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Hippocampal subfield

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893880/protective-prevention-effects-on-the-association-of-poverty-with-brain-development
#1
Gene H Brody, Joshua C Gray, Tianyi Yu, Allen W Barton, Steven R H Beach, Adrianna Galván, James MacKillop, Michael Windle, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller, Lawrence H Sweet
Importance: This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. Objective: To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893017/evaluation-of-cognitive-deficits-and-structural-hippocampal-damage-in-encephalitis-with-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies
#2
Carsten Finke, Harald Prüss, Josephine Heine, Sigrid Reuter, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Sebastian Koch, Olav Jansen, Thomas Münte, Günther Deuschl, Klemens Ruprecht, Winfried Stöcker, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch
Importance: Limbic encephalitis with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is one of the most frequent variants of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens. However, the neuroimaging pattern and long-term cognitive outcome are not well understood. Objective: To study cognitive outcome and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Departments of Neurology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886057/age-related-modulations-of-aqp4-and-caveolin-1-in-the-hippocampus-predispose-the-toxic-effect-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom
#3
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872368/complementary-learning-systems-within-the-hippocampus-a-neural-network-modelling-approach-to-reconciling-episodic-memory-with-statistical-learning
#4
Anna C Schapiro, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Matthew M Botvinick, Kenneth A Norman
A growing literature suggests that the hippocampus is critical for the rapid extraction of regularities from the environment. Although this fits with the known role of the hippocampus in rapid learning, it seems at odds with the idea that the hippocampus specializes in memorizing individual episodes. In particular, the Complementary Learning Systems theory argues that there is a computational trade-off between learning the specifics of individual experiences and regularities that hold across those experiences...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870399/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-area-ca3-pyramidal-cells
#5
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman, Neil J MacLusky
Numerous studies have demonstrated differences between males and females in hippocampal structure, function, and plasticity. There also are many studies about the different predisposition of a males and females for disorders where the hippocampus plays an important role. Many of these reports focus on area CA1, but other subfields are also very important, and unlikely to be the same as area CA1 based on what is known. Here we review basic studies of male and female structure, function, and plasticity of area CA3 pyramidal cells of adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864825/individual-hippocampal-subfield-assessment-indicates-that-matrix-macromolecules-and-gliosis-are-key-elements-for-the-increased-t2-relaxation-time-seen-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Joao Pereira Leite
OBJECTIVE: Increased T2 relaxation time is often seen in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. Water content directly affects the effective T2 in a voxel. Our aim was to evaluate the relation between T2 values and two molecules associated with brain water homeostasis aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), as well as cellular populations in the hippocampal region of patients with TLE. METHODS: Hippocampal T2 imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained from 42 drug-resistant patients with TLE and 20 healthy volunteers (radiologic controls, RCs)...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863445/dissociable-profiles-of-generalization-discrimination-in-the-human-hippocampus-during-associative-retrieval
#7
Natalie G De Shetler, Jesse Rissman
When encountering stimuli that vary slightly from previous experiences, neural signals within the CA3 and dentate gyrus (CA3 DG) hippocampal subfields are thought to facilitate mnemonic discrimination, whereas CA1 may be less sensitive to minor stimulus changes, allowing for generalization across similar events. Studies have also posited a critical role for CA1 in the comparison of events to memory-derived expectations, but the degree to which these processes are impacted by explicit retrieval demands is yet unclear...
November 18, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862600/a-harmonized-segmentation-protocol-for-hippocampal-and-parahippocampal-subregions-why-do-we-need-one-and-what-are-the-key-goals
#8
Laura E M Wisse, Ana M Daugherty, Rosanna K Olsen, David Berron, Valerie A Carr, Craig E L Stark, Robert S C Amaral, Katrin Amunts, Jean C Augustinack, Andrew R Bender, Jeffrey D Bernstein, Marina Boccardi, Martina Bocchetta, Alison Burggren, M Mallar Chakravarty, Marie Chupin, Arne Ekstrom, Robin de Flores, Ricardo Insausti, Prabesh Kanel, Olga Kedo, Kristen M Kennedy, Geoffrey A Kerchner, Karen F LaRocque, Xiuwen Liu, Anne Maass, Nicolai Malykhin, Susanne G Mueller, Noa Ofen, Daniela J Palombo, Mansi B Parekh, John B Pluta, Jens C Pruessner, Naftali Raz, Karen M Rodrigue, Dorothee Schoemaker, Andrea T Shafer, Trevor A Steve, Nanthia Suthana, Lei Wang, Julie L Winterburn, Michael A Yassa, Paul A Yushkevich, Renaud la Joie
The advent of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled in vivo research in a variety of populations and diseases on the structure and function of hippocampal subfields and subdivisions of the parahippocampal gyrus. Because of the many extant and highly discrepant segmentation protocols, comparing results across studies is difficult. To overcome this barrier, the Hippocampal Subfields Group was formed as an international collaboration with the aim of developing a harmonized protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal and parahippocampal subregions on high-resolution MRI...
October 24, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851995/key-clinical-benefits-of-neuroimaging-at-7t
#9
Siegfried Trattnig, Elisabeth Springer, Wolfgang Bogner, Gilbert Hangel, Bernhard Strasser, Barbara Dymerska, Pedro Lima Cardoso, Simon Daniel Robinson
The growing interest in ultra-high field MRI, with more than 35.000 MR examinations already performed at 7T, is related to improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. Since the signal-to-noise ratio increases with the field strength of the MR scanner, the most evident application at 7T is to gain higher spatial resolution in the brain compared to 3T. Of specific clinical interest for neuro applications is the cerebral cortex at 7T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure, like the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in Multiple Sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847283/selective-dentate-gyrus-disruption-causes-memory-impairment-at-the-early-stage-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Vincent Planche, Aude Panatier, Bassem Hiba, Eva-Gunnel Ducourneau, Gerard Raffard, Nadège Dubourdieu, Marlène Maitre, Thierry Lesté-Lasserre, Bruno Brochet, Vincent Dousset, Aline Desmedt, Stéphane H Oliet, Thomas Tourdias
Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI)...
November 12, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836336/medial-temporal-lobe-subregional-morphometry-using-high-resolution-mri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
David A Wolk, Sandhitsu R Das, Susanne G Mueller, Michael W Weiner, Paul A Yushkevich
Autopsy studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have found that neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) demonstrates selective topography with relatively stereotyped subregional involvement at early disease stages, prompting interest in more granular measurement of these structures with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. We applied a novel, automated method for measurement of hippocampal subfields and extrahippocampal MTL cortical regions. The cohort included cognitively normal (CN) adults (n = 86), early mild cognitive impairment (n = 43), late MCI (n = 22), and mild AD (n = 40) patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
September 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834774/five-year-longitudinal-brain-volume-change-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#12
Katherine Reiter, Kristy A Nielson, Sally Durgerian, John L Woodard, J Carson Smith, Michael Seidenberg, Dana A Kelly, Stephen M Rao
Neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) precede symptom onset by more than a decade. Possession of an apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset AD. Cross-sectional studies of cognitively intact elders have noted smaller hippocampal/medial temporal volumes in ɛ4 carriers (ɛ4+) compared to ɛ4 non-carriers (ɛ4-). Few studies, however, have examined long-term, longitudinal, anatomical brain changes comparing healthy ɛ4+ and ɛ4- individuals...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833535/early-cortical-changes-in-gamma-oscillations-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Alexandra S Klein, José R Donoso, Richard Kempter, Dietmar Schmitz, Prateep Beed
The entorhinal cortices in the temporal lobe of the brain are key structures relaying memory related information between the neocortex and the hippocampus. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) routes spatial information, whereas the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) routes predominantly olfactory information to the hippocampus. Gamma oscillations are known to coordinate information transfer between brain regions by precisely timing population activity of neuronal ensembles. Here, we studied the organization of in vitro gamma oscillations in the MEC and LEC of the transgenic (tg) amyloid precursor protein (APP)-presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at 4-5 months of age...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829188/volume-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#14
Jeonghwan Lee, Sung-Jin Im, Sang-Gu Lee, Alfreda Stadlin, Jung-Woo Son, Chul-Jin Shin, Gawon Ju, Sang-Ick Lee, Siekyeong Kim
Alcohol-induced hippocampal atrophy has been well documented in many studies and is known to affect various subfields. Given the functional heterogeneity of these subfields, we investigated the precise effects of alcohol-induced damage in these areas. Twenty-six male patients with alcohol dependence (alcohol group) and twenty-six age-matched male healthy social drinkers were recruited from a mental health hospital and the community respectively, with the aim of comparing the hippocampal subfields between groups...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822668/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-pretreatment-ameliorates-ischemia-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-through-activation-of-erk1-2-creb-bdnf-pathway-in-anesthetized-mice
#15
Jintian Wang, Shixiao Zhang, Huijuan Ma, Shijie Yang, Zhao Liu, Xiaolei Wu, Sheng Wang, Yi Zhang, Yixian Liu
Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has protective effects on heart and brain against ischemia injury through mobilizing endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, whether CIHH prevents against cognitive impairment was not elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CIHH treatment on ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: Control, Sham, CIHH (simulating 5000 m high-altitude for 28 days, 6 h per day), IR (three 16-min occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries interrupted by two 10-min intervals), CIHH + IR, PD98059 (inhibitor of MEK1/2) + CIHH + IR, PD98059 + Sham and PD98059 + IR group...
November 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785338/dose-dependent-effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-early-lifetime-on-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Xue Zhou, Wenda Li, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Zhibin Zhou, Dihan Lu, Xia Feng
Sevoflurane has become a main method for induction of anesthesia in pediatric populations. Preclinical evidence suggest the neurotoxic effect of volatile anesthetics on the developing brain including sevoflurane. This study investigates the effect of different doses of sevoflurane on the developing brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats of postnatal (P) day 7 were exposed to 0.3%, 1.3% and 2.3% sevoflurane for 6 hours. 6 hours after exposure, Nissl staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of the hippocampus and western-blot was done to evaluate the expression changes in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785113/projection-neurons-in-the-cortex-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-of-chronic-khat-and-ethanol-exposure-in-adult-male-rats
#17
Paul E Alele, Daniel Matovu, Lawrence Imanirampa, Abayomi M Ajayi, Gyaviira T Kasule
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that many individuals who chew khat recreationally also drink ethanol to offset the stimulating effect of khat. The objective of this study was to describe the separate and interactive effects of chronic ethanol and khat exposure on key projection neurons in the cortex and hippocampus of young adult male rats. METHODS: Young adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six treatment groups: 2 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg khat, 4 g/kg ethanol, combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each), a normal saline control, and an untreated group...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781133/hippocampal-lipid-differences-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-human-brain-study-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#18
Lakshini H S Mendis, Angus C Grey, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. Although there have been a few studies investigating lipid changes in the human hippocampus in particular, there are few reports on how lipids change in each hippocampal subfield (e...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765611/manual-segmentation-of-the-fornix-fimbria-and-alveus-on-high-resolution-3t-mri-application-via-fully-automated-mapping-of-the-human-memory-circuit-white-and-grey-matter-in-healthy-and-pathological-aging
#19
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy J Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at https://github.com/cobralab/atlases...
October 18, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758838/neuroinflammatory-and-morphological-changes-in-late-life-depression-the-nimrod-study
#20
L Su, Y O Faluyi, Y T Hong, T D Fryer, E Mak, S Gabel, L Hayes, S Soteriades, G B Williams, R Arnold, L Passamonti, P Vázquez Rodríguez, A Surendranathan, R W Bevan-Jones, J Coles, F Aigbirhio, J B Rowe, J T O'Brien
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life depression, as a risk factor for dementia, using [(11)C]PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13 controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised [(11)C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum...
December 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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