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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432390/biomass-resources-agriculture
#1
Ingeborg N Kluts, Marnix L J Brinkman, Sierk A de Jong, H Martin Junginger
Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others) biorefinery purposes in the European Union. The main application of these feedstocks is currently the production of biofuels for road transport. Biodiesel makes up 80% of the European biofuel production, mainly from rapeseed oil, and the remaining part is bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424710/identification-and-characterization-of-microrna319a-and-its-putative-target-gene-pvpcf5-in-the-bioenergy-grass-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum
#2
Qi Xie, Xue Liu, Yinbing Zhang, Jinfu Tang, Dedong Yin, Bo Fan, Lihuang Zhu, Liebao Han, Guilong Song, Dayong Li
Due to its high biomass yield, low environmental impact, and widespread adaptability to poor soils and harsh conditions, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-region perennial herbaceous plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. However, little is known about microRNAs (miRNAs) and their functions in this bioenergy grass. Here, we identified and characterized a miRNA gene, Pvi-MIR319a, encoding microRNA319a in switchgrass. Transgenic rice lines generated by overexpressing the Pvi-MIR319a precursor gene exhibited broader leaves and delayed flowering compared with the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421093/enhanced-growth-performance-and-salinity-tolerance-in-transgenic-switchgrass-via-overexpressing-vacuolar-na-k-h-antiporter-gene-pvnhx1
#3
Yanhua Huang, Cong Guan, Yanrong Liu, Baoyue Chen, Shan Yuan, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been increasingly recognized as one of the most valuable perennial bioenergy crop. To improve its biomass production, especially under salt stress, we isolated a putative vacuolar Na(+) (K(+))/H(+) antiporter gene from switchgrass and designated as PvNHX1. Subcellular localization revealed that this protein was localized mainly on the vacuole membrane. The PvNHX1 was found to be expressed throughout the entire growth period of switchgrass, exhibited preferentially expressed in the leaf tissue, and highly induced by salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407550/potential-phosphorus-eutrophication-mitigation-strategy-biochar-carbon-composition-thermal-stability-and-ph-influence-phosphorus-sorption
#4
L W Ngatia, Y P Hsieh, D Nemours, R Fu, R W Taylor
Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C...
April 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402789/rust-fungi-on-panicum
#5
Jill E Demers, Miao Liu, Sarah Hambleton, Lisa A Castlebury
Rusts are economically important diseases of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and other Paniceae grasses. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuc rDNA 5.8S internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2), partial 28S region, and intergenic spacer region (IGS) of nuc rDNA showed that species of rust fungi infecting switchgrass are closely related within Puccinia. Variation among rbcLa sequences for the associated hosts sampled concurred with the original identifications. Five species infecting switchgrass were recognized: Puccinia graminicola (≡ Uromyces graminicola), P...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390505/root-endophytic-fungal-communities-associated-with-pitch-pine-switchgrass-and-rosette-grass-in-the-pine-barrens-ecosystem
#6
Jing Luo, Emily Walsh, Stephen Miller, David Blystone, John Dighton, Ning Zhang
Almost all plants in nature harbour fungi in their roots but the knowledge on distribution and the underlying principles of assemblage is still poorly developed for the root-associated fungi. In this study we analysed the root endophytic fungal communities associated with switchgrass, rosette grass, and pitch pine in the acidic, oligotrophic pine barrens ecosystem. A total of 434 fungal isolates were obtained from 600 root segments of 60 plant samples. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses identified 92 fungal species, which belong to 39 genera in six classes...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386674/microplate-based-evaluation-of-the-sugar-yield-from-giant-reed-giant-miscanthus-and-switchgrass-after-mild-chemical-pre-treatments-and-hydrolysis-with-tailored-trichoderma-enzymatic-blends
#7
Stefano Cianchetta, Luca Bregoli, Stefania Galletti
Giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. Blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substrates, thus ten selected Trichoderma isolates, including the hypercellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30, were grown on giant reed, miscanthus, or switchgrass-based substrates...
April 6, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334199/stepwise-inference-of-likely-dynamic-flux-distributions-from-metabolic-time-series-data
#8
Mojdeh Faraji, Eberhard O Voit
Motivation: Most metabolic pathways contain more reactions than metabolites and therefore have a wide stoichiometric matrix that corresponds to infinitely many possible flux distributions that are perfectly compatible with the dynamics of the metabolites in a given dataset. This under-determinedness poses a challenge for the quantitative characterization of flux distributions from time series data and thus for the design of adequate, predictive models. Here we propose a method that reduces the degrees of freedom in a stepwise manner and leads to a dynamic flux distribution that is, in a statistical sense, likely to be close to the true distribution...
March 7, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304245/kineothrix-alysoides-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-saccharolytic-butyrate-producer-within-the-family-lachnospiraceae
#9
Kelly Nicole Haas, Jeffrey L Blanchard
An anaerobic, saccharolytic, spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain KNHs209T, was isolated from a switchgrass microcosm seeded with forest soil. Cells were highly motile rods, often forming long filamentous chains which were easily observed moving under the microscope. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Eisenbergiella tayi (16S rRNA gene sequence identity 94.2 %), although it was easily distinguishable based on its morphology and physiology. Whole-genome sequencing enabled development of a minimal medium, and also suggested that the organism is capable of fixing nitrogen...
February 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264034/overexpression-of-the-wox-gene-stenofolia-improves-biomass-yield-and-sugar-release-in-transgenic-grasses-and-display-altered-cytokinin-homeostasis
#10
Hui Wang, Lifang Niu, Chunxiang Fu, Yingying Meng, Dajun Sang, Pengcheng Yin, Jinxia Wu, Yuhong Tang, Tiegang Lu, Zeng-Yu Wang, Million Tadege, Hao Lin
Lignocellulosic biomass can be a significant source of renewable clean energy with continued improvement in biomass yield and bioconversion strategies. In higher plants, the leaf blade is the central energy convertor where solar energy and CO2 are assimilated to make the building blocks for biomass production. Here we report that introducing the leaf blade development regulator STENOFOLIA (STF), a WOX family transcription factor, into the biofuel crop switchgrass, significantly improves both biomass yield and sugar release...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#11
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209137/transcriptional-analysis-of-defense-mechanisms-in-upland-tetraploid-switchgrass-to-greenbugs
#12
Teresa Donze-Reiner, Nathan A Palmer, Erin D Scully, Travis J Prochaska, Kyle G Koch, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Jeffrey D Bradshaw, Paul Twigg, Keenan Amundsen, Scott E Sattler, Gautam Sarath
BACKGROUND: Aphid infestation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has the potential to reduce yields and biomass quality. Although switchgrass-greenbug (Schizaphis graminum; GB) interactions have been studied at the whole plant level, little information is available on plant defense responses at the molecular level. RESULTS: The global transcriptomic response of switchgrass cv Summer to GB was monitored by RNA-Seq in infested and control (uninfested) plants harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days after infestation (DAI)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165761/bio-and-phytoremediation-of-total-petroleum-hydrocarbons-tph-under-various-conditions
#13
Patrick McIntosh, Cristian P Schulthess, Yulia A Kuzovkina, Karl Guillard
Remediation of contaminated soils is often studied using fine textured soils rather than low-fertility sandy soils, and few studies focus on recontamination events. This study compared aerobic and anaerobic treatments for remediation of freshly introduced used motor oil on a sandy soil previously phytoremediated and bioacclimated (microorganisms already adapted in the soil environment) with some residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. Vegetated and unvegetated conditions to remediate anthropogenic fill containing residual TPH that was spiked with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) were evaluated in a 90-day greenhouse pot study...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160678/phenoxy-herbicide-removal-from-aqueous-solutions-using-fast-pyrolysis-switchgrass-biochar
#14
Matthew Essandoh, Daniel Wolgemuth, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan, Todd Mlsna
The release of herbicides is known to negatively impact humans and the environment. We report the use of a low cost biochar (prepared through fast pyrolysis) to successfully remove phenoxy herbicides from aqueous solutions. The biochar was characterized using: FT-IR, SEM, pHpzc, elemental analysis, and surface area measurements. Sorption experiments were run at pH values from 2 to 10, adsorbate concentrations from 25 to 300 mg/L and temperatures from 25 to 45 °C. Adsorption isotherms were evaluated from 25 to 45 °C using both two parameter (Freundlich and Langmuir) and three parameter (Redlich-Peterson and Toth) adsorption isotherm models...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115990/stochastic-techno-economic-analysis-of-alcohol-to-jet-fuel-production
#15
Guolin Yao, Mark D Staples, Robert Malina, Wallace E Tyner
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) is one of the technical feasible biofuel technologies. It produces jet fuel from sugary, starchy, and lignocellulosic biomass, such as sugarcane, corn grain, and switchgrass, via fermentation of sugars to ethanol or other alcohols. This study assesses the ATJ biofuel production pathway for these three biomass feedstocks, and advances existing techno-economic analyses of biofuels in three ways. First, we incorporate technical uncertainty for all by-products and co-products though statistical linkages between conversion efficiencies and input and output levels...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092137/isolation-and-characterization-of-rhizobium-sp-strain-ys-1r-that-degrades-lignin-in-plant-biomass
#16
C A Jackson, M B Couger, M Prabhakaran, K D Ramachandriya, P Canaan, B Z Fathepure
AIMS: The aim of this work was to isolate novel lignin-degrading organisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several pure cultures of bacteria that degrade lignin were isolated from bacterial consortia developed from decaying biomass. Among the isolates, Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r (closest relative of Rhizobium petrolearium strain SL-1) was explored for its lignin-degrading ability. Microcosm studies showed that strain YS-1r was able to degrade a variety of lignin monomers, dimers and also native lignin in switchgrass and alfalfa...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077967/integrated-omics-analyses-reveal-the-details-of-metabolic-adaptation-of-clostridium-thermocellum-to-lignocellulose-derived-growth-inhibitors-released-during-the-deconstruction-of-switchgrass
#17
Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Miguel Rodriguez, Babu Raman, Madhavi Z Martin, Nancy L Engle, Jonathan R Mielenz, Intawat Nookaew, Steven D Brown, Timothy J Tschaplinski, David Ussery, Robert L Hettich
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is capable of solubilizing and converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Although much of the work-to-date has centered on characterizing this microbe's growth on model cellulosic substrates, such as cellobiose, Avicel, or filter paper, it is vitally important to understand its metabolism on more complex, lignocellulosic substrates to identify relevant industrial bottlenecks that could undermine efficient biofuel production. To this end, we have examined a time course progression of C...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053668/study-of-traits-and-recalcitrance-reduction-of-field-grown-comt-down-regulated-switchgrass
#18
Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Chang Geun Yoo, Erica Gjersing, Stephen R Decker, Crissa Doeppke, Todd Shollenberger, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Nancy L Engle, Robert W Sykes, Mark F Davis, Holly L Baxter, Mitra Mazarei, Chunxiang Fu, Richard A Dixon, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart, Arthur J Ragauskas
BACKGROUND: The native recalcitrance of plants hinders the biomass conversion process using current biorefinery techniques. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in the lignin biosynthesis pathway of switchgrass reduced the thermochemical and biochemical conversion recalcitrance of biomass. Due to potential environmental influences on lignin biosynthesis and deposition, studying the consequences of physicochemical changes in field-grown plants without pretreatment is essential to evaluate the performance of lignin-altered plants...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034316/high-temperature-carbonized-grass-as-a-high-performance-sodium-ion-battery-anode
#19
Fang Zhang, Yonggang Yao, Jiayu Wan, Doug Henderson, Xiaogang Zhang, Liangbing Hu
Hard carbon is currently considered the most promising anode candidate for room temperature sodium ion batteries because of its relatively high capacity, low cost, and good scalability. In this work, switchgrass as a biomass example was carbonized under an ultrahigh temperature, 2050 °C, induced by Joule heating to create hard carbon anodes for sodium ion batteries. Switchgrass derived carbon materials intrinsically inherit its three-dimensional porous hierarchical architecture, with an average interlayer spacing of 0...
December 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012044/a-survey-of-yeast-from-the-yarrowia-clade-for-lipid-production-in-dilute-acid-pretreated-lignocellulosic-biomass-hydrolysate
#20
Josh Quarterman, Patricia J Slininger, Cletus P Kurtzman, Stephanie R Thompson, Bruce S Dien
Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast species that has attracted attention as a model organism for synthesis of single cell oil. Among over 50 isolates of Y. lipolytica identified, only a few of the strains have been studied extensively. Furthermore, 12 other yeast species were recently assigned to the Yarrowia clade, and most are not well characterized in terms of cell growth and lipid accumulation, especially in industrially relevant conditions. In the present study, we investigated biomass and lipid production by 57 yeast isolates, representing all 13 species in the Yarrowia clade, on a non-detoxified dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass hydrolysate under highly aerobic conditions...
December 23, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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