expression-and-retrieval-in-contexts-defined-by-proximal-cues
#1
Sadia Riaz, Anett Schumacher, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Matthijs Van Der Meer, Rutsuko Ito
The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively-motivated tasks...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#2
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424833/cannabis-related-hippocampal-volumetric-abnormalities-specific-to-subregions-in-dependent-users
#3
Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Lauren den Ouden, Nadia Solowij, Valentina Lorenzetti
RATIONALE: Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence...
April 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419566/perirhinal-accumulation-of-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-a-multiple-system-atrophy-patient-with-dementia
#4
Mari Saito, Makoto Hara, Momoko Ebashi, Akihiko Morita, Kyoko Okada, Taku Homma, Masahiko Sugitani, Kentaro Endo, Toshiki Uchihara, Satoshi Kamei
We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited...
April 16, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413642/ginsenoside-rd-as-a-potential-neuroprotective-agent-prevents-trimethyltin-injury
#5
Jingang Hou, Jianjie Xue, Mira Lee, Changkeun Sung
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant that affects various regions within the central nervous system, including the neocortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus. In the present study, ginsenoside Rd was investigated as a candidate neuroprotective agent in a primary hippocampal neuron culture and mouse models. TMT induced neurotoxicity in a seven-day primary hippocampal neuron culture in a dose-dependent manner (2.5-10 µM). However, pre-treatment with 20 µg/ml ginsenoside Rd for 24 h reversed the toxic action...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#6
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392296/anxious-behavior-induces-elevated-hippocampal-cb2-receptor-gene-expression
#7
James M Robertson, Justin K Achua, Justin P Smith, Melissa A Prince, Clarissa D Staton, Patrick J Ronan, Tangi R Summers, Cliff H Summers
Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress...
April 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384498/interaction-between-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-ca1-area-is-essential-for-episodic-like-memory-in-rats
#8
Owen Y Chao, Susanne Nikolaus, Marcus Lira Brandão, Joseph P Huston, Maria A de Souza Silva
The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when)...
April 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351449/aberrant-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-and-its-relationships-with-neurocognitive-features-in-cognitively-normal-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B5-4-elderly-carriers
#9
Hanna Lu, Suk Ling Ma, Savio Wai Ho Wong, Cindy W C Tam, Sheung-Tak Cheng, Sandra S M Chan, Linda C W Lam
BACKGROUND: Default mode network (DMN) is vulnerable to the effects of APOE genotype. Given the reduced brain volumes and APOE ε 4-related brain changes in elderly carriers, it is less known that whether these changes would influence the functional connectivity and to what extent. This study aimed to examine the functional connectivity within DMN, and its diagnostic value with age-related morphometric alterations considered. METHODS: Whole brain and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis were conducted in cognitively normal APOE ε 4 carriers and matched non-carriers (N=38)...
May 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337287/memri-is-a-biomarker-defining-nicotine-specific-neuronal-responses-in-subregions-of-the-rodent-brain
#10
Aditya N Bade, Howard E Gendelman, Michael D Boska, Yutong Liu
Nicotine dependence is defined by dopaminergic neuronal activation within the nucleus accumbens (ACB) and by affected neural projections from nicotine-stimulated neurons. Control of any subsequent neural activities would underpin any smoking cessation strategy. While extensive efforts have been made to study the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction, more limited works were developed to find imaging biomarkers. If such biomarkers are made available, addictive behaviors could be monitored noninvasively. To such ends, we employed manganese (Mn(2+))-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to determine whether it could be used to monitor neuronal activities after acute and chronic nicotine exposure in rats...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288855/alterations-in-prefrontal-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-assessed-using-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Vicente Molina, Alba Lubeiro, Oscar Soto, Margarita Rodriguez, Aldara Álvarez, Rebeca Hernández, Rodrigo de Luis-García
BACKGROUND: Spatial and biological characteristics of structural frontal disconnectivity in schizophrenia remain incompletely understood. Simultaneous streamline count (SC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) analyses may yield relevant complementary information to this end. METHODS: Using 3T diffusion magnetic resonance imaging both SC and FA were calculated for the tracts linking lateral and medial subregions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) to cingulate, hippocampus, caudate and thalamus in 27 schizophrenia patients (14 first-episodes) and 27 controls...
March 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284897/dietary-restriction-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-granule-cell-neuron-density-without-affecting-the-density-of-mossy-fibers
#12
Miranda C Staples, McKenzie J Fannon, Karthik K Mysore, Rahul R Dutta, Alexandria T Ongjoco, Leon W Quach, Khush M Kharidia, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
The hippocampal formation undergoes significant morphological and functional changes after prolonged caloric and dietary restriction (DR). In this study we tested whether prolonged DR results in deleterious alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, density of granule cell neurons and mossy fibers, all of which support plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Young adult animals either experienced free access to food (control condition), or every-other-day feeding regimen (DR condition) for 3months. The number of Ki-67 cells and 28-day old 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cells were quantified in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus to determine the effect of DR on cellular proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells in the anatomically defined regions of the dentate gyrus...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271403/combination-treatment-with-methylene-blue-and-hypothermia-in-global-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Lei Li, Rongli Yang, Pingjing Li, Hailong Lu, Jingbo Hao, Liyan Li, Donovan Tucker, Quanguang Zhang
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most potent therapeutic strategy for global cerebral ischemia (GCI), usually induced by cardiac arrest. TH has been shown both to suppress the delayed neuronal cell death in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion and to improve neurological outcomes in experimental animals after GCI. However, given the multiple adverse effects resulting from TH, application of such a therapy is typically limited. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has emerged as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269623/a-framework-for-informing-segmentation-of-in-vivo-mri-with-information-derived-from-ex-vivo-imaging-application-in-the-medial-temporal-lobe
#14
Paul A Yushkevich, Laura Wisse, Daniel Adler, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk
Automatic segmentation of cortical and subcortical structures is commonplace in brain MRI literature and is frequently used as the first step towards quantitative analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging. Most approaches to brain structure segmentation are based on propagation of anatomical information from example MRI datasets, called atlases or templates, that are manually labeled by experts. The accuracy of automatic segmentation is usually validated against the "bronze" standard of manual segmentation of test MRI datasets...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269165/principal-component-analysis-of-the-shape-deformations-of-the-hippocampus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu
In this paper, we present the principal component analysis (PCA) of shape deformations of bilateral hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as derived in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping setting. We investigated the PCA patterns (the scores and loadings) of the bilateral hippocampi for 51 subjects, 28 of which had AD while 23 were normal aging. Student's t-tests were used to select the components displaying significant group difference for a more purposed analysis. Our findings revealed that the head part of the hippocampus in each hemisphere, to be specific the CA1 and subiculum subregions, contributed the most to the significant group differences...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268901/a-flexible-parylene-probe-for-in-vivo-recordings-from-multiple-subregions-of-the-rat-hippocampus
#16
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Min-Chi Hsiao, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
The hippocampus is crucial to the formation of long-term memory and declarative memory. It is divided into three sub-fields the CA1, the CA3 and the DG. To understand the neuronal circuitry within the hippocampus and to study the role of the hippocampus in memory function requires the collection of neural activities from multiple subregions of the hippocampus simultaneously. Micro-wire electrode arrays are commonly used as an interface with neural systems. However, recording from multiple deep brain regions with curved anatomical structures such as the thin cell body layers of the hippocampus requires the micro-wires to be arranged into a highly accurate, complex layout that is difficult to fabricated manually...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243162/segregated-cell-populations-enable-distinct-parallel-encoding-within-the-radial-axis-of-the-ca1-pyramidal-layer
#17
REVIEW
Tristan Geiller, Sebastien Royer, June-Seek Choi
Numerous studies have implicated the hippocampus in the encoding and storage of declarative and spatial memories. Several models have considered the hippocampus and its distinct subfields to contain homogeneous pyramidal cell populations. Yet, recent studies have led to a consensus that the dorso-ventral and proximo-distal axes have different connectivities and physiologies. The remaining deep-superficial axis of the pyramidal layer, however, remains relatively unexplored due to a lack of techniques that can record from neurons simultaneously at different depths...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239518/childhood-maltreatment-psychopathology-and-the-development-of-hippocampal-subregions-during-adolescence
#18
Sarah Whittle, Julian G Simmons, Sylke Hendriksma, Nandita Vijayakumar, Michelle L Byrne, Meg Dennison, Nicholas B Allen
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230177/storage-of-passive-motion-pattern-in-hippocampal-ca1-region-depends-on-camkii-creb-signaling-pathway-in-a-motion-sickness-rodent-model
#19
Junqin Wang, Jiluo Liu, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Wei Zhou, Yiling Cai
Sensory mismatch between actual motion information and anticipated sensory patterns (internal model) is the etiology of motion sickness (MS). Some evidence supports that hippocampus might involve the neural storage of the "internal model". This study established an "internal model" acquisition-retention behavioral model using a repeated habituation rotation training protocol. We tried to identify the hippocampal subregion involved in "internal model" retention using chemical lesion methods. Hippocampal kinases (CaMK, CaMKIV, CREB and ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the target subregion was assayed and the effects of kinase inhibitors (KN93 or U0126) on "internal model" retention were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227881/a-framework-for-informing-segmentation-of-in-vivo-mri-with-information-derived-from-ex-vivo-imaging-application-in-the-medial-temporal-lobe
#20
Paul A Yushkevich, Laura Wisse, Daniel Adler, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich, Laura Wisse, Daniel Adler, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, John L Robinson, Jon B Toledo, Stephen Pickup, Weixia Liu, Paul A Yushkevich, Daniel Adler, John Q Trojanowski, Theresa Schuck, David A Wolk, Laura Wisse, Mark A Elliott, Sandhitsu R Das, John A Detre, John B Pluta, Ranjit Ittyerah, Murray Grossman
Automatic segmentation of cortical and subcortical structures is commonplace in brain MRI literature and is frequently used as the first step towards quantitative analysis of structural and functional neuroimaging. Most approaches to brain structure segmentation are based on propagation of anatomical information from example MRI datasets, called atlases or templates, that are manually labeled by experts. The accuracy of automatic segmentation is usually validated against the "bronze" standard of manual segmentation of test MRI datasets...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
keyword
keyword
91855
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"