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Hippocampal subregion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907826/extent-of-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-patients-with-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-correlates-with-neuronal-cell-loss-and-granule-cell-dispersion
#1
Barbara Schmeiser, Josef Zentner, Marco Prinz, Armin Brandt, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: The most frequent finding in temporal lobe epilepsy is hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by selective cell loss of hippocampal subregions CA1 and CA4 as well as mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) towards the supragranular region and granule cell dispersion. Although selective cell loss is well described, its impact on mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single center series, we examined 319 human hippocampal specimens, collected in a 15-years period...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896314/graph-theoretic-and-motif-analyses-of-the-hippocampal-neuron-type-potential-connectome
#2
Christopher L Rees, Diek W Wheeler, David J Hamilton, Charise M White, Alexander O Komendantov, Giorgio A Ascoli
We computed the potential connectivity map of all known neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation by supplementing scantly available synaptic data with spatial distributions of axons and dendrites from the open-access knowledge base Hippocampome.org. The network that results from this endeavor, the broadest and most complete for a mammalian cortical region at the neuron-type level to date, contains more than 3200 connections among 122 neuron types across six subregions. Analyses of these data using graph theory metrics unveil the fundamental architectural principles of the hippocampal circuit...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885550/neural-activity-patterns-underlying-spatial-coding-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Marielena Sosa, Anna K Gillespie, Loren M Frank
The hippocampus is well known as a central site for memory processing-critical for storing and later retrieving the experiences events of daily life so they can be used to shape future behavior. Much of what we know about the physiology underlying hippocampal function comes from spatial navigation studies in rodents, which have allowed great strides in understanding how the hippocampus represents experience at the cellular level. However, it remains a challenge to reconcile our knowledge of spatial encoding in the hippocampus with its demonstrated role in memory-dependent tasks in both humans and other animals...
November 25, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862600/a-harmonized-segmentation-protocol-for-hippocampal-and-parahippocampal-subregions-why-do-we-need-one-and-what-are-the-key-goals
#4
Laura E M Wisse, Ana M Daugherty, Rosanna K Olsen, David Berron, Valerie A Carr, Craig E L Stark, Robert S C Amaral, Katrin Amunts, Jean C Augustinack, Andrew R Bender, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Marina Boccardi, Martina Bocchetta, Alison Burggren, M Mallar Chakravarty, Marie Chupin, Arne Ekstrom, Robin de Flores, Ricardo Insausti, Prabesh Kanel, Olga Kedo, Kristen M Kennedy, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Karen F LaRocque, Xiuwen Liu, Anne Maass, Nicolai Malykhin, Susanne G Mueller, Noa Ofen, Daniela J Palombo, Mansi B Parekh, John B Pluta, Jens C Pruessner, Naftali Raz, Karen M Rodrigue, Dorothee Schoemaker, Andrea T Shafer, Trevor A Steve, Nanthia Suthana, Lei Wang, Julie L Winterburn, Michael A Yassa, Paul A Yushkevich, Renaud la Joie
The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI...
October 24, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862017/the-effects-of-ethanol-exposure-during-distinct-periods-of-brain-development-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#5
Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ryan Wortman, Athena Noonan, Eric McGinnis, Anna R Patten, Brian R Christie
BACKGROUND: The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development and impaired brain function in humans and experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol (EtOH), a variety of structural and functional brain deficits can be observed. METHODS: This study compared the effects of EtOH exposure during distinct periods of brain development on oxidative damage and endogenous antioxidant status in various brain regions of adult female and male Sprague Dawley rats...
November 11, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836336/medial-temporal-lobe-subregional-morphometry-using-high-resolution-mri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
David A Wolk, Sandhitsu R Das, Susanne G Mueller, Michael W Weiner, Paul A Yushkevich
Autopsy studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have found that neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) demonstrates selective topography with relatively stereotyped subregional involvement at early disease stages, prompting interest in more granular measurement of these structures with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. We applied a novel, automated method for measurement of hippocampal subfields and extrahippocampal MTL cortical regions. The cohort included cognitively normal (CN) adults (n = 86), early mild cognitive impairment (n = 43), late MCI (n = 22), and mild AD (n = 40) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
September 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829866/electroacupuncture-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-and-improves-synaptic-plasticity-via-activation-of-the-pka-creb-signaling-pathway-in-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#7
Cai-Xia Zheng, Min Lu, Ya-Bi Guo, Feng-Xia Zhang, Hua Liu, Feng Guo, Xiao-Lin Huang, Xiao-Hua Han
Electroacupuncture (EA) has shown protective effects on cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are ill-understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cognitive function was ameliorated in cerebral hypoperfusion rats following EA and to investigate the role of PKA/CREB pathway. We used a rat 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model and delivered EA at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints. Morris water maze (MWM) task, electrophysiological recording, Golgi silver stain, Nissl stain, Western blot, and real-time PCR were employed...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815416/s-ketamine-rapidly-reverses-synaptic-and-vascular-deficits-of-hippocampus-in-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#8
Maryam Ardalan, Gregers Wegener, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof-of-this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads to an increase in synaptogenesis and vascularization within 24 hours after a single injection in a genetic rat model of depression. METHODS: Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797832/the-organization-of-mouse-and-human-cortico-hippocampal-networks-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#9
Eyal Bergmann, Gil Zur, Guy Bershadsky, Itamar Kahn
While the hippocampal memory system has been relatively conserved across mammals, the cerebral cortex has undergone massive expansion. A central question in brain evolution is how cortical development affected the nature of cortical inputs to the hippocampus. To address this question, we compared cortico-hippocampal connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in awake mice and humans. We found that fcMRI recapitulates anatomical connectivity, demonstrating sensory mapping within the mouse parahippocampal region...
October 25, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786023/microstructural-integrity-of-hippocampal-subregions-is-impaired-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Sandra E Leh, Clemens Schroeder, Jen-Kai Chen, M Mallar Chakravarty, Min Tae M Park, Bob Cheung, Sonja C Huntgeburth, Nadia Gosselin, Christoph Hock, Alain Ptito, Michael Petrides
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a large number of individuals and diffusion tensor imaging can be used to investigate microstructural integrity of brain tissue after mTBI. However, results have varied considerably between studies and gray matter (GM) integrity has been largely neglected in these investigations. Given impaired working memory processing after mTBI and its possible association with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated hippocampal integrity and parcellated this structure into five subregions: subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA 2/3, CA 4/dentate gyrus, and stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759049/regional-specific-effect-of-fluoxetine-on-rapidly-dividing-progenitors-along-the-dorsoventral-axis-of-the-hippocampus
#11
Qi-Gang Zhou, Daehoon Lee, Eun Jeoung Ro, Hoonkyo Suh
Hippocampus-dependent cognitive and emotional function appears to be regionally dissociated along the dorsoventral (DV) axis of the hippocampus. Recent observations that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in both cognition and emotion raised an interesting question whether adult neurogenesis within specific subregions of the hippocampus contributes to these distinct functions. We examined the regional-specific and cell type-specific effects of fluoxetine, which requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis to function as an antidepressant, on the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699079/education-and-genetic-risk-modulate-hippocampal-structure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Johanna Baumgaertel, Robert Haussmann, Antonia Gruschwitz, Annett Werner, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Genetic and environmental protective factors and risks modulate brain structure and function in neurodegenerative diseases and their preclinical stages. We wanted to investigate whether the years of formal education, a proxy measure for cognitive reserve, would influence hippocampal structure in Alzheimer's disease patients, and whether apolipoprotein Eε4 (APOE4) carrier status and a first-degree family history of the disease would change a possible association. Fifty-eight Alzheimer's disease patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688937/the-anterior-versus-posterior-hippocampal-oscillations-debate-in-human-spatial-navigation-evidence-from-an-electrocorticographic-case-study
#13
Isabel C Duarte, João Castelhano, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
INTRODUCTION: Hippocampal oscillations have been regularly described as playing a dominant role in spatial memory and navigation in rodents. In humans, the relative role of anterior versus posterior rhythms during navigational memory is not established. METHODS: Here, we tested this hypothesis using direct brain ECoG recordings in the anterior and posterior hippocampus of a patient, in a navigational task requiring spatial memory. We assessed multiple oscillatory bands during encoding and retrieval phases...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650887/spatial-coding-and-physiological-properties-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-cornu-ammonis-subregions
#14
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
It is well-established that the feed-forward connected main hippocampal areas, CA3, CA2, and CA1 work cooperatively during spatial navigation and memory. These areas are similar in terms of the prevalent types of neurons; however, they display different spatial coding and oscillatory dynamics. Understanding the temporal dynamics of these operations requires simultaneous recordings from these regions. However, simultaneous recordings from multiple regions and subregions in behaving animals have become possible only recently...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646656/hippocampal-shape-alterations-are-associated-with-regional-a%C3%AE-load-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-individuals
#15
Clemens Schroeder, Min Tae M Park, Jürgen Germann, M Mallar Chakravarty, Lars Michels, Spyros Kollias, Sara L Kroll, Alfred Buck, Valerie Treyer, Egemen Savaskan, Paul G Unschuld, Roger M Nitsch, Andrea M Kälin, Christoph Hock, Anton F Gietl, Sandra E Leh
Aβ deposition is a driving force of Alzheimer's disease pathology and can be detected early by amyloid positron emission tomography. Identifying presymptomatic structural brain changes associated with Aβ deposition might lead to a better understanding of its consequences and provide early diagnostic information. In this respect we analyzed measures of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes along with hippocampal, thalamic and striatal shape and surface area by applying novel analysis strategies for structural magnetic resonance imaging...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633561/the-olfactory-bulbectomized-rat-as-a-model-of-depression-the-hippocampal-pathway
#16
J C Morales-Medina, T Iannitti, A Freeman, H K Caldwell
In rodents, the removal of the olfactory bulbs (OB), i.e. olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), results in numerous alterations in neurotransmitter, endocrine and immunologic systems, as well as behavioral changes, similar to those observed in depressed patients. Because the behavioral deficits induced in OBX animals are reversed after repeated administration of antidepressants, this is a model often used to test the effectiveness of putative antidepressant agents. Recent evidence suggests that OBX results in the dysfunction of various cellular processes within the hippocampus, including decrease in dentate gyrus neurogenesis, disruption in long term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and CA3 subregions and neuronal atrophy in the CA1 subregion, along with downstream markers, all of which are consistent with abnormal neuronal activity in the hippocampus of clinically depressed populations...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614947/enhanced-expression-of-immediate-early-genes-in-mouse-hippocampus-after-trimethyltin-treatment
#17
Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Juhwan Kim, Seongwook Yoon, Sung-Ho Kim, Changjong Moon
Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are transiently and rapidly activated in response to various cellular stimuli. IEGs mediate diverse functions during pathophysiologic events by regulating cellular signal transduction. We investigated the temporal expression of several IEGs, including c-fos, early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration. Mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/6) administered TMT (2.6mg/kg intraperitoneally) presented severe neurodegenerative lesions in the dentate gyrus (DG) and showed behavioral seizure activity on days 1-4 post-treatment, after which the lesions and behavior recovered spontaneously over time...
September 7, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607230/effect-of-hindlimb-unloading-on-stereological-parameters-of-the-motor-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-male-rats
#18
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah, Behnoosh Vasaghi-Gharamaleki, Mohammad Javad Zamiri
Hindlimb unloading (HU) can cause motion and cognition dysfunction, although its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the stereological parameters of the brain areas involved in motion (motor cortex) and spatial learning - memory (hippocampus) under an HU condition. Sixteen adult male rats, kept under a 12 : 12 h light-dark cycle, were divided into two groups of freely moving (n=8) and HU (n=8) rats. The volume of motor cortex and hippocampus, the numerical cell density of neurons in layers I, II-III, V, and VI of the motor cortex, the entire motor cortex as well as the primary motor cortex, and the numerical density of the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus subregions of the hippocampus were estimated...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600185/myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-impairs-neurogenesis-and-hippocampal-dependent-learning-and-memory
#19
Kirsten S Evonuk, Sumanth D Prabhu, Martin E Young, Tara M DeSilva
The incidence of cognitive impairment in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients has increased, adversely impacting quality of life and imposing a significant economic burden. Brain imaging of CVD patients has detected changes in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for normal learning and memory. However, it is not clear whether adverse cardiac events or other associated co-morbidities impair cognition. Here, using a murine model of acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), where the coronary artery was occluded for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion, we tested the hypothesis that acute myocardial infarction triggers impairment in cognitive function...
September 3, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593179/role-of-hippocampal-ca2-region-in-triggering-sharp-wave-ripples
#20
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
Sharp-wave ripples (SPW-Rs) in the hippocampus are implied in memory consolidation, as shown by observational and interventional experiments. However, the mechanism of their generation remains unclear. Using two-dimensional silicon probe arrays, we investigated the propagation of SPW-Rs across the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 subregions. Synchronous activation of CA2 ensembles preceded SPW-R-related population activity in CA3 and CA1 regions. Deep CA2 neurons gradually increased their activity prior to ripples and were suppressed during the population bursts of CA3-CA1 neurons (ramping cells)...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
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