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Hippocampal subfield

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133948/increased-hippocampal-tail-volume-predicts-depression-status-and-remission-to-anti-depressant-medications-in-major-depression
#1
J J Maller, K Broadhouse, A J Rush, E Gordon, S Koslow, S M Grieve
Studies of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have consistently reported reduced hippocampal volumes; however, the exact pattern of these volume changes in specific anatomical subfields and their functional significance is unclear. We sought to clarify the relationship between hippocampal tail volumes and (i) a diagnosis of MDD, and (ii) clinical remission to anti-depressant medications (ADMs). Outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD (n=202) based on DSM-IV criteria and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) score ⩾16 underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging as part of the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129405/neurogenesis-and-morphological-neural-alterations-closely-related-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-25-35-induced-memory-impairment-in-male-rats
#2
Eleazar Ramírez, Liliana Mendieta, Gonzalo Flores, I Daniel Limón
Memory impairment by the Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) peptide in animal models has provided an understanding of the causes behind the similar deterioration that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. However, it is uncertain if a decrease of dendritic spines and neurogenesis conduces to cognitive impairment by an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of impairment on spatial memory caused by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide in the hippocampus, which is associated whit morphological changes and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG)...
November 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106556/location-matters-distinct-dna-methylation-patterns-in-gabaergic-interneuronal-populations-from-separate-microcircuits-within-the-human-hippocampus
#3
W Brad Ruzicka, Sivan Subburaju, Joseph T Coyle, Francine M Benes
Recent studies describe distinct DNA methylomes among phenotypic subclasses of neurons in the human brain, but variation in DNA methylation between common neuronal phenotypes distinguished by their function within distinct neural circuits remains an unexplored concept. Studies able to resolve epigenetic profiles at the level of microcircuits are needed to illuminate chromatin dynamics in the regulation of specific neuronal populations and circuits mediating normal and abnormal behaviors.The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess genome-wide DNA methylation in stratum oriens GABAergic interneurons sampled by laser-microdissection from two discrete microcircuits along the trisynaptic pathway in postmortem human hippocampus from eight control, eight schizophrenia, and eight bipolar disorder subjects...
November 2, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093363/prenatal-exposure-to-1-bromopropane-causes-delayed-adverse-effects-on-hippocampal-neuronal-excitability-in-the-ca1-subfield-of-rat-offspring
#4
Yukiko Fueta, Toru Ishidao, Susumu Ueno, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Yasunari Kanda, Hajime Hori
OBJECTIVES: Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) has been reported in occupational exposure, but whether the chemical exerts developmental neurotoxicity is unknown. We studied the effects of prenatal 1-BP exposure on neuronal excitability in rat offspring. METHODS: We exposed dams to 1-BP (700 ppm, 6 h a day for 20 days) and examined hippocampal slices obtained from the male offspring at 2, 5, 8, and 13 weeks of age. We measured the stimulation/response (S/R) relationship and paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) of the population spike (PS) at the interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 5 and 10 ms in the CA1 subfield...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078387/individual-differences-in-associative-memory-among-older-adults-explained-by-hippocampal-subfield-structure-and-function
#5
Valerie A Carr, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Serra E Favila, Brian K Rutt, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Anthony D Wagner
Older adults experience impairments in episodic memory, ranging from mild to clinically significant. Given the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in episodic memory, age-related changes in MTL structure and function may partially account for individual differences in memory. Using ultra-high-field 7T structural MRI and high-resolution 3T functional MRI (hr-fMRI), we evaluated MTL subfield thickness and function in older adults representing a spectrum of cognitive health. Participants performed an associative memory task during hr-fMRI in which they encoded and later retrieved face-name pairs...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072793/cytoarchitectonically-driven-mri-atlas-of-nonhuman-primate-hippocampus-preservation-of-subfield-volumes-in-aging
#6
Colin T Kyle, Jared Stokes, Jeffrey Bennett, Jeri Meltzer, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Arne Ekstrom, Carol A Barnes
Identification of primate hippocampal subfields in vivo using structural MRI imaging relies on variable anatomical guidelines, signal intensity differences, and heuristics to differentiate between regions (Yushkevich et al., 2015a). Thus, a clear anatomically-driven basis for subfield demarcation is lacking. Recent work, however, has begun to develop methods to use ex vivo histology or ex vivo MRI (Adler et al., 2014; Iglesias et al., 2015) that have the potential to inform subfield demarcations of in vivo images...
October 26, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070813/the-impact-of-ageing-reveals-distinct-roles-for-human-dentate-gyrus-and-ca3-in-pattern-separation-and-object-recognition-memory
#7
Serena E Dillon, Demitra Tsivos, Michael Knight, Bryony McCann, Catherine Pennington, Anna I Shiel, Myra E Conway, Margaret A Newson, Risto A Kauppinen, Elizabeth J Coulthard
Both recognition of familiar objects and pattern separation, a process that orthogonalises overlapping events, are critical for effective memory. Evidence is emerging that human pattern separation requires dentate gyrus. Dentate gyrus is intimately connected to CA3 where, in animals, an autoassociative network enables recall of complete memories to underpin object/event recognition. Despite huge motivation to treat age-related human memory disorders, interaction between human CA3 and dentate subfields is difficult to investigate due to small size and proximity...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042898/prediction-of-treatment-response-to-donepezil-using-automated-hippocampal-subfields-volumes-segmentation-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Yoo Hyun Um, Tae-Won Kim, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Ho-Jun Seo, Jin-Hee Han, Seung-Chul Hong, Chang-Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
Previous studies reported some relationships between donepezil treatment and hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, due to methodological limitations, their close relationships remain unclear. The aim of this study is to predict treatment response to donepezil by utilizing the automated segmentation of hippocampal subfields volumes (ASHS) in AD. Sixty four AD patients were prescribed with donepezil and were followed up for 24 weeks. Cognitive function was measured to assess whether there was a response from the donepezil treatment...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984113/neuroprotective-effect-of-safranal-an-active-ingredient-of-crocus-sativus-in-a-rat-model-of-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Hamid R Sadeghnia, Hamideh Shaterzadeh, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Safranal is a monoterpene aldehyde found in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) petals. It has been previously reported that safranal has a wide range of activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we examined the effect of safranal on brain injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Safranal in the doses of 72.5 and 145 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally at 0, 3, and 6 h after reperfusion...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979205/atrophy-of-the-posterior-subiculum-is-associated-with-memory-impairment-tau-and-a%C3%AE-pathology-in-non-demented-individuals
#10
Olof Lindberg, Gustav Mårtensson, Erik Stomrud, Sebastian Palmqvist, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with atrophy of the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 and the subiculum subfield of the hippocampus (HC), and with deficits in episodic memory and spatial orientation. These deficits are mainly associated with the functionality of the posterior HC. We therefore hypothesized that key AD pathologies, i.e., β-amyloid and tau pathology would be particularly associated with the volume of the posterior subiculum in non-demented individuals. In our study we included 302 cognitively normal elderly participants (CN), 183 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and 171 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), all of whom underwent 3T magnetic resonance images (MRI)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978667/foxp1-in-forebrain-pyramidal-neurons-controls-gene-expression-required-for-spatial-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity
#11
Daniel J Araujo, Kazuya Toriumi, Christine O Escamilla, Ashwinikumar Kulkarni, Ashley G Anderson, Matthew Harper, Noriyoshi Usui, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Shari G Birnbaum, Haley O Tucker, Craig M Powell, Genevieve Konopka
Genetic perturbations of the transcription factor Forkhead Box P1 (FOXP1) are causative for severe forms of autism spectrum disorder that are often comorbid with intellectual disability. Recent work has begun to reveal an important role for FoxP1 in brain development, but the brain-region-specific contributions of Foxp1 to autism and intellectual disability phenotypes have yet to be fully determined. Here, we describe Foxp1 conditional knockout (Foxp1(cKO) ) male and female mice with loss of Foxp1 in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex and the CA1/CA2 subfields of the hippocampus...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961451/segmenting-hippocampal-subfields-from-3t-mri-with-multi-modality-images
#12
Zhengwang Wu, Yaozong Gao, Feng Shi, Guangkai Ma, Valerie Jewells, Dinggang Shen
Hippocampal subfields play important roles in many brain activities. However, due to the small structural size, low signal contrast, and insufficient image resolution of 3T MR, automatic hippocampal subfields segmentation is less explored. In this paper, we propose an automatic learning-based hippocampal subfields segmentation method using 3T multi-modality MR images, including structural MRI (T1, T2) and resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). The appearance features and relationship features are both extracted to capture the appearance patterns in structural MR images and also the connectivity patterns in rs-fMRI, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948070/predicting-neurocognitive-function-with-hippocampal-volumes-and-dti-metrics-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Geumsook Shim, Kwang-Yeon Choi, Dohyun Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Suji Lee, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Bumseok Jeong
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive performance in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been reported to be related to hippocampal atrophy and microstructural changes in white matter (WM). We aimed to predict the neurocognitive functions of patients with MCI or AD using hippocampal volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics via partial least squares regression (PLSR). METHODS: A total of 148 elderly female subjects were included: AD (n = 49), MCI (n = 66), and healthy controls (n = 33)...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923718/automated-measurement-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-ptsd-evidence-for-smaller-dentate-gyrus-volume
#14
Jasmeet P Hayes, Scott Hayes, Danielle R Miller, Ginette Lafleche, Mark W Logue, Mieke Verfaellie
Smaller hippocampal volume has been consistently observed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, less is known about individual volumes of the subfields composing the hippocampus such as the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis (CA) fields 1-4 in PTSD. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that volume of the dentate gyrus, a region putatively involved in distinctive encoding of similar events, is smaller in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. Ninety-seven recent war veterans underwent structural imaging on a 3T scanner and were assessed for PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale...
December 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917666/hippocampal-neurophysiology-is-modified-by-a-disease-associated-c-terminal-fragment-of-tau-protein
#15
Francesco Tamagnini, Darren A Walsh, Jon T Brown, Marie K Bondulich, Diane P Hanger, Andrew D Randall
The accumulation of cleaved tau fragments in the brain is associated with several tauopathies. For this reason, we recently developed a transgenic mouse that selectively accumulates a C-Terminal 35 kDa human tau fragment (Tau35). These animals develop progressive motor and spatial memory impairment, paralleled by increased hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity. In this neurophysiological study, we focused on the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory encoding. The accumulation of Tau35 results in a significant increase of short-term facilitation of the synaptic response in the theta frequency range (10 Hz), without affecting basal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887487/trkb-enhancer-facilitates-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T Chin, Siva K Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886957/differential-vulnerability-of-hippocampal-subfields-and-anteroposterior-hippocampal-subregions-in-healthy-cognitive-aging
#17
Nikolai V Malykhin, Yushan Huang, Stanislau Hrybouski, Fraser Olsen
In the present study, we investigated whether hippocampal subfields (cornu ammonis 1-3, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and anteroposterior hippocampal subregions (head, body, and tail) follow the same trajectory with age using structural magnetic resonance imaging. We recruited 129 healthy volunteers, aged 18-85 years. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired on a 4.7T system. Hippocampal subfields and subregions were manually segmented using reliable volumetric protocols. We found that all effects of age on the hippocampal volumes were nonlinear and were mainly found in the hippocampal body, while the hippocampal head and the tail volumes were not associated with age...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878682/experience-related-changes-in-place-cell-responses-to-new-sensory-configuration-that-does-not-occur-in-the-natural-environment-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#18
Dan Zou, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The hippocampal formation (HF) is implicated in a comparator that detects sensory conflict (mismatch) among convergent inputs. This suggests that new place cells encoding the new configuration with sensory mismatch develop after the HF learns to accept the new configuration as a match. To investigate this issue, HF CA1 place cell activity in rats was analyzed after the adaptation of the rats to the same sensory mismatch condition. The rats were placed on a treadmill on a stage that was translocated in a figure 8-shaped pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873362/impact-of-hippocampal-subfield-histopathology-in-episodic-memory-impairment-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis
#19
Sandra Mara Comper, Anaclara Prada Jardim, Jeana Torres Corso, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Helena Silva Noffs, Carmen Lúcia Penteado Lancellotti, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, Ricardo Silva Centeno, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyze preoperative visual and verbal episodic memories in a homogeneous series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and its association with neuronal cell density of each hippocampal subfield. METHODS: The hippocampi of 72 right-handed patients were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. Hippocampal sclerosis patterns were determined, and neuronal cell density was calculated...
September 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856235/regional-tau-deposition-and-subregion-atrophy-of-medial-temporal-structures-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-combined-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Daichi Sone, Etsuko Imabayashi, Norihide Maikusa, Nobuyuki Okamura, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Masayo Ogawa, Harumasa Takano, Yuma Yokoi, Masuhiro Sakata, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Koichi Kato, Hiroshi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Molecular imaging and selective hippocampal subfield atrophy are a focus of recent Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Here, we investigated correlations between molecular imaging and hippocampal subfields in early AD. METHODS: We investigated 18 patients with early AD and 18 healthy control subjects using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-THK5351 PET and automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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