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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140641/agricultural-worker-injury-comparative-risk-assessment-methodology-assessing-corn-and-biofuel-switchgrass-production-systems
#1
Charles V Schwab, Gretchen A Mosher, Saxon J Ryan
Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124514/anaerobic-microplate-assay-for-direct-microbial-conversion-of-switchgrass-and-avicel-using-clostridium-thermocellum
#2
Gbekeloluwa B Oguntimein, Miguel Rodriguez, Alexandru Dumitrache, Todd Shollenberger, Stephen R Decker, Brian H Davison, Steven D Brown
OBJECTIVE: To develop and prototype a high-throughput microplate assay to assess anaerobic microorganisms and lignocellulosic biomasses in a rapid, cost-effective screen for consolidated bioprocessing potential. RESULTS: Clostridium thermocellum parent Δhpt strain deconstructed Avicel to cellobiose, glucose, and generated lactic acid, formic acid, acetic acid and ethanol as fermentation products in titers and ratios similar to larger scale fermentations confirming the suitability of a plate-based method for C...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123463/switchgrass-pvdreb1c-plays-opposite-roles-in-plant-cold-and-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco
#3
Wuwu Wen, Zheni Xie, Guohui Yu, Chengliang Zhao, Jing Zhang, Linkai Huang, Bin Xu, Bingru Huang
Background: The C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding factors (CBF/DREBs) comprise a key transcription factor family involved in plant stress tolerance. Yet, there is limited information about switchgrass DREB genes and their functional roles. Results: In this study, four cold-inducible PvDREB1s were identified from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), among which PvDREB1C was the one responded to cold stress later than the other three PvDREB1s. Yet, ectopic overexpression of PvDREB1C led to significantly compromised, instead of improved cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115936/analyses-of-methylomes-of-upland-and-lowland-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-ecotypes-using-medip-seq-and-bs-seq
#4
Mollee Dworkin, Shaojun Xie, Malay Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103721/effects-of-alternative-deep-bedding-options-on-dairy-cow-preference-lying-behavior-cleanliness-and-teat-end-contamination
#5
T Wolfe, E Vasseur, T J DeVries, R Bergeron
Cows spend more time lying down when stalls are soft and dry, and bedding plays a key role in the comfort of the lying surface. The first objective of this study (experiment 1) was to compare cow preference for 2 types of alternative deep-bedding materials, switchgrass and switchgrass-lime, using wheat straw on a rubber mat as a control. Nine Holstein lactating cows were submitted in trios to a 3-choice preference test over 14 d (2 d of adaptation, 3 d of restriction to each stall, and 3 d of free access to all 3 stalls)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101202/expression-of-a-cellobiose-phosphorylase-from-thermotoga-maritima-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-improves-the-phosphorolytic-pathway-and-results-in-a-dramatic-increase-in-cellulolytic-activity
#6
Sun-Ki Kim, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble, Janet Westpheling
Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to deconstruct and grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment and a genetically tractable species, C. bescii, was recently engineered to produce ethanol directly from switchgrass. C. bescii contains more than 50 glycosyl-hydrolases and a suite of extracellular enzymes for biomass deconstruction, most prominently CelA, a multi-domain cellulase that uses a novel mechanism to deconstruct plant biomass. Accumulation of cellobiose, a product of CelA during growth on biomass, inhibits cellulase activity...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069481/enhanced-cold-tolerance-and-tillering-in-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-by-heterologous-expression-of-osa-mir393a
#7
Yanrong Liu, Kexin Wang, Dayong Li, Jianping Yan, Wanjun Zhang
MicroRNA393 (miR393) family is one of the conserved miRNA families in the plant kingdom. MiR393 was reported to positively regulate rice tillering and abiotic stress resistances through auxin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the function of miR393 in switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), an important bioenergy C4 grass plant. We tested the expression level of miR393 and its four putative target genes ( PvAFB1 , PvAFB2 , PvAFB3 and PvTIR1 ) in switchgrass, and found these genes were all responded to cold stress and exogenous NAA treatment...
October 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030891/seasonal-below-ground-metabolism-in-switchgrass
#8
N A Palmer, A J Saathoff, E D Scully, C M Tobias, P Twigg, S Madhavan, M Schmer, R Cahoon, S E Sattler, S J Edmé, R B Mitchell, G Sarath
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a perennial, polyploid, C4 warm-season grass is among the foremost herbaceous species being advanced as a source of biomass for biofuel end uses. At the end of every growing season, the aerial tissues senesce, and the below-ground rhizomes become dormant. Future growth is dependent on the successful over-wintering of the rhizomes. Although the importance of rhizome health to overall year-upon-year plant productivity has been long recognized, there is limited information on seasonal changes occurring during dormancy at both the transcriptome and metabolite levels...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986379/functional-analysis-of-the-glucan-degradation-locus-gdl-in-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii-reveals-essential-roles-of-component-glycoside-hydrolases-in-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#9
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976938/exometabolomic-analysis-of-cross-feeding-metabolites
#10
Andrea Lubbe, Benjamin P Bowen, Trent Northen
Microbial consortia have the potential to perform complex, industrially important tasks. The design of microbial consortia requires knowledge of the substrate preferences and metabolic outputs of each member, to allow understanding of potential interactions such as competition and beneficial metabolic exchange. Here, we used exometabolite profiling to follow the resource processing by a microbial co-culture of two biotechnologically relevant microbes, the bacterial cellulose degrader Cellulomonas fimi, and the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica...
October 4, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963644/utilization-of-simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-residues-as-feedstock-for-lipid-accumulation-in-rhodococcus-opacus
#11
Rosemary K Le, Parthapratim Das, Kristina M Mahan, Seth A Anderson, Tyrone Wells, Joshua S Yuan, Arthur J Ragauskas
Use of oleaginous microorganisms as "micro-factories" for accumulation of single cell oils for biofuel production has increased significantly to mitigate growing energy demands, resulting in efforts to upgrade industrial waste, such as second-generation lignocellulosic residues, into potential feedstocks. Dilute-acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly used to alter the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic materials and is typically coupled with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for conversion of sugars into ethanol...
September 29, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960895/production-of-free-fatty-acids-from-switchgrass-using-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#12
Jung-Eun Lee, Praveen V Vadlani, Yadhu N Guragain, Ka-Yiu San, Doo-Hong Min
Switchgrass is a promising feedstock to generate fermentable sugars required for the sustainable operation of biorefineries because of their abundant availability, easy cropping system, and high cellulosic content. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiality of switchgrass as an alternative sugar supplier for free fatty acid (FFA) production using engineered Escherichia coli strains. Recombinant E. coli strains successfully produced FFAs using switchgrass hydrolysates. A total of about 3 g/L FFAs were attained from switchgrass hydrolysates by engineered E...
September 28, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950138/enhanced-ethanol-production-by-clostridium-ragsdalei-from-syngas-by-incorporating-biochar-in-the-fermentation-medium
#13
Xiao Sun, Hasan K Atiyeh, Ajay Kumar, Hailin Zhang
Biochar contains minerals and metals that can serve as nutrients for acetogens to produce ethanol via syngas fermentation. In this study, four fermentation media containing biochar from switchgrass (SGBC), forage sorghum (FSBC), red cedar (RCBC) and poultry litter (PLBC) were compared with standard yeast extract (YE) medium for syngas fermentation using Clostridium ragsdalei. Fermentations were performed in 250mL bottle reactors at 150rpm and 37°C with syngas containing CO:H2:CO2 (40:30:30) by volume. Results showed that media containing RCBC and PLBC improved ethanol production by 16...
September 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939842/overexpression-of-ovine-aanat-and-hiomt-genes-in-switchgrass-leads-to-improved-growth-performance-and-salt-tolerance
#14
Yan-Hua Huang, Si-Jia Liu, Shan Yuan, Cong Guan, Dan-Yang Tian, Xin Cui, Yun-Wei Zhang, Fu-Yu Yang
Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties. Here, we detected the physiological function of melatonin in transgenic switchgrass overexpressing the homologous sheep arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase genes, which catalyze the last two steps of melatonin synthesis. Compared to the wild-type (WT) and transgenic control (EV, expressing the empty vector only) plants, the transgenic switchgrass showed higher melatonin levels. Melatonin was detected in almost all switchgrass tissues, and relatively higher levels were detected in the roots and stems...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938215/evaluation-of-bioenergy-crop-growth-and-the-impacts-of-bioenergy-crops-on-streamflow-tile-drain-flow-and-nutrient-losses-in-an-extensively-tile-drained-watershed-using-swat
#15
Tian Guo, Raj Cibin, Indrajeet Chaubey, Margaret Gitau, Jeffrey G Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, James R Kiniry, Bernard A Engel
Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, and nutrient losses under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#16
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932263/how-does-cellulosome-composition-influence-deconstruction-of-lignocellulosic-substrates-in-clostridium-ruminiclostridium-thermocellum-dsm-1313
#17
Shahar Yoav, Yoav Barak, Melina Shamshoum, Ilya Borovok, Raphael Lamed, Bareket Dassa, Yitzhak Hadar, Ely Morag, Edward A Bayer
BACKGROUND: Bioethanol production processes involve enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Due to the relatively high cost of enzyme production, the development of potent and cost-effective cellulolytic cocktails is critical for increasing the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production. In this context, the multi-protein cellulolytic complex of Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum, the cellulosome, was studied here. C. thermocellum is known to assemble cellulosomes of various subunit (enzyme) compositions, in response to the available carbon source...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931209/process-simulation-of-ethanol-production-from-biomass-gasification-and-syngas-fermentation
#18
Oscar Pardo-Planas, Hasan K Atiyeh, John R Phillips, Clint P Aichele, Sayeed Mohammad
The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892697/water-sorption-in-pretreated-grasses-as-a-predictor-of-enzymatic-hydrolysis-yields
#19
Daniel L Williams, Jacob D Crowe, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
This work investigated the impact of two alkaline pretreatments, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) delignification performed over a range of conditions on the properties of corn stover and switchgrass. Changes in feedstock properties resulting from pretreatment were subsequently compared to enzymatic hydrolysis yields to examine the relationship between enzymatic hydrolysis and cell wall properties. The pretreatments function to increase enzymatic hydrolysis yields through different mechanisms; AFEX pretreatment through lignin relocalization and some xylan solubilization and AHP primarily through lignin solubilization...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891041/influence-of-genetic-background-of-engineered-xylose-fermenting-industrial-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-for-ethanol-production-from-lignocellulosic-hydrolysates
#20
Daiane Dias Lopes, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Ronald E Hector, Bruce S Dien, Jeffrey A Mertens, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub
An industrial ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with genes of fungal oxido-reductive pathway needed for xylose fermentation integrated into its genome (YRH1415) was used to obtain haploids and diploid isogenic strains. The isogenic strains were more effective in metabolizing xylose than YRH1415 strain and able to co-ferment glucose and xylose in the presence of high concentrations of inhibitors resulting from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). The rate of xylose consumption did not appear to be affected by the ploidy of strains or the presence of two copies of the xylose fermentation genes but by heterozygosity of alleles for xylose metabolism in YRH1415...
November 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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