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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727080/management-of-native-warm-season-grasses-for-beef-cattle-and-biomass-production-in-the-mid-south-usa
#1
W M Backus, J C Waller, G E Bates, C A Harper, A Saxton, D W McIntosh, J Birckhead, P D Keyser
Native grasses, such as switchgrass (SG; L.), big bluestem (BB; Vitman), indiangrass (IG; Nash), and eastern gamagrass (EG; [L.] L.) may be capable of providing desirable summer forage for cattle as well as a source of biomass for renewable energy. To evaluate that potential, experiments were conducted at 2 locations in Tennessee comparing weaned beef () steers (268 ± 25 kg initial BW) during early-season grazing (Early; 30 d, typically corresponding to May, followed by postdormancy biomass harvest) and full-season grazing (Full, mean duration = 98 d)...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725264/identification-of-developmental-stage-and-anatomical-fraction-contributions-to-cell-wall-recalcitrance-in-switchgrass
#2
Jacob D Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725262/comparison-of-four-glycosyl-residue-composition-methods-for-effectiveness-in-detecting-sugars-from-cell-walls-of-dicot-and-grass-tissues
#3
Ajaya K Biswal, Li Tan, Melani A Atmodjo, Jaclyn DeMartini, Ivana Gelineo-Albersheim, Kimberly Hunt, Ian M Black, Sushree S Mohanty, David Ryno, Charles E Wyman, Debra Mohnen
BACKGROUND: The effective use of plant biomass for biofuel and bioproduct production requires a comprehensive glycosyl residue composition analysis to understand the different cell wall polysaccharides present in the different biomass sources. Here we compared four methods side-by-side for their ability to measure the neutral and acidic sugar composition of cell walls from herbaceous, grass, and woody model plants and bioenergy feedstocks. RESULTS: Arabidopsis, Populus, rice, and switchgrass leaf cell walls, as well as cell walls from Populus wood, rice stems, and switchgrass tillers, were analyzed by (1) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of alditol acetates combined with a total uronic acid assay; (2) carbodiimide reduction of uronic acids followed by GC-MS of alditol acetates; (3) GC-MS of trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives; and (4) high-pressure, anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC)...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718847/effect-of-pretreatment-severity-on-the-cellulose-and-lignin-isolated-from-salix-using-ionosolv-pretreatment
#4
Lisa Weigand, Shahrokh Mostame, Agnieszka Brandt-Talbot, Tom Welton, Jason P Hallett
The ionoSolv pretreatment is a new technique employing protic low-cost ionic liquids and has previously been applied to successfully fractionate switchgrass and the grass Miscanthus giganteus. This study investigates the effect of using the protic ionic liquid solution [N2220][HSO4]80% with two different acid/base ratios (1.02 and 0.98) at 120, 150 and 170 °C on the pretreatment outcome of the hardwood willow. The ionic liquid solution was able to fractionate willow, and a pulp and lignin fraction were recovered after treatment...
July 18, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709073/predictive-modeling-to-de-risk-bio-based-manufacturing-by-adapting-to-variability-in-lignocellulosic-biomass-supply
#5
Akash Narani, Phil Coffman, James Gardner, Chenlin Li, Allison E Ray, Damon S Hartley, Allison Stettler, N V S N Murthy Konda, Blake Simmons, Todd R Pray, Deepti Tanjore
Commercial-scale bio-refineries are designed to process 2000tons/day of single lignocellulosic biomass. Several geographical areas in the United States generate diverse feedstocks that, when combined, can be substantial for bio-based manufacturing. Blending multiple feedstocks is a strategy being investigated to expand bio-based manufacturing outside Corn Belt. In this study, we developed a model to predict continuous envelopes of biomass blends that are optimal for a given pretreatment condition to achieve a predetermined sugar yield or vice versa...
June 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696037/unravelling-biocomplexity-of-electroactive-biofilms-for-producing-hydrogen-from-biomass
#6
Alex J Lewis, Maria F Campa, Terry C Hazen, Abhijeet P Borole
Leveraging nature's biocomplexity for solving human problems requires better understanding of the syntrophic relationships in engineered microbiomes developed in bioreactor systems. Understanding the interactions between microbial players within the community will be key to enhancing conversion and production rates from biomass streams. Here we investigate a bioelectrochemical system employing an enriched microbial consortium for conversion of a switchgrass-derived bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP) into hydrogen via microbial electrolysis (MEC)...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#7
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676804/simultaneous-downregulation-of-mthfr-and-comt-in-switchgrass-affects-plant-performance-and-induces-lesion-mimic-cell-death
#8
Sijia Liu, Chunxiang Fu, Jiqing Gou, Liang Sun, David Huhman, Yunwei Zhang, Zeng-Yu Wang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673868/complete-nucleotide-sequences-and-virion-particle-association-of-two-satellite-rnas-associated-with-panicum-mosaic-virus
#9
Jesse D Pyle, Judit Monis, Karen-Beth G Scholthof
Over six decades ago, panicum mosaic virus (PMV) was identified as the first viral pathogen of cultivated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Subsequently, PMV was demonstrated to support the replication of both a satellite RNA virus (SPMV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) agents during natural infections of host grasses. In this study, we report the isolation and full-length sequences of two PMV satRNAs identified in 1988 from St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) hosts...
June 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671571/improving-processing-and-performance-of-pure-lignin-carbon-fibers-through-hardwood-and-herbaceous-lignin-blends
#10
Omid Hosseinaei, David P Harper, Joseph J Bozell, Timothy G Rials
Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios of yellow poplar:switchgrass lignin blends were prepared (50:50, 75:25, and 85:15 w/w). Chemical composition and thermal properties of lignin samples were determined. Thermal properties of lignins were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666217/toxicity-of-coal-fly-ash-cfa-and-toxicological-response-of-switchgrass-in-mycorrhiza-mediated-cfa-soil-admixtures
#11
Olushola M Awoyemi, E Kudjo Dzantor
Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass...
June 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649264/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-pvhsp20-family-in-switchgrass-motif-genomic-organization-and-identification-of-stress-or-developmental-related-hsp20s
#12
Haidong Yan, Ailing Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiaoyan He, Bin Xu, Guanqi Xie, Zhiming Miao, Xinquan Zhang, Linkai Huang
Hsp20 proteins exist in all plant species and represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) in plants. Hsp20s were known as chaperones maintaining cellular homeostasis during heat or other kinds of abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to understand the phylogenetic relationship, genomic organization, diversification of motif modules, genome localization, expression profiles, and interaction networks of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Hsp20s (PvHsp20s). A total of 63 PvHsp20s were identified with their consensus as well as unique ACD motifs and gene structures analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640964/targeted-mutagenesis-in-tetraploid-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-using-crispr-cas9
#13
Yang Liu, Paul Merrick, Zhengzhi Zhang, Chonghui Ji, Bing Yang, Shui-Zhang Fei
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green fluorescent protein gene containing a 1 bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631209/allelopathic-effects-of-exogenous-phenylalanine-a-comparison-of-four-monocot-species
#14
Barbara R Evans, Garima Bali, Art Ragauskas, Riddhi Shah, Hugh O'Neill, Cory Howard, Fayola Lavenhouse, Dawn Ramirez, Kelly Weston, Kelly Ramey, Valerie Cangemi, Brian Kinney, Claudia Partee, Teresa Ware, Brian Davison
Exogenous phenylalanine stunted annual ryegrass but not switchgrass or winter grain rye, with deuterium incorporation up to 3% from phenyalanine-d 8 . Toxicity to duckweed varied with illumination intensity and glucose uptake. Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin...
June 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625990/bioavailability-of-carbohydrate-content-in-natural-and-transgenic-switchgrasses-for-the-extreme-thermophile-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#15
Jeffrey V Zurawski, Piyum A Khatibi, Hannah O Akinosho, Christopher T Straub, Scott H Compton, Jonathan M Conway, Laura L Lee, Arthur J Ragauskas, Brian H Davison, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
Improving access to the carbohydrate content of lignocellulose is key to reducing recalcitrance for microbial deconstruction and conversion to fuels and chemicals. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii completely solubilizes naked microcrystalline cellulose, yet this transformation is impeded within the context of the plant cell wall by a network of lignin and hemicellulose. Here, the bioavailability of carbohydrates to C. bescii at 70°C was examined for reduced lignin transgenic switchgrass lines COMT3(+) and MYB Trans, their corresponding parental lines (cultivar Alamo) COMT3(-) and MYB WT, and natural variant cultivar Cave-in-Rock (CR)...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620188/ecological-diversity-and-co-occurrence-patterns-of-bacterial-community-through-soil-profile-in-response-to-long-term-switchgrass-cultivation
#16
Shubin He, Lixiang Guo, Mengying Niu, Fuhong Miao, Shuo Jiao, Tianming Hu, Mingxiu Long
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic biofuel feedstock and their effects on bacterial communities in deep soils remain poorly understood. To reveal the responses of bacterial communities to long-term switchgrass cultivation through the soil profile, we examined the shift of soil microbial communities with depth profiles of 0-60 cm in five-year switchgrass cultivation and fallow plots. The Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that switchgrass cultivation significantly increased microbial OTU richness, rather than microbial Shannon diversity; however, there was no significant difference in the structure of microbial communities between switchgrass cultivation and fallow soils...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618279/analyzing-the-impacts-of-three-types-of-biochar-on-soil-carbon-fractions-and-physiochemical-properties-in-a-corn-soybean-rotation
#17
Saroop S Sandhu, David A N Ussiri, Sandeep Kumar, Rajesh Chintala, Sharon K Papiernik, Douglas D Malo, Thomas E Schumacher
Biochar is a solid material obtained when biomass is thermochemically converted in an oxygen-limited environment. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil properties and organic carbon (C) were investigated under controlled conditions, mainly laboratory incubation or greenhouse studies. This 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar on selected soil physical and chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen fractions for two selected soil types (clay loam and a sandy loam soil) under a corn (Zea mays L...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606738/engineering-high-level-production-of-fatty-alcohols-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-from-lignocellulosic-feedstocks
#18
Leo d'Espaux, Amit Ghosh, Weerawat Runguphan, Maren Wehrs, Feng Xu, Oliver Konzock, Ishaan Dev, Melissa Nhan, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Christopher J Petzold, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing...
July 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596552/genome-wide-survey-of-switchgrass-nacs-family-provides-new-insights-into-motif-and-structure-arrangements-and-reveals-stress-related-and-tissue-specific-nacs
#19
Haidong Yan, Ailing Zhang, Yuntian Ye, Bin Xu, Jing Chen, Xiaoyan He, Chengran Wang, Sifan Zhou, Xinquan Zhang, Yan Peng, Xiao Ma, Yanhong Yan, Linkai Huang
NAC proteins comprise of a plant-specific transcription factor (TF) family and play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is the prime candidate and model bioenergy grass across the world. Excavating agronomically valuable genes is important for switchgrass molecular breeding. In this study, a total of 251 switchgrass NAC (PvNACs) family genes clustered into 19 subgroups were analyzed, and those potentially involved in stress response or tissue-specific expression patterns were pinpointed...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581636/influence-of-endophytic-root-bacteria-on-the-growth-cadmium-tolerance-and-uptake-of-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#20
Samreen Afzal, Nahmina Begum, Huihui Zhao, Zhigang Fang, Laiqing Lou, Qingsheng Cai
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five cadmium-tolerant endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) strains on the biomass and cadmium tolerance and accumulation of the bioenergy plant switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) under cadmium (Cd)-contaminated conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five bacterial strains (Bj05, Le14, Ps14, So02, and Bo03) that could tolerate up to 2000 μmol l(-1) CdCl2 with a high Cd-binding capacity were isolated from plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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