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Hippocampal subfield

L Su, Y O Faluyi, Y T Hong, T D Fryer, E Mak, S Gabel, L Hayes, S Soteriades, G B Williams, R Arnold, L Passamonti, P Vázquez Rodríguez, A Surendranathan, R W Bevan-Jones, J Coles, F Aigbirhio, J B Rowe, J T O'Brien
We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life depression, as a risk factor for dementia, using [(11)C]PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13 controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised [(11)C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Woo Hee Choi, Won Sang Jung, Yoo Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Young Ha Park, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although there is substantial evidence of associations between frontal-striatal circuits and cerebral vascular burden in late-onset depression (LOD), relationships between vascular burden and hippocampal subfields are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between cerebral vascular burden and hippocampal subfield volume in LOD patients. METHODS: Fifty subjects with LOD and 50 group-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Emily White, Cristina Pinar, Crystal Bostrom, Alicia Meconi, Brian Ross Christie
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming recognized as a significant concern in modern society. In particular, juveniles are being increasingly seen as a vulnerable time period for mTBI, as this is the final developmental period for the brain and typically involves robust synaptic reorganization and axonal myelination. Another issue that is being hotly debated is whether mTBI differentially impacts the male and female brain. To examine the impact of mTBI in the juvenile brain, we measured hippocampal synaptic plasticity using a closed-head mTBI model in male and female Long-Evans rats (25-28 days of age) at either one hour, one day, seven days, or 28 days post-injury...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hardy Hagena, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Although the mossy fiber (MF) synapses of the hippocampal CA3 region display quite distinct properties in terms of the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic plasticity, they nonetheless exhibit persistent (>24 h) synaptic plasticity that is akin to that observed at the Schaffer collateral (SCH)-CA1 and perforant path (PP)-dentate gyrus (DG) synapses of freely behaving rats. In addition, they also respond to novel spatial learning with very enduring forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Sarah M Szymkowicz, Molly E McLaren, Andrew O'Shea, Adam J Woods, Stephen D Anton, Vonetta M Dotson
AIM: Major depression is associated with hippocampal volume changes, especially in late-life depression. These changes usually consist of volume reductions, but depression-related increases in hippocampal volume have also been reported. Subfield analysis has identified structural changes primarily in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2-3 and subiculum of the hippocampus in individuals with major depression; however, it is unclear whether lower levels of depressive symptoms are also associated volume reduction, or if depressive symptoms interact with age to impact hippocampal subfields...
October 2, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Stevenson Baker, Paula Vieweg, Fuqiang Gao, Asaf Gilboa, Thomas Wolbers, Sandra E Black, R Shayna Rosenbaum
Our day-to-day experiences are often similar to one another, occurring in the same place at the same time of day, with common people and objects, and with a shared purpose. Humans have an episodic memory to represent unique, personal events that are rich in detail [1]. For this to occur, at least two basic neural mechanisms are required: one to orthogonalize or "separate" overlapping input patterns at encoding and another to reinstate or "complete" memories from partial cues at retrieval [2-6]. To what extent do these purported "pattern separation" and "pattern completion" mechanisms rely on distinct subfields of the hippocampus [6]? Computational models [4-6] and lesion and genetic studies in rodents [7-12] largely point to the dentate gyrus as responsible for pattern separation and the CA3 and CA1 subfields for pattern completion (but see [13-16])...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
L E M Wisse, D H Adler, R Ittyerah, J B Pluta, J L Robinson, T Schuck, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman, J A Detre, M A Elliott, J B Toledo, W Liu, S Pickup, S R Das, D A Wolk, P A Yushkevich
Multiple techniques for quantification of hippocampal subfields from in vivo MRI have been proposed. Linking in vivo MRI to the underlying histology can help validate and improve these techniques. High-resolution ex vivo MRI can provide an intermediate modality to map information between these very different imaging modalities. This article evaluates the ability to match information between in vivo and ex vivo MRI in the same subjects. We perform rigid and deformable registration on 10 pairs of in vivo (3 T, 0...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Yoshihisa Ishihara, Takaichi Fukuda
The subiculum is the output component of the hippocampal formation and holds a key position in the neural circuitry of memory. Previous studies have demonstrated the subiculum's connectivity to other brain areas in detail; however, little is known regarding its internal structure. We investigated the cytoarchitecture of the temporal and mid-septotemporal parts of the subiculum using immunohistochemistry. The border between the CA1 region and subiculum was determined by both cytoarchitecture and zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3)-immunoreactivity (IR), whereas the border between the subiculum and presubiculum (PreS) was partially indicated by glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1)-IR...
September 21, 2016: Neuroscience
Andrea R Zammit, Ali Ezzati, Molly E Zimmerman, Richard B Lipton, Michael L Lipton, Mindy J Katz
INTRODUCTION: Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N...
September 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Manus J Donahue, Stephan Heckers
Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Riley Edward Perszyk, John O DiRaddo, Katie L Strong, Chian-Ming Low, Kevin K Ogden, Alpa Khatri, Geoffrey A Vargish, Kenneth A Pelkey, Ludovic Tricoire, Dennis C Liotta, Yoland Smith, Chris J McBain, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamatergic receptors that have been implicated in learning, development, and neuropathological conditions. They are typically composed of GluN1 and GluN2A-D subunits. Whereas a great deal is known about the role of GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs, much less is known about GluN2D-containing NMDARs. Here we explore the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs on hippocampal interneurons. GluN2D mRNA was detected by single-cell PCR and in situ hybridization in diverse interneuron subtypes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Eske Christiane Gertje, John Pluta, Sandhitsu Das, Lauren Mancuso, Dasha Kliot, Paul Yushkevich, David Wolk
BACKGROUND: Volumetry of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its earliest symptomatic stage could be of great importance for interventions or disease modifying pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to demonstrate the first application of an automatic segmentation method of MTL subregions in a clinical population. Automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in a research population has previously been shown to detect evidence of neurodegeneration in MTL subregions and to help discriminate AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from a healthy comparison group...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Brendan G Santyr, Maged Goubran, Jonathan C Lau, Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Donald H Lee, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Robert R Hammond, Terry M Peters, Ali R Khan
PURPOSE: To provide a more detailed investigation of hippocampal subfields using 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the identification of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 13) with drug-resistant TLE previously identified by conventional imaging as having hippocampal sclerosis (HS) or not (nine without HS, four HS) and 20 age-matched healthy controls were scanned and compared using a 7T MRI protocol...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Eiran Vadim Harel, Robert Langley Tennyson, Maurizio Fava, Moshe Bar
It has been proposed that mood correlates with the breadth of associative thinking. Here we set this hypothesis to the test in healthy and depressed individuals. Generating contextual associations engages a network of cortical regions including the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), retrosplenial complex, and medial prefrontal cortex. The link between mood, associative processing, and its underlying cortical infrastructure provides a promising avenue for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairments in major depressive disorder (MDD)...
August 23, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
A Veronica Witte, Theresa Köbe, Anders Graunke, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Agnes Flöel
Metabolic changes have been suggested to contribute to dementia and its precursor mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet previous results particularly for the "satiety hormone" leptin are mixed. Therefore, we aimed to determine if MCI patients show systematic differences in leptin, independent of sex, adipose mass, age, and glucose and lipid metabolism, and whether leptin levels correlated with memory performance and hippocampal integrity. Forty MCI patients (20 females, aged 67 years ± 7 SD) were compared to 40 healthy controls (HC) that were pair-wise matched for sex, age, and body fat...
August 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Daichi Sone, Noriko Sato, Norihide Maikusa, Miho Ota, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Yukio Kimura, Etsuko Imabayashi, Yutaka Watanabe, Masako Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Teiichi Onuma, Hiroshi Matsuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Automated subfield volumetry of hippocampus is desirable for use in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but its utility has not been established. Automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields (ASHS) and the new version of FreeSurfer software (ver.6.0) using high-resolution T2-weighted MR imaging are candidates for this volumetry. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal subfields in TLE patients using ASHS as well as the old and new versions of FreeSurfer...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Paul D Whissell, Sinziana Avramescu, Dian-Shi Wang, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors) contribute to memory performance. Dysregulation of δGABAA receptor expression, which occurs in some neurological disorders, is associated with memory impairment. Mice lacking δGABAA receptors (Gabrd) exhibit deficits in their ability to distinguish between similar memories, a process which is referred to as pattern separation. The CA3 and dentate gyrus subfields of the hippocampus regulate pattern separation, raising the possibility that synaptic plasticity is impaired in these regions in Gabrd mice...
July 26, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ruben G F Hendriksen, Sandra Schipper, Govert Hoogland, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Marlien W Aalbers, Johan S H Vles
OBJECTIVE: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ilias A K Ziogas, Lazaros C Triarhou
Anders Retzius (1796-1860), a renowned Swedish scientist, left important contributions to human and animal anatomy. He was the first to discover, in 1856, two small bulges as part of the medial segment of the hippocampal tail. These convolutions were named "gyri Andreae Retzii" by his son, Gustaf Retzius (1842-1919), in honor of their discoverer, his father. The gyri of Anders Retzius consist of a CA1 subfield and the subiculum. These areas feature marked connections with the entorhinal cortex and other hippocampal subfields...
November 2016: Neurological Sciences
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