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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315949/transcriptome-based-analyses-of-phosphite-mediated-suppression-of-rust-pathogens-puccinia-emaculata-and-phakopsora-pachyrhizi-and-functional-characterization-of-selected-fungal-target-genes
#1
Upinder S Gill, Liang Sun, Sachin Rustgi, Yuhong Tang, Diter von Wettstein, Kirankumar S Mysore
Phosphite (Phi) is commercially used to manage diseases mainly caused by Oomycetes, primarily due to its low-cost compared to other fungicides, and persistent control of oomycetous pathogens. We explored the use of Phi in controlling fungal pathogens Puccinia emaculata and Phakopsora pachyrhizi the causal agents of the switchgrass rust and the Asian soybean rust, respectively. Phi primes host defenses and efficiently inhibits growth of P. emaculata, P. pachyrhizi, and several other fungal pathogens tested. To understand the Phi-mediated effects, a detailed molecular analysis was undertaken in both the host and the pathogen...
January 6, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274857/phosphoric-acid-based-pretreatment-of-switchgrass-and-fermentation-of-entire-slurry-to-ethanol-using-a-simplified-process
#2
Wei Wu, Vanessa Rondon, Kalvin Weeks, Pratap Pullammanappallil, Lonnie O Ingram, K T Shanmugam
Switchgrass (Alamo) was pretreated with phosphoric acid (0.75 and 1%, w/w) at three temperatures (160, 175 and 190 °C) and time (5, 7.5 and 10 min) using a steam gun. The slurry after pretreatment was liquefied by enzymes and the released sugars were fermented in a simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process to ethanol using ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain SL100. Among the three variables in pretreatment, temperature and time were critical in supporting ethanol titer and yield. Enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the concentration of furans in slurries, apparently due to release of furans bound to the solids...
December 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213323/defined-tetra-allelic-gene-disruption-of-the-4-coumarate-coenzyme-a-ligase-1-pv4cl1-gene-by-crispr-cas9-in-switchgrass-results-in-lignin-reduction-and-improved-sugar-release
#3
Jong-Jin Park, Chang Geun Yoo, Amy Flanagan, Yunqiao Pu, Smriti Debnath, Yaxin Ge, Arthur J Ragauskas, Zeng-Yu Wang
Background: The development of genome editing technologies offers new prospects in improving bioenergy crops like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Switchgrass is an outcrossing species with an allotetraploid genome (2n = 4x = 36), a complexity which forms an impediment to generating homozygous knock-out plants. Lignin, a major component of the plant cell wall and a contributor to cellulosic feedstock's recalcitrance to decomposition, stands as a barrier to efficient biofuel production by limiting enzyme access to cell wall polymers during the fermentation process...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213317/dynamic-changes-in-transcriptome-and-cell-wall-composition-underlying-brassinosteroid-mediated-lignification-of-switchgrass-suspension-cells
#4
Xiaolan Rao, Hui Shen, Sivakumar Pattathil, Michael G Hahn, Ivana Gelineo-Albersheim, Debra Mohnen, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas, Xin Chen, Fang Chen, Richard A Dixon
Background: Plant cell walls contribute the majority of plant biomass that can be used to produce transportation fuels. However, the complexity and variability in composition and structure of cell walls, particularly the presence of lignin, negatively impacts their deconstruction for bioenergy. Metabolic and genetic changes associated with secondary wall development in the biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have yet to be reported. Results: Our previous studies have established a cell suspension system for switchgrass, in which cell wall lignification can be induced by application of brassinolide (BL)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213314/field-grown-mir156-transgenic-switchgrass-reproduction-yield-global-gene-expression-analysis-and-bioconfinement
#5
Chelsea R Johnson, Reginald J Millwood, Yuhong Tang, Jiqing Gou, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Yi Sang, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetic engineering has been effective in altering cell walls for biofuel production in the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). However, regulatory issues arising from gene flow may prevent commercialization of engineered switchgrass in the eastern United States where the species is native. Depending on its expression level, microRNA156 (miR156) can reduce, delay, or eliminate flowering, which may serve to decrease transgene flow. In this unique field study of transgenic switchgrass that was permitted to flower, two low (T14 and T35) and two medium (T27 and T37) miR156-overexpressing 'Alamo' lines with the transgene under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin 1 promoter, along with nontransgenic control plants, were grown in eastern Tennessee over two seasons...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213307/the-effect-of-switchgrass-loadings-on-feedstock-solubilization-and-biofuel-production-by-clostridium-thermocellum
#6
Tobin J Verbeke, Gabriela M Garcia, James G Elkins
Background: Efficient deconstruction and bioconversion of solids at high mass loadings is necessary to produce industrially relevant titers of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. To date, only a few studies have investigated the effect of solids loadings on microorganisms of interest for consolidated bioprocessing. Here, the effects that various switchgrass loadings have on Clostridium thermocellum solubilization and bioconversion are investigated. Results: Clostridium thermocellum was grown for 10 days on 10, 25, or 50 g/L switchgrass or Avicel at equivalent glucan loadings...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213306/the-tceg1-beetle-tribolium-castaneum-cellulase-produced-in-transgenic-switchgrass-is-active-at-alkaline-ph-and-auto-hydrolyzes-biomass-for-increased-cellobiose-release
#7
Jonathan D Willis, Joshua N Grant, Mitra Mazarei, Lindsey M Kline, Caroline S Rempe, A Grace Collins, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Mark F Davis, Nicole Labbe, Juan L Jurat-Fuentes, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetically engineered biofuel crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), that produce their own cell wall-digesting cellulase enzymes would reduce costs of cellulosic biofuel production. To date, non-bioenergy plant models have been used in nearly all studies assessing the synthesis and activity of plant-produced fungal and bacterial cellulases. One potential source for cellulolytic enzyme genes is herbivorous insects adapted to digest plant cell walls. Here we examine the potential of transgenic switchgrass-produced TcEG1 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197776/ultrafast-fractionation-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-by-microwave-assisted-deep-eutectic-solvent-pretreatment
#8
Zhu Chen, Caixia Wan
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have received increasing attention in recent years as designer solvents for bioprocessing. In this study, ultrafast microwave-assisted DES pretreatment was developed for lignocellulose fractionation. The pretreatment was conducted for 45 s with microwave irradiation at 800 W using a DES composed of choline chloride and lactic acid (ChCl: LA). The results indicated that such pretreatment was highly effective in removing lignin and xylan while retaining most of cellulose in the pretreated solids...
November 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197268/de-novo-generation-of-helper-virus-satellite-chimera-rnas-results-in-disease-attenuation-and-satellite-sequence-acquisition-in-a-host-dependent-manner
#9
Jesse D Pyle, K-B G Scholthof
Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a helper RNA virus for satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and a satellite virus (SPMV). Here, we describe modifications that occur at the 3'-end of a satRNA of PMV, satS. Co-infections of PMV+satS result in attenuation of the disease symptoms induced by PMV alone in Brachypodium distachyon and proso millet. The 375 nt satS acquires ~100-200 nts from the 3'-end of PMV during infection and is associated with decreased abundance of the PMV RNA and capsid protein in millet. PMV-satS chimera RNAs were isolated from native infections of St...
November 29, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178399/cascade-production-of-lactic-acid-from-universal-types-of-sugars-catalyzed-by-lanthanum-triflate
#10
Dajiang Liu, Kwang Ho Kim, Jian Sun, Blake Simmons, Seema Singh
Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to value-added platform chemicals in the non-toxic, water-tolerant Lewis acid, and water solutions bears the hallmark of green chemistry. Lactic acid derived from biomass is an important chemical building block for biodegradable polymers such as polylactide. Herein, a universal method of converting lignocellulosic sugars to lactic acid using catalytic amount of water-stable Lewis acid La(OTf)3 is demonstrated. The lignocellulosic sugars studied in this work include 1) pyrolytic sugars from pyrolysis oil, and 2) sugars derived from ionic liquid (IL)-pretreated biomass...
November 27, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166649/extended-light-exposure-increases-stem-digestibility-and-biomass-production-of-switchgrass
#11
Chunqiao Zhao, Xifeng Fan, Xincun Hou, Yi Zhu, Yuesen Yue, Juying Wu
Switchgrass is a photoperiod-sensitive energy grass suitable for growing in the marginal lands of China. We explored the effects of extended photoperiods of low-irradiance light (7 μmol·m-2·s-1, no effective photosynthesis) on the growth, the biomass dry weight, the biomass allocation, and, especially, the stem digestibility and cell wall characteristics of switchgrass. Two extended photoperiods (i.e., 18 and 24 h) were applied over Alamo. Extended light exposure (18 and 24 h) resulted in delayed heading and higher dry weights of vegetative organs (by 32...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140641/agricultural-worker-injury-comparative-risk-assessment-methodology-assessing-corn-and-biofuel-switchgrass-production-systems
#12
Charles V Schwab, Gretchen A Mosher, Saxon J Ryan
Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124514/anaerobic-microplate-assay-for-direct-microbial-conversion-of-switchgrass-and-avicel-using-clostridium-thermocellum
#13
Gbekeloluwa B Oguntimein, Miguel Rodriguez, Alexandru Dumitrache, Todd Shollenberger, Stephen R Decker, Brian H Davison, Steven D Brown
OBJECTIVE: To develop and prototype a high-throughput microplate assay to assess anaerobic microorganisms and lignocellulosic biomasses in a rapid, cost-effective screen for consolidated bioprocessing potential. RESULTS: Clostridium thermocellum parent Δhpt strain deconstructed Avicel to cellobiose, glucose, and generated lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol as fermentation products in titers and ratios similar to larger scale fermentations confirming the suitability of a plate-based method for C...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123463/switchgrass-pvdreb1c-plays-opposite-roles-in-plant-cold-and-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco
#14
Wuwu Wen, Zheni Xie, Guohui Yu, Chengliang Zhao, Jing Zhang, Linkai Huang, Bin Xu, Bingru Huang
Background: The C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding factors (CBF/DREBs) comprise a key transcription factor family involved in plant stress tolerance. Yet, there is limited information about switchgrass DREB genes and their functional roles. Results: In this study, four cold-inducible PvDREB1s were identified from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), among which PvDREB1C was the one responded to cold stress later than the other three PvDREB1s. Yet, ectopic overexpression of PvDREB1C led to significantly compromised, instead of improved cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115936/analyses-of-methylomes-of-upland-and-lowland-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-ecotypes-using-medip-seq-and-bs-seq
#15
Mollee Dworkin, Shaojun Xie, Malay Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103721/effects-of-alternative-deep-bedding-options-on-dairy-cow-preference-lying-behavior-cleanliness-and-teat-end-contamination
#16
T Wolfe, E Vasseur, T J DeVries, R Bergeron
Cows spend more time lying down when stalls are soft and dry, and bedding plays a key role in the comfort of the lying surface. The first objective of this study (experiment 1) was to compare cow preference for 2 types of alternative deep-bedding materials, switchgrass and switchgrass-lime, using wheat straw on a rubber mat as a control. Nine Holstein lactating cows were submitted in trios to a 3-choice preference test over 14 d (2 d of adaptation, 3 d of restriction to each stall, and 3 d of free access to all 3 stalls)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101202/expression-of-a-cellobiose-phosphorylase-from-thermotoga-maritima-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-improves-the-phosphorolytic-pathway-and-results-in-a-dramatic-increase-in-cellulolytic-activity
#17
Sun-Ki Kim, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble, Janet Westpheling
Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to deconstruct and grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment and a genetically tractable species, C. bescii, was recently engineered to produce ethanol directly from switchgrass. C. bescii contains more than 50 glycosyl-hydrolases and a suite of extracellular enzymes for biomass deconstruction, most prominently CelA, a multi-domain cellulase that uses a novel mechanism to deconstruct plant biomass. Accumulation of cellobiose, a product of CelA during growth on biomass, inhibits cellulase activity...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069481/enhanced-cold-tolerance-and-tillering-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-by-heterologous-expression-of-osa-mir393a
#18
Yanrong Liu, Kexin Wang, Dayong Li, Jianping Yan, Wanjun Zhang
MicroRNA393 (miR393) family is one of the conserved miRNA families in the plant kingdom. MiR393 was reported to positively regulate rice tillering and abiotic stress resistances through auxin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the function of miR393 in switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), an important bioenergy C4 grass plant. We tested the expression level of miR393 and its four putative target genes ( PvAFB1 , PvAFB2 , PvAFB3 and PvTIR1 ) in switchgrass, and found these genes were all responded to cold stress and exogenous NAA treatment...
October 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030891/seasonal-below-ground-metabolism-in-switchgrass
#19
N A Palmer, A J Saathoff, E D Scully, C M Tobias, P Twigg, S Madhavan, M Schmer, R Cahoon, S E Sattler, S J Edmé, R B Mitchell, G Sarath
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a perennial, polyploid, C4 warm-season grass is among the foremost herbaceous species being advanced as a source of biomass for biofuel end uses. At the end of every growing season, the aerial tissues senesce, and the below-ground rhizomes become dormant. Future growth is dependent on the successful over-wintering of the rhizomes. Although the importance of rhizome health to overall year-upon-year plant productivity has been long recognized, there is limited information on seasonal changes occurring during dormancy at both the transcriptome and metabolite levels...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986379/functional-analysis-of-the-glucan-degradation-locus-gdl-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-reveals-essential-roles-of-component-glycoside-hydrolases-in-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#20
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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