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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640964/targeted-mutagenesis-in-tetraploid-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-using-crispr-cas9
#1
Yang Liu, Paul Merrick, Zhengzhi Zhang, Chonghui Ji, Bing Yang, Shui-Zhang Fei
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green fluorescent protein gene containing a 1 bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631209/allelopathic-effects-of-exogenous-phenylalanine-a-comparison-of-four-monocot-species
#2
Barbara R Evans, Garima Bali, Art Ragauskas, Riddhi Shah, Hugh O'Neill, Cory Howard, Fayola Lavenhouse, Dawn Ramirez, Kelly Weston, Kelly Ramey, Valerie Cangemi, Brian Kinney, Claudia Partee, Teresa Ware, Brian Davison
Exogenous phenylalanine stunted annual ryegrass but not switchgrass or winter grain rye, with deuterium incorporation up to 3% from phenyalanine-d 8 . Toxicity to duckweed varied with illumination intensity and glucose uptake. Isotopic labeling of biomolecules through biosynthesis from deuterated precursors has successfully been employed for both structural studies and metabolic analysis. Phenylalanine is the precursor of many products synthesized by plants, including the monolignols used for synthesis of lignin...
June 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625990/bioavailability-of-carbohydrate-content-in-natural-and-transgenic-switchgrasses-for-the-extreme-thermophile-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#3
Jeffrey V Zurawski, Piyum A Khatibi, Hannah O Akinosho, Christopher T Straub, Scott H Compton, Jonathan M Conway, Laura L Lee, Arthur J Ragauskas, Brian H Davison, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
Improving access to the carbohydrate content of lignocellulose is key to reducing recalcitrance for microbial deconstruction and conversion to fuels and chemicals. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii completely solubilizes naked microcrystalline cellulose, yet this transformation is impeded within the context of the plant cell wall by a network of lignin and hemicellulose. Here, the bioavailability of carbohydrates to C. bescii at 70°C was examined for reduced lignin transgenic switchgrass lines COMT3(+) and MYB Trans, their corresponding parental lines (cultivar Alamo) COMT3(-) and MYB WT, and natural variant cultivar Cave-in-Rock (CR)...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620188/ecological-diversity-and-co-occurrence-patterns-of-bacterial-community-through-soil-profile-in-response-to-long-term-switchgrass-cultivation
#4
Shubin He, Lixiang Guo, Mengying Niu, Fuhong Miao, Shuo Jiao, Tianming Hu, Mingxiu Long
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic biofuel feedstock and their effects on bacterial communities in deep soils remain poorly understood. To reveal the responses of bacterial communities to long-term switchgrass cultivation through the soil profile, we examined the shift of soil microbial communities with depth profiles of 0-60 cm in five-year switchgrass cultivation and fallow plots. The Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that switchgrass cultivation significantly increased microbial OTU richness, rather than microbial Shannon diversity; however, there was no significant difference in the structure of microbial communities between switchgrass cultivation and fallow soils...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618279/analyzing-the-impacts-of-three-types-of-biochar-on-soil-carbon-fractions-and-physiochemical-properties-in-a-corn-soybean-rotation
#5
Saroop S Sandhu, David A N Ussiri, Sandeep Kumar, Rajesh Chintala, Sharon K Papiernik, Douglas D Malo, Thomas E Schumacher
Biochar is a solid material obtained when biomass is thermochemically converted in an oxygen-limited environment. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil properties and organic carbon (C) were investigated under controlled conditions, mainly laboratory incubation or greenhouse studies. This 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar on selected soil physical and chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen fractions for two selected soil types (clay loam and a sandy loam soil) under a corn (Zea mays L...
May 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606738/engineering-high-level-production-of-fatty-alcohols-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-from-lignocellulosic-feedstocks
#6
Leo d'Espaux, Amit Ghosh, Weerawat Runguphan, Maren Wehrs, Feng Xu, Oliver Konzock, Ishaan Dev, Melissa Nhan, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Christopher J Petzold, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing...
June 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596552/genome-wide-survey-of-switchgrass-nacs-family-provides-new-insights-into-motif-and-structure-arrangements-and-reveals-stress-related-and-tissue-specific-nacs
#7
Haidong Yan, Ailing Zhang, Yuntian Ye, Bin Xu, Jing Chen, Xiaoyan He, Chengran Wang, Sifan Zhou, Xinquan Zhang, Yan Peng, Xiao Ma, Yanhong Yan, Linkai Huang
NAC proteins comprise of a plant-specific transcription factor (TF) family and play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is the prime candidate and model bioenergy grass across the world. Excavating agronomically valuable genes is important for switchgrass molecular breeding. In this study, a total of 251 switchgrass NAC (PvNACs) family genes clustered into 19 subgroups were analyzed, and those potentially involved in stress response or tissue-specific expression patterns were pinpointed...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581636/influence-of-endophytic-root-bacteria-on-the-growth-cadmium-tolerance-and-uptake-of-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#8
Samreen Afzal, Nahmina Begum, Huihui Zhao, Zhigang Fang, Laiqing Lou, Qingsheng Cai
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five cadmium-tolerant endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) strains on the biomass and cadmium tolerance and accumulation of the bioenergy plant switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) under cadmium (Cd)-contaminated conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five bacterial strains (Bj05, Le14, Ps14, So02, and Bo03) that could tolerate up to 2000 μmol l(-1) CdCl2 with a high Cd-binding capacity were isolated from plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577484/effect-of-ensiling-and-silage-additives-on-biogas-production-and-microbial-community-dynamics-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-switchgrass
#9
Xiaoling Zhao, Jinhuan Liu, Jingjing Liu, Fuyu Yang, Wanbin Zhu, Xufeng Yuan, Yuegao Hu, Zongjun Cui, Xiaofen Wang
Silage processing has a crucial positive impact on the methane yield of anaerobic treated substrates. Changes in the characteristics of switchgrass after ensiling with different additives and their effects on methane production and microbial community changes during anaerobic digestion were investigated. After ensiling (CK), methane yield was increased by 33.59% relative to that of fresh switchgrass (FS). In comparison with the CK treatment, methane production was improved by 17.41%, 13.08% and 8.72% in response to ensiling with LBr+X, LBr and X, respectively...
April 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467488/accelerated-development-in-johnsongrass-seedlings-sorghum-halepense-suppresses-the-growth-of-native-grasses-through-size-asymmetric-competition
#10
Susanne Schwinning, Heather Meckel, Lara G Reichmann, H Wayne Polley, Philip A Fay
Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464851/pollen-mediated-gene-flow-from-transgenic-to-non-transgenic-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-in-the-field
#11
Reginald Millwood, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Rongjian Ye, Ellie Terry-Emert, Chelsea R Johnson, Micaha Hanson, Jason N Burris, Charles Kwit, C Neal Stewart
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is C4 perennial grass species that is being developed as a cellulosic bioenergy feedstock. It is wind-pollinated and considered to be an obligate outcrosser. Genetic engineering has been used to alter cell walls for more facile bioprocessing and biofuel yield. Gene flow from transgenic cultivars would likely be of regulatory concern. In this study we investigated pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic to nontransgenic switchgrass in a 3-year field experiment performed in Oliver Springs, Tennessee, U...
May 2, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458675/nitrogen-fertilization-effects-on-biomass-production-and-yield-components-of-miscanthus-%C3%A3-giganteus
#12
Moon-Sub Lee, Andrew Wycislo, Jia Guo, D K Lee, Thomas Voigt
Grasses such as Miscanthus ×giganteus and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) can potentially be used to produce bioenergy on a large scale in the Midwestern USA. The biomass productivity of these warm-season perennial grasses, particularly M. × giganteus, can be substantial, even when grown with limited inputs. The literature, however, varies regarding the nitrogen requirements for M. ×giganteus biomass production. In addition, there is a lack of information that identifies the yield-component(s) (including total tiller number, tiller weight, total tiller diameter, total tiller height, phytomer number, reproductive tiller number, vegetative tiller number, reproductive tiller height, vegetative tiller height, reproductive tiller diameter, vegetative tiller diameter, and reproductive tiller phytomer number) that contributes to M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457942/identification-and-characterization-of-simple-sequence-repeats-ssrs-for-population-studies-of-puccinia-novopanici
#13
Gabriela K Orquera-Tornakian, Patricia Garrido, Brent Kronmiller, Robert Hunger, Brett M Tyler, Carla D Garzon, Stephen M Marek
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) can be severely affected by rust disease. Recently switchgrass rust caused by P. emaculata (now confirmed to be Puccinia novopanici) has received most of the attention by the research community because this pathogen is responsible for reducing the biomass production and biofuel feedstock quality of switchgrass. Microsatellite markers found in the literature were either not informative (no allele frequency) or showed few polymorphisms in the target populations, therefore additional markers are needed for future studies of the genetic variation and population structure of P...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449656/improved-tissue-culture-conditions-for-the-emerging-c4-model-panicum-hallii
#14
Joshua N Grant, Jason N Burris, C Neal Stewart, Scott C Lenaghan
BACKGROUND: Panicum hallii Vasey (Hall's panicgrass) is a compact, perennial C4 grass in the family Poaceae, which has potential to enable bioenergy research for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Unlike P. hallii, switchgrass has a large genome, allopolyploidy, self-incompatibility, a long life cycle, and large stature-all suboptimal traits for rapid genetics research. Herein we improved tissue culture methodologies for two inbred P. hallii populations: FIL2 and HAL2, to enable further development of P...
April 27, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447389/outer-membrane-vesicles-from-fibrobacter-succinogenes-s85-contain-an-array-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-with-versatile-polysaccharide-degrading-capacity
#15
Magnus Ø Arntzen, Anikó Várnai, Roderick I Mackie, Vincent G H Eijsink, Phillip B Pope
Fibrobacter succinogenes is an anaerobic bacterium naturally colonizing the rumen and cecum of herbivores where it utilizes an enigmatic mechanism to deconstruct cellulose into cellobiose and glucose, which serve as carbon sources for growth. Here, we illustrate that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by F. succinogenes are enriched with carbohydrate-active enzymes and that intact OMVs were able to depolymerize a broad range of linear and branched hemicelluloses and pectin, despite the inability of F. succinogenes to utilize non-cellulosic (pentose) sugars for growth...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436149/transgenic-mir156-switchgrass-in-the-field-growth-recalcitrance-and-rust-susceptibility
#16
Holly L Baxter, Mitra Mazarei, Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace M Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Jiqing Gou, Chunxiang Fu, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Steven D Brown, Brian H Davison, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Sustainable utilization of lignocellulosic perennial grass feedstocks will be enabled by high biomass production and optimized cell wall chemistry for efficient conversion into biofuels. MicroRNAs are regulatory elements that modulate the expression of genes involved in various biological functions in plants, including growth and development. In greenhouse studies, overexpressing a microRNA (miR156) gene in switchgrass had dramatic effects on plant architecture and flowering, which appeared to be driven by transgene expression levels...
April 24, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432390/biomass-resources-agriculture
#17
Ingeborg N Kluts, Marnix L J Brinkman, Sierk A de Jong, H Martin Junginger
Bioenergy is the single largest source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU-28); of this, 14% was produced from agricultural feedstocks in 2012. This chapter provides an overview of the current use (for bioenergy) and future potential of agricultural feedstocks for (amongst others) biorefinery purposes in the European Union. The main application of these feedstocks is currently the production of biofuels for road transport. Biodiesel makes up 80% of the European biofuel production, mainly from rapeseed oil, and the remaining part is bioethanol from wheat and sugar beet...
April 22, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424710/identification-and-characterization-of-microrna319a-and-its-putative-target-gene-pvpcf5-in-the-bioenergy-grass-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum
#18
Qi Xie, Xue Liu, Yinbing Zhang, Jinfu Tang, Dedong Yin, Bo Fan, Lihuang Zhu, Liebao Han, Guilong Song, Dayong Li
Due to its high biomass yield, low environmental impact, and widespread adaptability to poor soils and harsh conditions, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-region perennial herbaceous plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. However, little is known about microRNAs (miRNAs) and their functions in this bioenergy grass. Here, we identified and characterized a miRNA gene, Pvi-MIR319a, encoding microRNA319a in switchgrass. Transgenic rice lines generated by overexpressing the Pvi-MIR319a precursor gene exhibited broader leaves and delayed flowering compared with the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421093/enhanced-growth-performance-and-salinity-tolerance-in-transgenic-switchgrass-via-overexpressing-vacuolar-na-k-h-antiporter-gene-pvnhx1
#19
Yanhua Huang, Cong Guan, Yanrong Liu, Baoyue Chen, Shan Yuan, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been increasingly recognized as one of the most valuable perennial bioenergy crop. To improve its biomass production, especially under salt stress, we isolated a putative vacuolar Na(+) (K(+))/H(+) antiporter gene from switchgrass and designated as PvNHX1. Subcellular localization revealed that this protein was localized mainly on the vacuole membrane. The PvNHX1 was found to be expressed throughout the entire growth period of switchgrass, exhibited preferentially expressed in the leaf tissue, and highly induced by salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407550/potential-phosphorus-eutrophication-mitigation-strategy-biochar-carbon-composition-thermal-stability-and-ph-influence-phosphorus-sorption
#20
L W Ngatia, Y P Hsieh, D Nemours, R Fu, R W Taylor
Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C...
April 4, 2017: Chemosphere
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