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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898826/quantitative-trait-loci-mapping-for-tillering-related-traits-in-two-switchgrass-populations
#1
Dan Chang, Yanqi Wu, Linglong Liu, Shuiyi Lu-Thames, Hongxu Dong, Carla Goad, Shiqie Bai, Shiva Makaju, Tilin Fang
Plant tillering and related traits are morphologically important components contributing to switchgrass ( L.) biomass yield. The objectives of this study were to estimate broad-sense heritabilities for tillering-related traits, to analyze correlations between biomass yield and the traits, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for them. A first-generation selfed population of NL94 plant and a hybrid population between NL94 and SL93 plants were field established in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Stillwater and Perkins, OK...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893787/selection-signatures-in-four-lignin-genes-from-switchgrass-populations-divergently-selected-for-in-vitro-dry-matter-digestibility
#2
Shiyu Chen, Shawn M Kaeppler, Kenneth P Vogel, Michael D Casler
Switchgrass is undergoing development as a dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crop. Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in a bioenergy system or to volatile fatty acids in a livestock production system is strongly and negatively influenced by lignification of cell walls. This study detects specific loci that exhibit selection signatures across switchgrass breeding populations that differ in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), ethanol yield, and lignin concentration. Allele frequency changes in candidate genes were used to detect loci under selection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879392/characterization-of-class-iii-peroxidases-from-switchgrass
#3
Timothy W Moural, Kevin M Lewis, Carlo Barnaba, Fang Zhu, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Erin D Scully, Jeffrey P Jones, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specificity of these enzymes, we characterized one of the CIIIPRXs (PviPRX9) from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a strategic plant for 2nd generation biofuels. The crystal structure, kinetic experiments, molecular docking, as well as expression patterns of PviPRX9 across multiple tissues and treatments, along with its levels of coexpression with the majority of genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway, revealed the function of PviPRX9 in lignification...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877177/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-transgenic-melatonin-biosynthesis-ovine-hiomt-gene-in-switchgrass
#4
Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Sijia Liu, Yanhua Huang, Danyang Tian, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Melatonin serves pleiotropic functions in prompting plant growth and resistance to various stresses. The accurate biosynthetic pathway of melatonin remains elusive in plant species, while the N-acetyltransferase and O-methyltransferase were considered to be the last two key enzymes during its biosynthesis. To investigate the biosynthesis and metabolic pathway of melatonin in plants, the RNA-seq profile of overexpression of the ovine HIOMT was analyzed and compared with the previous transcriptome of transgenic oAANAT gene in switchgrass, a model plant for cellulosic ethanol production...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862852/transgenic-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-targeted-for-reduced-recalcitrance-to-bioconversion-a-two-year-comparative-analysis-of-field-grown-lines-modified-for-target-gene-or-genetic-element-expression
#5
Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Kelsey L Yee, Olivia A Thompson, Charleson R Poovaiah, Hui Shen, Mitra Mazarei, Holly L Baxter, Chunxiang Fu, Zeng-Yu Wang, Ajaya K Biswal, Guifen Li, Yuhong Tang, C Neal Stewart, Richard A Dixon, Richard S Nelson, Debra Mohnen, Jonathan Mielenz, Steven D Brown, Brian H Davison
Transgenic Panicum virgatum L. silencing (KD) or over-expressing (OE) specific genes or a small RNA (GAUT4-KD, miRNA156-OE, MYB4-OE, COMT-KD and FPGS-KD) were grown in the field and aerial tissue analyzed for biofuel production traits. Clones representing independent transgenic lines were established and senesced tissue sampled after year one and two growth cycles. Biomass was analyzed for wall sugars, recalcitrance to enzymatic digestibility, and biofuel production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862819/expression-in-grasses-of-multiple-transgenes-for-degradation-of-munitions-compounds-on-live-fire-training-ranges
#6
Long Zhang, Ryan Routsong, Quyen Nguyen, Elizabeth L Rylott, Neil C Bruce, Stuart E Strand
The deposition of toxic munitions compounds, such as hexahydro-1, 3, 5-triniitro-1, 3, 5-trizaine (RDX), on soils around targets in live-fire-training ranges is an important source of groundwater contamination. Plants take up RDX but do not significantly degrade it. Reported here is the transformation of two perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), with the genes for degradation of RDX. These species possess a number of agronomic traits making them well-equipped for the uptake and removal of RDX from root zone leachates...
November 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833622/downregulation-of-a-udp-arabinomutase-gene-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-results-in-increased-cell-wall-lignin-while-reducing-arabinose-glycans
#7
Jonathan D Willis, James A Smith, Mitra Mazarei, Ji-Yi Zhang, Geoffrey B Turner, Stephen R Decker, Robert W Sykes, Charleson R Poovaiah, Holly L Baxter, David G J Mann, Mark F Davis, Michael K Udvardi, Maria J Peña, Jason Backe, Maor Bar-Peled, C N Stewart
Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall's natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827916/switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-intercropping-within-managed-loblolly-pine-pinus-taeda-does-not-affect-wild-bee-communities
#8
Joshua W Campbell, Darren A Miller, James A Martin
Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U...
November 4, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826356/inhibition-of-microbial-biofuel-production-in-drought-stressed-switchgrass-hydrolysate
#9
Rebecca Garlock Ong, Alan Higbee, Scott Bottoms, Quinn Dickinson, Dan Xie, Scott A Smith, Jose Serate, Edward Pohlmann, Arthur Daniel Jones, Joshua J Coon, Trey K Sato, Gregg R Sanford, Dustin Eilert, Lawrence G Oates, Jeff S Piotrowski, Donna M Bates, David Cavalier, Yaoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Interannual variability in precipitation, particularly drought, can affect lignocellulosic crop biomass yields and composition, and is expected to increase biofuel yield variability. However, the effect of precipitation on downstream fermentation processes has never been directly characterized. In order to investigate the impact of interannual climate variability on biofuel production, corn stover and switchgrass were collected during 3 years with significantly different precipitation profiles, representing a major drought year (2012) and 2 years with average precipitation for the entire season (2010 and 2013)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821048/identification-characterization-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-nucleotide-binding-site-nb-type-resistance-gene-homologues-in-switchgrass
#10
Taylor P Frazier, Nathan A Palmer, Fuliang Xie, Christian M Tobias, Teresa J Donze-Reiner, Aureliano Bombarely, Kevin L Childs, Shengqiang Shu, Jerry W Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Baohong Zhang, Gautam Sarath, Bingyu Zhao
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season perennial grass that can be used as a second generation bioenergy crop. However, foliar fungal pathogens, like switchgrass rust, have the potential to significantly reduce switchgrass biomass yield. Despite its importance as a prominent bioenergy crop, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of NB-LRR disease resistance genes has yet to be performed in switchgrass. RESULTS: In this study, we used a homology-based computational approach to identify 1011 potential NB-LRR resistance gene homologs (RGHs) in the switchgrass genome (v 1...
November 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812750/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-upland-vs16-and-lowland-ap13-ecotypes-of-switchgrass
#11
Vasudevan Ayyappan, Malay C Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venkateswara R Sripathi, Ketaki P Bhide, Elizabeth Fiedler, Rita K Hayford, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
Transcriptomes of two switchgrass genotypes representing the upland and lowland ecotypes will be key tools in switchgrass genome annotation and biotic and abiotic stress functional genomics. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important bioenergy feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. We report genome-wide transcriptome profiling of two contrasting tetraploid switchgrass genotypes, VS16 and AP13, representing the upland and lowland ecotypes, respectively. A total of 268 million Illumina short reads (50 nt) were generated, of which, 133 million were obtained in AP13 and the rest 135 million in VS16...
November 3, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762502/methods-for-suspension-culture-protoplast-extraction-and-transformation-of-high-biomass-yielding-perennial-grass-arundo-donax
#12
Gaia Pigna, Taniya Dhillon, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Joshua S Yuan, Connor Gorman, Piero Morandini, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Arundo donax L. is a promising biofuel feedstock in the Mediterranean region. Despite considerable interest in its genetic improvement, Arundo tissue culture and transformation remains arduous. We developed methodologies for cell- and tissue culture and genetic engineering in Arundo. A media screen was conducted, and a suspension culture was established using callus induced from stem axillary bud explants. DBAP medium, containing 9 μM 2,4-D and 4.4 μM BAP, was found to be the most effective medium among those tested for inducing cell suspension cultures, which resulted in a 5-fold increase in tissue mass over 14 days...
October 20, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730286/an-analysis-of-the-climate-change-mitigation-potential-through-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-a-corn-belt-watershed
#13
Mukesh Dev Bhattarai, Silvia Secchi, Justin Schoof
Land-based carbon sequestration constitutes a major low cost and immediately viable option in climate change mitigation. Using downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099, we examine the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed and the impact of climate change on crop yields. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 192...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723010/understanding-the-impacts-of-afex%C3%A2-pretreatment-and-densification-on-the-fast-pyrolysis-of-corn-stover-prairie-cord-grass-and-switchgrass
#14
Vijay Sundaram, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan, Stephen Gent
Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder...
October 8, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695754/comparison-of-the-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-laboratory-and-field-aged-biochars
#15
Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M Aller, David A Laird, Rajesh Chintala
The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695735/an-integrated-landscape-designed-for-commodity-and-bioenergy-crops-for-a-tile-drained-agricultural-watershed
#16
Herbert Ssegane, M Cristina Negri
Locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO-N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668013/genotypic-diversity-effects-on-biomass-production-in-native-perennial-bioenergy-cropping-systems
#17
Geoffrey P Morris, Zhenbin Hu, Paul P Grabowski, Justin O Borevitz, Marie-Anne de Graaff, R Michael Miller, Julie D Jastrow
The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008-2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars - under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs - and quantified establishment, biomass yield, and biomass composition...
September 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626760/conversion-of-ammonia-pretreated-switchgrass-to-biofuel-precursors-by-bacterial-fungal-consortia-under-solid-state-and-submerged-state-cultivation
#18
Abhiney Jain, Sandra H Bediako, William H Baughman, J Michael Henson
AIM: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate bacterial-fungal communities to deconstruct switchgrass to biofuel precursors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial-fungal consortia, mesophilic (25 °C) and thermophilic (50 °C), were enriched from switchgrass bales from which enzyme mixtures were used to deconstruct delignified switchgrass (DSG). The bacterial-fungal consortia were able to produce enzymes including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, xylosidase and pectinase to convert DSG to soluble carbohydrates...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613751/the-genetic-basis-of-upland-lowland-ecotype-divergence-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum
#19
Elizabeth R Milano, David B Lowry, Thomas E Juenger
The evolution of locally adapted ecotypes is a common phenomenon that generates diversity within plant species. However, we know surprisingly little about the genetic mechanisms underlying the locally adapted traits involved in ecotype formation. The genetic architecture underlying locally adapted traits dictates how an organism will respond to environmental selection pressures and has major implications for evolutionary ecology, conservation, and crop breeding. To understand the genetic architecture underlying the divergence of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ecotypes, we constructed a genetic mapping population through a four-way outbred cross between two northern upland and two southern lowland accessions...
September 9, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593432/phytoremediation-of-biosolids-from-an-end-of-life-municipal-lagoon-using-cattail-typha-latifolia-l-and-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#20
Nicholson N Jeke, Adenike O Hassan, Francis Zvomuya
Land spreading of biosolids as a disposal option is expensive and can disperse pathogens and contaminants in the environment. This growth room study examined phytoremediation using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as an alternative to land spreading of biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 3.9 kg of biosolids (dry wt.). Aboveground biomass (AGB) was harvested either once or twice during each 90-d growth period. Switchgrass AGB yield was greater with two harvests than with one harvest during the first 90-d growth period, whereas cattail yield was not affected by harvest frequency...
September 3, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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