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Hippocampal subfield

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721741/the-relevance-of-hippocampal-subfield-integrity-and-clock-drawing-test-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Dusan Hirjak, Fabio Sambataro, Barbara Remmele, Katharina M Kubera, Johannes Schröder, Ulrich Seidl, Anne K Thomann, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Robert C Wolf, Philipp A Thomann
OBJECTIVES: The clock drawing test (CDT) is one of the worldwide most used screening tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD). MRI studies have identified temporo-parietal regions being involved in CDT impairment. However, the contributions of the hippocampal formation to CDT performance in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been investigated so far. It is unclear whether morphological alterations or CDT score, or a combination of both, are able to predict AD. METHODS: 38 AD patients, 38 MCI individuals and 31 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at 3 Tesla...
July 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697972/neuroprotection-of-edaravone-on-the-hippocampus-of-kainate-induced-epilepsy-rats-through-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#4
Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao
Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotactic technique. And for edaravone treatment, the rats were intraperitoneal injection with edaravone (10 mg kg (- 1) d (- 1))...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692012/evidence-of-hippocampal-structural-alterations-in-gulf-war-veterans-with-predicted-exposure-to-the-khamisiyah-plume
#5
Linda L Chao, Morgan R Raymond, Cynthia K Leo, Linda R Abadjian
OBJECTIVES: To replicate and expand our previous findings of smaller hippocampal volumes in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume. METHODS: Total hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes were quantified from 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images in 113 GW veterans, 62 of whom had predicted exposure as per the Department of Defense exposure models. RESULTS: Veterans with predicted exposure had smaller total hippocampal and CA3/dentate gyrus volumes compared with unexposed veterans, even after accounting for potentially confounding genetic and clinical variables...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687122/evaluation-of-ex-vivo-9-4t-mri-in-post-surgical-specimens-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#6
Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Ryan Kope, Donald H Lee, Manas Sharma, Robert Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, David Steven, Terry Peters, Ali R Khan
PURPOSE: This study evaluates hippocampal pathology through usage of ultra-high field 9.4T ex-vivo imaging of resected surgical specimens in patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This is a retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data. MRI scanning of resected surgical specimens from patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery was performed on a 9.4T small bore Varian MR magnet. Structural images employed a balanced steady-state free precession sequence (TrueFISP)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685385/exclusive-activation-of-caspase-3-in-mossy-fibers-and-altered-dynamics-of-autophagy-markers-in-the-mice-hippocampus-upon-status-epilepticus-induced-by-kainic-acid
#7
A Rami, A Benz
Epileptic seizures are generally associated with pathological changes in the hippocampus such as astrogliosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and neuronal damage. However, more than 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans shows neither neuronal damage nor mossy fiber sprouting despite chronic epileptic seizures. A similar situation exists in certain commonly used strains of mice, specifically C57BL/6 and BALB/c, which exhibit epileptic seizures, but no neuronal damage upon kainic acid administration. This suggests that intrinsic factors may influence the pathological manifestations of epilepsy...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674488/dancing-or-fitness-sport-the-effects-of-two-training-programs-on-hippocampal-plasticity-and-balance-abilities-in-healthy-seniors
#8
Kathrin Rehfeld, Patrick Müller, Norman Aye, Marlen Schmicker, Milos Dordevic, Jörn Kaufmann, Anita Hökelmann, Notger G Müller
Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667695/recognition-memory-cellular-evidence-of-a-massive-contribution-of-the-lec-to-familiarity-and-a-lack-of-involvement-of-the-hippocampal-subfields-ca1-and-ca3
#9
Erika Atucha, Artem Karew, Takashi Kitsukawa, Magdalena M Sauvage
A highly debated issue in memory research is whether familiarity is supported by the parahippocampal region, especially the lateral (LEC) and the perirhinal (PER) cortices, or whether it is supported by the same brain structure as recollection: the hippocampus. One reason for this is that conflicting results have emerged regarding the contribution of the hippocampus to familiarity. This might stem from the lack of dissociation between hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 as these areas are involved to a different extent in processes which are pertinent to familiarity...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667671/smaller-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-predict-verbal-associative-memory-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#10
Alexandra L Decker, Kamila U Szulc, Eric Bouffet, Suzanne Laughlin, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jovanka Skocic, Cynthia B de Medeiros, Donald J Mabbott
The developing hippocampus is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and cranial radiation treatments for pediatric cancers, yet little is known about the effects that cancer treatments have on specific hippocampal subfields. Here, we examined hippocampal subfield volumes in twenty-nine pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with cranial radiation and chemotherapy, and thirty healthy developing children and adolescents. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfield volumes and short-term verbal memory...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659753/neural-correlates-of-verbal-episodic-memory-and-lexical-retrieval-in-logopenic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Khaing T Win, John Pluta, Paul Yushkevich, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Katya Rascovsky, David Wolk, Murray Grossman
Objective: Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) is commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. But lvPPA patients display different cognitive and anatomical profile from the common clinical AD patients, whose verbal episodic memory is primarily affected. Reports of verbal episodic memory difficulty in lvPPA are inconsistent, and we hypothesized that their lexical retrieval impairment contributes to verbal episodic memory performance and is associated with left middle temporal gyrus atrophy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654095/polygenic-risk-has-an-impact-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-subfields-during-aerobic-exercise-combined-with-cognitive-remediation-in-multi-episode-schizophrenia
#12
S Papiol, D Popovic, D Keeser, A Hasan, T Schneider-Axmann, F Degenhardt, M J Rossner, H Bickeböller, A Schmitt, P Falkai, B Malchow
Preliminary studies suggest that, besides improving cognition, aerobic exercise might increase hippocampal volume in schizophrenia patients; however, results are not consistent. Individual mechanisms of volume changes are unknown but might be connected to the load of risk genes. Genome-wide association studies have uncovered the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia. The secondary analysis presented here aimed to determine the modulatory role of schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) on volume changes in the total hippocampus and cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2/3, CA4/dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum over time...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653793/intrinsic-connectivity-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-normal-elderly-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#13
Robin de Flores, Justine Mutlu, Alexandre Bejanin, Julie Gonneaud, Brigitte Landeau, Clémence Tomadesso, Florence Mézenge, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Gaël Chételat
Hippocampal connectivity has been widely described but connectivity specificities of hippocampal subfields and their changes in early AD are poorly known. The aim of this study was to highlight hippocampal subfield networks in healthy elderly (HE) and their changes in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Thirty-six HE and 27 aMCI patients underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Specific intrinsic connectivity of bilateral CA1, SUB (subiculum), and CA2/3/4/DG was identified in HE (using seeds derived from manually delineation on high-resolution scans) and compared between HE and aMCI...
June 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645087/ep2-receptor-agonist-ono-ae1-259-01-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-and-pilocarpine-induced-seizures-but-causes-hippocampal-neurotoxicity
#14
Aline Carré Santos, Fernanda Rossatto Temp, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Micheli Mainardi Pillat, Amanda Titzel Hessel, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Lígia Gomes Miyazato, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Carlos Fernando Mello
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disease affecting more than 50 million people worldwide. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggests that inflammatory pathways contribute to the development of seizures in various forms of epilepsy. In this context, while the activation of the PGE2 EP2 receptor causes early neuroprotective and late neurotoxic effects, the role of EP2 receptor in seizures remains unclear. We investigated whether the systemic administration of the highly selective EP2 agonist ONO-AE1-259-01 prevented acute pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and pilocarpine-induced seizures...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629541/stress-and-loss-of-adult-neurogenesis-differentially-reduce-hippocampal-volume
#15
Timothy J Schoenfeld, Hayley C McCausland, H Douglas Morris, Varun Padmanaban, Heather A Cameron
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume loss is a hallmark of clinical depression. Chronic stress produces volume loss in the hippocampus in humans and atrophy of CA3 pyramidal cells and suppression of adult neurogenesis in rodents. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between decreased adult neurogenesis and stress-induced changes in hippocampal structure and volume, we compared the effects of chronic unpredictable restraint stress and inhibition of neurogenesis in a rat pharmacogenetic model...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603791/automatic-hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-from-3t-multi-modality-images
#16
Zhengwang Wu, Yaozong Gao, Feng Shi, Valerie Jewells, Dinggang Shen
Hippocampal subfields play important and divergent roles in both memory formation and early diagnosis of many neurological diseases, but automatic subfield segmentation is less explored due to its small size and poor image contrast. In this paper, we propose an automatic learning-based hippocampal subfields segmentation framework using multi-modality 3TMR images, including T1 MRI and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). To do this, we first acquire both 3T and 7T T1 MRIs for each training subject, and then the 7T T1 MRI are linearly registered onto the 3T T1 MRI...
October 2016: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587896/development-of-a-histologically-validated-segmentation-protocol-for-the-hippocampal-body
#17
Trevor A Steve, Clarissa L Yasuda, Roland Coras, Mohjevan Lail, Ingmar Blumcke, Daniel J Livy, Nikolai Malykhin, Donald W Gross
BACKGROUND: Recent findings have demonstrated that hippocampal subfields can be selectively affected in different disease states, which has led to efforts to segment the human hippocampus with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no studies have examined the histological accuracy of subfield segmentation protocols. The presence of MRI-visible anatomical landmarks with known correspondence to histology represents a fundamental prerequisite for in vivo hippocampal subfield segmentation...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583883/preferential-susceptibility-of-limbic-cortices-to-microstructural-damage-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-quantitative-t1-mapping-study
#18
Boris C Bernhardt, Fatemeh Fadaie, Reinder Vos De Wael, Seok-Jun Hong, Min Liu, Marie C Guiot, David A Rudko, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi
The majority of MRI studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have utilized morphometry to map widespread cortical alterations. Morphological markers, such as cortical thickness or grey matter density, reflect combinations of biological events largely driven by overall cortical geometry rather than intracortical tissue properties. Because of its sensitivity to intracortical myelin, quantitative measurement of longitudinal relaxation time (qT1) provides and an in vivo proxy for cortical microstructure. Here, we mapped the regional distribution of qT1 in a consecutive cohort of 24 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578804/human-anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volumes-are-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-aging-prior-to-clinical-diagnosis
#19
Rosanna K Olsen, Lok-Kin Yeung, Alix Noly-Gandon, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Victoria M Smith, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
We investigated whether older adults without subjective memory complaints, but who present with cognitive decline in the laboratory, demonstrate atrophy in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Forty community-dwelling older adults were categorized based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance. Total gray/white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter hyperintensity load were quantified from whole-brain T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging scans, whereas hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregion volumes (CA1, dentate gyrus/CA2/3, subiculum, anterolateral and posteromedial entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) were quantified using high-resolution T2-weighted scans...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575862/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-perirhinal-and-parahippocampal-cortices-with-hippocampal-subfields-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yu Sun, Yafei Wang, Jiaming Lu, Rengyuan Liu, Christopher G Schwarz, Hui Zhao, Yue Zhang, Lingyi Xu, Bin Zhu, Bing Zhang, Bing Liu, Suiren Wan, Yun Xu
Most patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease can initially present memory loss. The medial temporal lobes are the brain regions most associated with declarative memory function. As sub-components of the MTL, the perirhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex and hippocampus have also been identified as playing important roles in memory. The functional connectivity between hippocampus subfields and perirhnial cortices as well as parahippocampal cortices among normal cognition controls (NC group, n=33), mild cognitive impairment (MCI group, n=31) and Alzheimer's disease (AD group, n=27) was investigated in this study...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
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