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Hippocampal subfield

Jonika Tannous, Henrique Amaral-Silva, Bo Cao, Mon-Ju Wu, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Iram Kazimi, Cristian Zeni, Benson Mwangi, Jair C Soares
The hippocampus has been implicated in various mood disorders, with global volume deficits consistently found in patient populations. The hippocampus, however, consists of anatomically distinct subfields, and examination of specific subfield differences may elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms behind psychiatric pathologies. Indeed, adult studies have reported smaller hippocampal subfield volumes in regions within the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA4), dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal tails in both patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Klára Marečková, Radek Mareček, Petra Bencurova, Jana Klánová, Ladislav Dušek, Milan Brázdil
The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and early postnatal stress on hippocampal volume in young adulthood. In sharp contrast to numerous results in animal models, our data from a neuroimaging follow-up (n = 131) of a community-based birth cohort from the Czech Republic (European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) showed that in typically developing young adults, hippocampal volume was not associated with birth weight, stressful life events during the prenatal or early postnatal period, or dysregulated mood and wellbeing in the mother during the early postnatal period...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Yong-Ku Kim, Byung-Joo Ham, Kyu-Man Han
The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression...
March 10, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lisa Kinnavane, Seralynne D Vann, Andrew J D Nelson, Shane M O'Mara, John P Aggleton
To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29)...
January 2018: ENeuro
Susanne G Mueller, Paul A Yushkevich, Sandhitsu Das, Lei Wang, Koen Van Leemput, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Kate Alpert, Adam Mezher, Peter Ng, Katrina Paz, Michael W Weiner
Objective: Subfield-specific measurements provide superior information in the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases compared to global hippocampal measurements. The overall goal was to systematically compare the performance of five representative manual and automated T1 and T2 based subfield labeling techniques in a sub-set of the ADNI2 population. Methods: The high resolution T2 weighted hippocampal images (T2-HighRes) and the corresponding T1 images from 106 ADNI2 subjects (41 controls, 57 MCI, 8 AD) were processed as follows...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Luise Woost, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Marco Taubert, Robert Trampel, Christine L Tardif, Alexander Garthe, Gerd Kempermann, Ulrich Renner, Günter Stalla, Derek V M Ott, Viola Rjosk, Hellmuth Obrig, Arno Villringer, Elisabeth Roggenhofer, Tilmann A Klein
Physical exercise has been suggested to improve cognitive performance through various neurobiological mechanisms, mediated by growth factors such as BDNF, IGF-I, and VEGF. Moreover, animal research has demonstrated that combined physical and cognitive stimulation leads to increased adult neurogenesis as compared to either experimental condition alone. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether a sequential combination of physical and spatial training in young, healthy adults elicits an additive effect on training and transfer gains...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tracy Riggins, Fengji Geng, Morgan Botdorf, Kelsey Canada, Lisa Cox, Gregory R Hancock
The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for memory. Previous studies have shown that age-related differences in specialization along the longitudinal axis of this structure (i.e., subregions) and within its internal circuitry (i.e., subfields) relate to age-related improvements in memory in school-age children and adults. However, the influence of age on hippocampal development and its relations with memory ability earlier in life remains under-investigated. This study examined effects of age and sex on hippocampal subregion (i...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Ling-Yun Fan, Ya-Mei Lai, Ta-Fu Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Pin-Yu Chen, Kuo-Zhou Huang, Ting-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yi Isaac Tseng, Mau-Sun Hua, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) progresses insidiously from the preclinical stage to dementia. While people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have normal cognitive performance, some may be in the preclinical stage of AD. Neurofibrillary tangles appear first in the transentorhinal cortex, followed by the entorhinal cortex in the clinically silent stage of AD. We expected the earliest changes in subjects with SCD to occur in medial temporal subfields other than the hippocampal proper. These selective structural changes would affect specific memory subcomponents...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Gaël Chételat
Over the last ten years, we have conducted research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using multimodal neuroimaging techniques to improve diagnosis, further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying the disease, and support the development of innovative non-pharmacological preventive strategies. Our works emphasized the interest of hippocampal subfield volumetry in early diagnosis and the need for further development in this field including optimization, standardization, and automatization of the techniques...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Matthew Carle, Michael A Frölich, Steve Tran, Michael A Yassa, David Matthew White, Abhishek Reddy, Adrienne Carol Lahti
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis, and if N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Soheila Samiee, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli, Sylvain Baillet
Polyrhythmic coupling of oscillatory components in electrophysiological signals results from the interactions between neuronal sub-populations within and between cell assemblies. Since the mechanisms underlying epileptic disorders should affect such interactions, abnormal level of cross-frequency coupling is expected to provide a signal marker of epileptogenesis. We measured phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a form of cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations, in a rodent model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Jessica Robin
Spatial context is a defining feature of episodic memories, which are often characterized as being events occurring in specific spatiotemporal contexts. In this review, I summarize research suggesting a common neural basis for episodic and spatial memory and relate this to the role of spatial context in episodic memory. I review evidence that spatial context serves as a scaffold for episodic memory and imagination, in terms of both behavioral and neural effects demonstrating a dependence of episodic memory on spatial representations...
February 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Vess Stamenova, Raneen Nicola, Judith Aharon-Peretz, Dorith Goldsher, Michael Kapeliovich, Asaf Gilboa
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of brief hypoxia (<7 min) due to cardiac arrest on the integrity of the brain and performance on memory and executive functions tasks. METHODS: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) (n = 9), who were deemed neurologically intact on discharge, were compared to matched patients with MI (n = 9). A battery of clinical and experimental memory and executive functions neuropsychological tests were administered and MRI scans for all patients were collected...
February 20, 2018: Resuscitation
Mike F Schmidt, Judd M Storrs, Kevin B Freeman, Clifford R Jack, Stephen T Turner, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
MRI has become an indispensable tool for brain volumetric studies, with the hippocampus an important region of interest. Automation of the MRI segmentation process has helped advance the field by facilitating the volumetric analysis of larger cohorts and more studies. FreeSurfer has emerged as the de facto standard tool for these analyses, but studies validating its output are all based on older versions. To characterize FreeSurfer's validity, we compare several versions of FreeSurfer software with traditional hand-tracing...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Marte C Ørbo, Torgil R Vangberg, Pål M Tande, Audny Anke, Per M Aslaksen
AIM: We explored the associations between global brain volumes, hippocampal subfield volumes and verbal memory performance in long-term survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: Three months after OHCA, survivors and healthy, age-matched controls were assessed with cerebral MRI and the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II). Volumetric brain segmentation was performed automatically by FreeSurfer. RESULTS: Twenty-six OHCA survivors who were living independently in regular homes at the time of assessment and 19 controls participated in the study...
February 17, 2018: Resuscitation
Mamun Al-Amin, Artyom Zinchenko, Thomas Geyer
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by reduction of total hippocampal volume. However, disorder-related fine-grained structural alterations of hippocampal subfields remain unclear. METHOD: Here we compared hippocampal subfield volumes in a large sample of patients with ADHD and healthy controls. We used T1-weighted structural 3-Tesla MRI images of 880 individuals (7-21 years old) from the ADHD-200 database. The images were acquired from 553 healthy individuals and 327 children and adolescents with combined (N = 196) and inattentive (N = 131) ADHD subtypes...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Marcia J Guimarães Marques, Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, José E Marques-Carneiro, Leonardo B Lopes-Silva, Monica L Andersen, Esper A Cavalheiro, Fulvio A Scorza, Carla A Scorza
Proechimys are small terrestrial rodents from Amazon rainforest. Each animal species is adapted to a specific environment in which the animal evolved therefore without comparative approaches unique characteristics of distinct species cannot be fully recognized. Laboratory rodents are exceedingly inbred strains dissociated from their native habitats and their fundamental ecological aspects are abstracted. Thus, the employment of exotic non-model species can be informative and complement conventional animal models...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Amandine Crombe, Vincent Planche, Gerard Raffard, Julien Bourel, Nadège Dubourdieu, Aude Panatier, Hikaru Fukutomi, Vincent Dousset, Stephane Oliet, Bassem Hiba, Thomas Tourdias
The hippocampus contains distinct populations of neurons organized into separate anatomical subfields and layers with differential vulnerability to pathological mechanisms. The ability of in vivo neuroimaging to pinpoint regional vulnerability is especially important for better understanding of hippocampal pathology at the early stage of neurodegenerative disorders and for monitoring future therapeutic strategies. This is the case for instance in multiple sclerosis whose neurodegenerative component can affect the hippocampus from the early stage...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
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