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Hippocampal subfield

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745531/-hippocampal-subfield-volume-alteration-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoxiao Hu, Lingjiang Li, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
In the current study, we aim to investigate whether post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with structural alterations in specific subfields of hippocampus comparing with trauma-exposed control (TC) in a relatively large sample. We included 67 PTSD patients who were diagnosed under Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and 78 age- and sex-matched non-PTSD adult survivors who experienced similar stressors. High resolution T1 weighted images were obtained via a GE 3...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740014/different-patterns-of-epileptiform-like-activity-are-generated-in-the-sclerotic-hippocampus-from-patients-with-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Selvin Z Reyes-Garcia, Carla A Scorza, Noemi S Araújo, Nancy N Ortiz-Villatoro, Anaclara Prada Jardim, Ricardo Centeno, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian, Jean Faber, Esper A Cavalheiro
Human hippocampal slice preparations from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are excellent material for the characterization of epileptiform-like activity. However, it is still unknown if hippocampal regions as cornu Ammonis (CA) 1, CA3 and CA4, generate population epileptiform-like activity. Here, we investigated epileptiform activities of the subiculum, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 (induced by elevation of extracellular potassium concentration) and the dentate gyrus (induced with hilar stimulation and elevation of potassium concentration) from sclerotic hippocampi of patients with drug-resistant TLE...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722553/protective-role-of-zinc-against-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-exposure-to-cadmium-during-gestation-and-lactation-periods-on-hippocampal-volume-of-pups-tested-in-early-adulthood
#3
Safa Ben Mimouna, Marouane Chemek, Sana Boughammoura, Zohra Haouas, Imed Messaoudi
The present study was conducted to assess the possible effect of cadmium (Cd) throughout gestation and lactation on the volume of the subregion of the hippocampus as well as the potential protective role of zinc (Zn) against Cd neurotoxicity. For this purpose, female rats received either tap water, Cd, Zn or Cd + Zn in their drinking water during gestation and lactation. At postnatal day 35 (PND35), the male pups were sacrificed, and their brains were taken for histologic, chemical, and biochemical analysis...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695149/changes-in-the-hippocampal-volume-and-shape-in-early-onset-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Seok Woo Moon, Boram Lee, Young Chil Choi
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the change in the hippocampal volume and shape in early-onset mild cognitive impairment (EO-MCI) associated with the APOE ε4 carrier state. Methods: This study had 50 subjects aged 55-63 years, all of whom were diagnosed with MCI at baseline via the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet. The EO-MCI patients were divided into the MCI continued (MCIcont) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) converted (ADconv) groups 2 years later...
April 27, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682609/prolonged-cannabidiol-treatment-effects-on-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-current-cannabis-users
#5
Camilla Beale, Samantha J Broyd, Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Mark Schira, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While adverse impacts of cannabis use are generally attributed to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, emerging naturalistic evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective and may ameliorate brain harms associated with cannabis use, including protection from hippocampal volume loss. This study examined whether prolonged administration of CBD to regular cannabis users within the community could reverse or reduce the characteristic hippocampal harms associated with chronic cannabis use...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681453/dissociable-structural-and-functional-hippocampal-outputs-via-distinct-subiculum-cell-classes
#6
Mark S Cembrowski, Matthew G Phillips, Salvatore F DiLisio, Brenda C Shields, Johan Winnubst, Jayaram Chandrashekar, Erhan Bas, Nelson Spruston
The mammalian hippocampus, comprised of serially connected subfields, participates in diverse behavioral and cognitive functions. It has been postulated that parallel circuitry embedded within hippocampal subfields may underlie such functional diversity. We sought to identify, delineate, and manipulate this putatively parallel architecture in the dorsal subiculum, the primary output subfield of the dorsal hippocampus. Population and single-cell RNA-seq revealed that the subiculum can be divided into two spatially adjacent subregions associated with prominent differences in pyramidal cell gene expression...
April 10, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#7
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629524/glucose-hypometabolism-in-hippocampal-subdivisions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study-using-high-resolution-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-fdg-pet-and-7-0-t-mri
#8
Eun Jung Choi, Young Don Son, Young Noh, Hyon Lee, Young Bo Kim, Kee Hyung Park
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrophy of the hippocampus is an important clinical diagnostic marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and so assessments of hippocampal activity and its subdivisions might provide invaluable information. This study compared the glucose metabolism of hippocampal subdivisions in mild-AD patients and healthy controls. METHODS: High-resolution T2*-weighted gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) images were acquired using 7...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615675/predicting-individual-responses-to-the-electroconvulsive-therapy-with-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-major-depression-disorder
#9
Bo Cao, Qinghua Luo, Yixiao Fu, Lian Du, Tian Qiu, Xiangying Yang, Xiaolu Chen, Qibin Chen, Jair C Soares, Raymond Y Cho, Xiang Yang Zhang, Haitang Qiu
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for major depression disorder (MDD). ECT can induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in hippocampus, which contains distinct subfields, e.g., the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields, a granule cell layer (GCL), a molecular layer (ML), and the subiculum. It is unclear which subfields are affected by ECT and whether we predict the future treatment response to ECT by using volumetric information of hippocampal subfields at baseline? In this study, 24 patients with severe MDD received the ECT and their structural brain images were acquired with magnetic resonance imaging before and after ECT...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614654/automated-multi-atlas-segmentation-of-hippocampal-and-extrahippocampal-subregions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-at-3t-and-7t-what-atlas-composition-works-best
#10
Long Xie, Russell T Shinohara, Ranjit Ittyerah, Hugo J Kuijf, John B Pluta, Kim Blom, Mirjam Kooistra, Yael D Reijmer, Huiberdina L Koek, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Hongzhi Wang, Peter R Luijten, Mirjam I Geerlings, Sandhitsu R Das, Geert Jan Biessels, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich, Laura E M Wisse
BACKGROUND: Multi-atlas segmentation, a popular technique implemented in the Automated Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) software, utilizes multiple expert-labelled images ("atlases") to delineate medial temporal lobe substructures. This multi-atlas method is increasingly being employed in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) research and is therefore becoming important to know how the construction of the atlas set in terms of proportions of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or AD affects segmentation accuracy...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602830/3-%C3%AE-methyl-neurosteroid-analogs-are-preferential-positive-allosteric-modulators-and-direct-activators-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-subunit-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptors-in-the-hippocampus-dentate-gyrus-subfield
#11
Shu-Hui Chuang, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids are powerful modulators of γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors. Ganaxolone (3 α -hydroxy-3 β -methyl-5 α -pregnan-20-one, GX) and synthetic analogs of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AP) are designed to treat epilepsy and related conditions. However, their precise mechanism of action in native neurons remains unclear. Here, we sought to determine the mode of action of GX and its analogs at GABA-A receptors in native hippocampal neurons by analyzing extrasynaptic receptor-mediated tonic currents and synaptic receptor-mediated phasic currents...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592955/characterizing-the-human-hippocampus-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-computational-atlas-derived-from-ex-vivo-mri-and-histology
#12
Daniel H Adler, Laura E M Wisse, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, Song-Lin Ding, Long Xie, Jiancong Wang, Salmon Kadivar, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Michael I Miller, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
Although the hippocampus is one of the most studied structures in the human brain, limited quantitative data exist on its 3D organization, anatomical variability, and effects of disease on its subregions. Histological studies provide restricted reference information due to their 2D nature. In this paper, high-resolution (∼200 × 200 × 200 μm3 ) ex vivo MRI scans of 31 human hippocampal specimens are combined using a groupwise diffeomorphic registration approach into a 3D probabilistic atlas that captures average anatomy and anatomic variability of hippocampal subfields...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579552/proliferative-hippocampal-activity-in-a-group-of-patients-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-neuronal-glial-and-bdnf-tissue-expression-correlations
#13
Elane N Magno
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and devastating unilateral inflammatory brain disease that causes severe and intractable partial epilepsy. It has been shown that epilepsy and subsequent inflammation have deleterious influence on hippocampal cell survival and neurogenesis, but this still has not been systematically explored in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the correlation between inflammation and epilepsy as well as the rates of hippocampal gliogenesis and neurogenesis in a pediatric group of six patients with RE and six control cases...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575376/incomplete-hippocampal-inversion-and-its-relationship-to-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-and-aging
#14
Jessica Colenutt, Bryony McCann, Michael J Knight, Elizabeth Coulthard, Risto A Kauppinen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is an atypical anatomical pattern presented by the hippocampus. It is associated with several neuropathological conditions and is thought to be a factor of susceptibility to hippocampal sclerosis and loss of volume. The volume loss of hippocampus is an inevitable consequence of aging, and when accelerated it is commonly considered an imaging biomarker of Alzheimer's disease dementia. METHODS: We have studied the relationship between IHI and hippocampal subfield volumes in a cohort of 60 healthy participants of 49-87 years of age...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574399/riemannian-metric-optimization-on-surfaces-rmos-for-intrinsic-brain-mapping-in-the-laplace-beltrami-embedding-space
#15
Jin Kyu Gahm, Yonggang Shi
Surface mapping methods play an important role in various brain imaging studies from tracking the maturation of adolescent brains to mapping gray matter atrophy patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Popular surface mapping approaches based on spherical registration, however, have inherent numerical limitations when severe metric distortions are present during the spherical parameterization step. In this paper, we propose a novel computational framework for intrinsic surface mapping in the Laplace-Beltrami (LB) embedding space based on Riemannian metric optimization on surfaces (RMOS)...
March 16, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572865/hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relation-to-outcomes
#16
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
March 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565041/molecular-hydrogen-alleviates-asphyxia-induced-neuronal-cyclooxygenase-2-expression-in-newborn-pigs
#17
Viktória Varga, János Németh, Orsolya Oláh, Valéria Tóth-Szűki, Viktória Kovács, Gábor Remzső, Ferenc Domoki
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has an established role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In this study we sought to determine whether COX-2 was induced by asphyxia in newborn pigs, and whether neuronal COX-2 levels were affected by H2 treatment. Piglets were subjected to either 8 min of asphyxia or a more severe 20 min of asphyxia followed by H2 treatment (inhaling room air containing 2.1% H2 for 4 h). COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed on brain samples from surviving piglets 24 h after asphyxia...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550609/hippocampal-subfield-volumes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-mood-disorders
#18
Jonika Tannous, Henrique Amaral-Silva, Bo Cao, Mon-Ju Wu, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Iram Kazimi, Cristian Zeni, Benson Mwangi, Jair C Soares
The hippocampus has been implicated in various mood disorders, with global volume deficits consistently found in patient populations. The hippocampus, however, consists of anatomically distinct subfields, and examination of specific subfield differences may elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms behind psychiatric pathologies. Indeed, adult studies have reported smaller hippocampal subfield volumes in regions within the cornu ammonis (CA1 and CA4), dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal tails in both patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls...
June 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549289/perinatal-stress-and-human-hippocampal-volume-findings-from-typically-developing-young-adults
#19
Klára Marečková, Radek Mareček, Petra Bencurova, Jana Klánová, Ladislav Dušek, Milan Brázdil
The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and early postnatal stress on hippocampal volume in young adulthood. In sharp contrast to numerous results in animal models, our data from a neuroimaging follow-up (n = 131) of a community-based birth cohort from the Czech Republic (European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) showed that in typically developing young adults, hippocampal volume was not associated with birth weight, stressful life events during the prenatal or early postnatal period, or dysregulated mood and wellbeing in the mother during the early postnatal period...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545205/memantine-decreases-neuronal-degeneration-in-young-rats-submitted-to-licl-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#20
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
May 2018: Neurotoxicology
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