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Skin AND anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134424/anatomical-basis-for-simultaneous-block-of-greater-and-third-occipital-nerves-with-an-ultrasound-guided-technique
#1
Ken Kariya, Yosuke Usui, Naoko Higashi, Tatsuo Nakamoto, Hironobu Shimbori, Satoshi Terada, Hideo Takahashi, Hisashi Ueta, Yusuke Kitazawa, Yasushi Sawanobori, Yasuhisa Okuda, Kenjiro Matsuno
PURPOSE: In some headache disorders, for which the greater occipital nerve block is partly effective, the third occipital nerve is also suggested to be involved. We aimed to establish a simple technique for simultaneously blocking the greater and third occipital nerves. METHODS: We performed a detailed examination of dorsal neck anatomy in 33 formalin-fixed cadavers, and deduced two candidate target points for blocking both the greater and third occipital nerves...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120686/why-is-the-heel-particularly-vulnerable-to-pressure-ulcers
#2
Amit Gefen
In this article, the vulnerability of the soft tissues of the heel to pressure ulcers (injuries) is explained from a biomechanical engineering perspective, and emerging technologies for protecting the heel, particularly low-friction garments, are reviewed. Sustained deformations in the soft tissue of the weight-bearing posterior heel cause progressive cell and tissue damage due to loss of homeostasis in the cells, as the cytoskeleton and plasma membranes of the affected cells lose integrity and functionality...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119039/osirix-software-as-a-preoperative-planning-tool-in-cranial-neurosurgery-a-step-by-step-guide-for-neurosurgical-residents
#3
REVIEW
Toma Spiriev, Vladimir Nakov, Lili Laleva, Christo Tzekov
Background: OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) is an open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer that is gaining more and more attention in the neurosurgical community because of its user-friendly interface, powerful three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering capabilities, and various options for data integration. This paper presents in detail the use of OsiriX software as a preoperative planning tool in cranial neurosurgery. Methods: In January 2013, OsiriX software was introduced into our clinical practice as a preoperative planning tool...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118534/pure-retroperitoneoscopic-donor-nephrectomy-in-duplication-of-inferior-vena-cava-a-series-of-four-cases
#4
Bipin Chandra Pal, Pranjal R Modi, Syed Jamal Rizvi, Rohit Chauhan, Suresh Kumar, Shruti P Gandhi, Vivek B Kute, Hargovind L Trivedi
Aim: Complex vascular anatomy poses a major challenge to the donor surgeon. Here, we have described the technical nuances in retroperitoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy for the left kidney in the situations of a rare vascular anomaly of duplication of inferior vena. Materials and Methods: Between September 2005 and June 2016, 1460 retroperitoneoscopic living donor nephrectomy were carried out in single surgical unit of our institution. Out of these four donors were found to have duplication of inferior vena cava (IVC)...
October 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108544/volumetric-structural-rejuvenation-for-the-male-face
#5
REVIEW
Neil S Sadick
Fillers and toxins are safe, quick, and require no downtime; the immediately visible results can boost a man's self-esteem, confidence, youthfulness, and sense of competitiveness in the personal and professional realms of the world. The approach to using these agents has changed from ironing out the skin to remove wrinkles and lines to a restructuring of the 3-dimensional face. This new strategy, volumetric structural rejuvenation (VSR), relies on intimate knowledge of facial anatomy and the pathophysiology of aging...
January 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108539/the-pathophysiology-of-the-male-aging-face-and-body
#6
REVIEW
Neil S Sadick
Increasing numbers of men are seeking aesthetic treatments for fat reduction, skin rejuvenation, and other antiaging goals. Compared with women, however, men have distinctly different anatomy and physiologic differences that manifest in the aging process. Given that both anatomy and the aging process affect treatment strategies and clinical outcomes, there is a need for dermatologists to be acutely aware of these male-specific nuances to provide the best clinical care and patient satisfaction.
January 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105846/the-role-of-two-step-eus-guided-antegrade-treatment-as-an-option-for-bile-duct-stones-in-patients-with-surgically-altered-anatomy
#7
EDITORIAL
Masaaki Shimatani, Toshiyuki Mitsuyama, Makoto Takaoka, Kazuichi Okazaki
The treatment of bile duct stones in patients with surgically altered anatomy had been difficult for management until the balloon assisted endoscope (BAE) approach was introduced. Patients had been referred to either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical operation which were the gold standard, though they were invasive and indication was limited. For example, percutaneous drainage is relatively contraindicated in patients with significant ascites, obesity, and/or non-dilated bile duct...
November 6, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105818/simplified-profunda-artery-perforator-pap-flap-design-using-power-doppler-ultrasonography-pdu-a-prospective-study
#8
Andreas Kehrer, Ming-Yi Hsu, Yu-Ting Chen, Neil S Sachanandani, Chung-Kan Tsao
INTRODUCTION: Optimal design of PAP flaps requires precise perforator mapping. In a systematic review, Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). We present a prospective study of PAP flap design comparing PDU, handheld Doppler (HHD), and clinical findings. METHODS: From May to July 2016, 12 head and neck cancer patients receiving PAP flaps were examined with PDU and HHD. We used PDU to evaluate number, course, emergence point, peak systolic velocity (PSV), and arterial diameter of perforators...
November 4, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104792/three-anatomical-levels-possibilities-to-decrease-invasiveness-of-reconstructive-surgery-for-congenital-penile-curvature
#9
Wojciech Perdzyński, Marek Adamek
Introduction: The aim of the study was to report methods - based on penile anatomy - leading to the minimization in the invasiveness of reconstructive surgery for congenital penile curvature (CPC). Material and methods: From 2006 to 2016 authors operated on 186 adult men with CPC.To avoid degloving, the authors used the longitudinal skin and tunica dartos incision. For decreasing invasiveness to the dorsal neurovascular bundle (NVB), the authors separated it only locally in the shape of a triangle or a trapezium, elevating it only over the place of the tunical reconstruction...
2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099727/supplemental-computational-phantoms-to-estimate-out-of-field-absorbed-dose-in-photon-radiotherapy
#10
Kyle Joseph Gallagher, Jaad Tannous, Racile Nabha, Joelle Ann Feghali, Zeina Ayoub, Wassim T Jalbout, Bassem Youssef, Phillip J Taddei
The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extents of these patients' computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients' image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated...
November 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098684/comparative-hindlimb-myology-of-foot-propelled-swimming-birds
#11
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075525/chest-wall-underappreciated-structure-in-sonography-part-i-examination-methodology-and-ultrasound-anatomy
#12
REVIEW
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz
Chest wall ultrasound has been awarded little interest in the literature, with chest wall anatomy described only in limited extent. The objective of this study has been to discuss the methodology of chest wall ultrasound and the sonographic anatomy of the region to facilitate professional evaluation of this complex structure. The primarily used transducer is a 7-12 MHz linear one. A 3-5 MHz convex (curvilinear) transducer may also be helpful, especially in obese and very muscular patients. Doppler and panoramic imaging options are essential...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068930/lymphatic-territories-lymphosomes-in-the-rat-an-anatomical-study-for-future-lymphatic-research
#13
Hiroo Suami, Mario F Scaglioni
BACKGROUND: Understanding the precise anatomy in experimental animals is crucial for correct design of research projects. Rats are commonly used for scientific research in plastic surgery because of their availability in academic institutions, moderate cost, and sizable vessels for microsurgical procedures. In past publications about rat anatomy, lymphatic mapping has been limited and incomplete. The aim of this study was to comprehensively map the superficial lymphatic system in the rat...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066133/enhancement-of-cricothyroidotomy-education-using-a-novel-technique-cadaver-autografting
#14
Ryan F Coughlin, Iris Chandler, John C Binford, James W Bonz, David C Hile
BACKGROUND: Cricothyroidotomy is a lifesaving procedure required in up to 2% of emergent airways. Emergency medicine training programs frequently instruct this procedure via cadaver training, but cadaver cost and availability limit the opportunity for all trainees to perform the critical initial skin incision. Cadaver autografting is a novel way to simulate all steps of the procedure. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether the technique of autografting cadaver tissue improves the experience of cricothyroidotomy simulation education for emergency medicine trainees...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064925/lower-extremity-free-flaps-for-breast-reconstruction
#15
REVIEW
Joseph H Dayan, Robert J Allen
Thigh-based flaps are typically a secondary option for breast reconstruction because of concerns regarding limited tissue volume and donor-site morbidity. In recent years, there have been a number of new techniques and insights that have resulted in greater flexibility and improved outcomes. This article reviews lessons learned from a large collective experience using the following 4 flaps: transverse upper gracilis also known as transverse myocutaneous gracilis, diagonal upper gracilis, profunda artery perforator, and lateral thigh perforator flaps...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064921/nipple-sparing-mastectomy-and-direct-to-implant-breast-reconstruction
#16
REVIEW
Amy S Colwell, Joani M Christensen
Breast reconstruction following mastectomy has evolved to preserve the native skin and nipple of the breast and create a natural-appearing reconstruction in 1 or 2 surgeries. Nipple-sparing procedures appear to be oncologically safe with low risks of cancer recurrence. In our series of 2,182 nipple-sparing mastectomies, there was no development or recurrence of cancer in the nipple. Direct-to-implant single-stage surgery offers the patient a complete reconstruction at the time of mastectomy. Patient selection centers on preoperative breast anatomy combined with postoperative goals for size and uplift of the breast...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062664/combined-gluteus-and-pudendal-thigh-flap-reconstruction-of-vaginal-defects-following-robotic-abdominoperineal-resection
#17
Kasandra R Dassoulas, Traci L Hedrick, Chris A Campbell
Low-lying rectal cancers are being treated more frequently with robotic-assisted abdominoperineal resection, obviating the need for laparotomy and the ability to raise vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps. For female patients, posterior vaginectomy often accompanies the resection. Combined pudendal thigh flaps as an extension of bilateral gluteus advancement flaps allow for posterior vaginal resurfacing with thin pliable fasciocutaneous flaps, which rest on the gluteal flap soft-tissue bulk that obliterates the pelvic dead space...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055136/the-rhinoceros-among-serpents-comparative-anatomy-and-experimental-biophysics-of-calabar-burrowing-python-calabaria-reinhardtii-skin
#18
Dawei Han, Bruce A Young
The Calabar burrowing python (Calabaria reinhardtii) has a unique combination of marked thickness of the integumentary layers, a highly organized lamellate arrangement of the dermal collagen bundles, and a reduction in the size of the interscale hinge region of the integument. Biomechanical testing demonstrates that the skin of C. reinhardtii is more resistant to penetration than the skin of other snakes. The laminar arrangement of the collagen bundles provides for penetrative resistance, even while maintaining the flexibility characteristic of snake skin...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#19
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041834/quality-assessment-of-the-detailed-anomaly-ultrasound-scan
#20
Athena P Souka, Athanasios Pilalis, Ioannis Papastefanou, Makarios Eleftheriadis, George Papadopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of the views in the detailed anomaly ultrasound scan and examine the parameters that influence it. METHODS: Prospective study on singleton pregnancies examined at 20-24 weeks. Detailed views of all fetal organs were classified by the examiner as optimal/suboptimal. The duration of the examination was observed. Maternal characteristics, Fat Index (FI) (distance between the skin and the surface of the uterus), and fetal position were recorded...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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