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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034431/cultivation-dependent-and-high-throughput-sequencing-approaches-studying-the-co-occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-municipal-sewage-system
#1
An-Dong Li, Liping Ma, Xiao-Tao Jiang, Tong Zhang
During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage...
October 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034110/toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-intestinal-colonization-of-secondary-abiotic-il10-deficient-mice-with-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The rising incidences of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have gained increasing attention in medicine, but also in the general public and global health politics. The mechanisms underlying opportunistic pathogen-host interactions are unclear, however. To address this, we challenged secondary abiotic IL10(-/-) mice deficient for Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4(-/-) × IL10(-/-)), the main receptor of the Gram-negative cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide, with a clinical MDR PA isolate...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029072/detection-of-optra-in-the-african-continent-tunisia-within-a-mosaic-enterococcus-faecalis-plasmid-from-urban-wastewaters
#3
Ana R Freitas, Houyem Elghaieb, Ricardo León-Sampedro, Mohamed Salah Abbassi, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Abdennaceur Hassen, Luisa Peixe
Objectives: Oxazolidinone resistance is a serious limitation in the treatment of MDR Enterococcus infections. Plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance has been strongly linked to animals where the use of phenicols might co-select resistance to both antibiotic families. Our goal was to assess the diversity of genes conferring phenicol/oxazolidinone resistance among diverse enterococci and to characterize the optrA genetic environment. Methods: Chloramphenicol-resistant isolates (>16 mg/L, n = 245) from different sources (hospitals/healthy humans/wastewaters/animals) in Portugal, Angola and Tunisia (1996-2016) were selected...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028315/nanoparticles-of-short-cationic-peptidopolysaccharide-self-assembled-by-hydrogen-bonding-with-antibacterial-effect-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#4
Zheng Hou, Yogesh Vikhe Shankar, Yang Liu, Feiqing Ding, Jothy Lachumy Subramanion, Vikashini Ravikumar, Rubí Zamudio-Vázquez, Damien Keogh, Huiwen Lim, Moon Yue Feng Tay, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Scott A Rice, Jian Shi, Hongwei Duan, Xue-Wei Liu, Yuguang Mu, Nguan Soon Tan, Kam Michael Chiu Tam, Kevin Pethe, Mary B Chan-Park
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and polymers are active against many multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria but only a limited number of these compounds are in clinical use due to their unselective toxicity. The typical strategy for achieving selective antibacterial efficacy with low mammalian cell toxicity is through balancing the ratio of cationicity to hydrophobicity. Herein, we report a cationic nanoparticle self-assembled from chitosan-graft-oligolysine (CSM5-K5) chains with ultra-low molecular weight (1450 Daltons) that selectively kills bacteria...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026472/clinical-features-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-bacterial-agents-of-ventilator-associated-tracheobronchitis-in-hamedan-iran
#5
Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Naeimeh Hashemi, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari, Abbas Taher, Arash Dehghan
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. METHODS: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023413/diallylthiosulfinate-allicin-a-volatile-antimicrobial-from-garlic-allium-sativum-kills-human-lung-pathogenic-bacteria-including-mdr-strains-as-a-vapor
#6
Jana Reiter, Natalja Levina, Mark van der Linden, Martin Gruhlke, Christian Martin, Alan J Slusarenko
Garlic (Allium sativum) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus, including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#7
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study Gram-negative rods (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during six months post-HSCT (February/2014-May/2015) were prospectively collected, and analysed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, non-carbapenem anti-Pseudomonas beta-lactams (non-carbapenems), carbapenems and multidrug-resistance (MDR). Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries (Europe, Australia, Asia) reported data on 655 GNR episodes/704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; non-fermentatives, 24% and 3% others)...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020166/long-term-impact-of-an-educational-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-on-hospital-acquired-candidemia-and-multidrug-resistant-bloodstream-infections-a-quasi-experimental-study-of-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#8
José Molina, Germán Peñalva, María V Gil-Navarro, Julia Praena, José A Lepe, María A Pérez-Moreno, Carmen Ferrándiz, Teresa Aldabó, Manuela Aguilar, Peter Olbrich, Manuel E Jiménez-Mejías, María L Gascón, Rosario Amaya-Villar, Olaf Neth, María J Rodríguez-Hernández, Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, José Garnacho-Montero, Cristina Montero, Josefina Cano, Julián Palomino, Raquel Valencia, Rocío Álvarez, Elisa Cordero, Marta Herrero, José M Cisneros
Background: The global crisis of bacterial resistance urges the scientific community to implement intervention programs in healthcare facilities to promote an appropriate use of antibiotics. However, the clinical benefits or the impact on resistance of these interventions has not been definitively proven. Methods: We designed a quasi-experimental intervention study with an interrupted time-series analysis. A multidisciplinary team conducted a multifaceted educational intervention in our tertiary-care hospital over a five-year period...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017263/progress-in-the-fight-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-2005-2016-modern-noninferiority-trial-designs-enable-antibiotic-development-in-advance-of-epidemic-bacterial-resistance
#9
John H Rex, George H Talbot, Mark J Goldberger, Barry I Eisenstein, Roger M Echols, John F Tomayko, Michael N Dudley, Aaron Dane
From a public health perspective, new antibacterial agents should be evaluated and approved for use before widespread resistance to existing agents emerges. However, for multidrug-resistant pathogens, demonstration of superior efficacy of a new agent over a current standard-of-care agent is routinely feasible only when epidemic spread of these dangerous organisms has already occurred. One solution to enable proactive drug development is to evaluate new antibiotics with improved in vitro activity against MDR pathogens using recently updated guidelines for active control, noninferiority trials of selected severe infections caused by more susceptible pathogens...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994446/colonization-of-residents-and-staff-of-an-italian-long-term-care-facility-and-an-adjacent-acute-care-hospital-geriatric-unit-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#10
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988774/competition-assays-between-esbl-producing-e-coli-and-k-pneumoniae-isolates-collected-from-lebanese-elderly-an-additional-cost-on-fitness
#11
Nourhane Hafza, Caren Challita, Iman Dandachi, Elias Dahdouh, Ziad Daoud
The dissemination of Multi Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) is one of the major public health problems addressed nowadays. High fecal carriage rates of MDR Enterobacteriaceae were reported from Lebanese nursing homes. Studies have shown that the acquisition of resistance genes by bacteria might confer a fitness cost detected as a decrease in the frequency of these bacteria as compared to sensitive isolates. In this study, the competitive growth of MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolated from elderly is assessed. Sensitive and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were identified...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983513/potentiating-antibiotics-in-drug-resistant-clinical-isolates-via-stimuli-activated-superoxide-generation
#12
Colleen M Courtney, Samuel M Goodman, Toni A Nagy, Max Levy, Pallavi Bhusal, Nancy E Madinger, Corrella S Detweiler, Prashant Nagpal, Anushree Chatterjee
The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing concern to global health and is exacerbated by the lack of new antibiotics. To treat already pervasive MDR infections, new classes of antibiotics or antibiotic adjuvants are needed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play a role during antibacterial action; however, it is not yet understood whether ROS contribute directly to or are an outcome of bacterial lethality caused by antibiotics. We show that a light-activated nanoparticle, designed to produce tunable flux of specific ROS, superoxide, potentiates the activity of antibiotics in clinical MDR isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Klebsiella pneumoniae...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974975/isolation-of-bacteriophages-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Hasan Ghajavand, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Asghar Havaei, Hossein Fazeli, Reyhaneh Jafari, Sharareh Moghim
Increasing multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains of Acinetobacter baumannii has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are often considered as alternative agents for controlling A. baumannii infections. In the present study two lytic phages for MDR A. baumannii were isolated and their efficacy and host ranges were evaluated. The phages were isolated from hospital wastewater. Electron microscopy revealed that IsfAB78 might belong to Myoviridae and IsfAB39 to Podoviridae. Initial characterization of phages showed that they have narrow host range and failed to infect relative and non-relative bacteria...
October 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963603/intestinal-colonization-with-resistant-bacteria-a-prognostic-marker-of-mortality-in-decompensated-cirrhosis
#14
S Pouriki, G Vrioni, H Sambatakou, A Alexopoulou, L Vasilieva, I Mani, A Tsakris, S P Dourakis
Infections due to drug-resistant (DR) bacteria are increasingly recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Asymptomatically colonized patients may contribute to the reservoir in the hospital setting, causing both horizontal transmission and endogenous infections. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with DR bacteria on subsequent clinical infection development and prognosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One hundred seven patients without infection at baseline were screened and prospectively followed-up for 3 months...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963492/immunoprotective-potential-of-bama-the-outer-membrane-protein-assembly-factor-against-mdr-acinetobacter-baumannii
#15
Ravinder Singh, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma
Acinetobacter baumannii infections are responsible for major health problems in immunocompromised patients particularly in intensive care units. Due to rapid acquisition of and also inherent drug resistance, a vaccine is an effective treatment option against this pathogen. BamA, an outer membrane β-barrel assembly protein, was identified in A. baumannii as potential vaccine candidate by in silico analysis. The immunoprotective efficacy of this highly conserved protein was investigated against a virulent multidrug resistant clinical isolate using murine pneumonia model...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962863/polymyxin-susceptibility-testing-interpretative-breakpoints-and-resistance-mechanism-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Indranil Biswas, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogens is a great threat. Polymyxin, an old cationic polypeptide, is considered as the last resort drug in treating infections associated with MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Increased use of polymyxins in treating critical patient necessitates, routine testing of polymyxins. However, susceptibility testing of both colistin and polymyxin B are challenging. Currently, available susceptibility testing methods are briefly discussed in this review. The multicomponent composition of colistin and polymyxin B influences significantly the susceptibility testing...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961715/effects-of-different-resistance-mechanisms-on-susceptibility-to-different-classes-of-antibiotics-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-a-strategic-system-for-the-screening-and-activity-testing-of-new-antibiotics
#17
Yu-Kuo Tsai, Ci-Hong Liou, Feng-Yee Chang, Chang-Phone Fung, Jung-Chung Lin, L Kristopher Siu
Objectives: A strategic system for the screening and testing of new antibiotics was created to facilitate the development of antibiotics that are robustly effective against MDR bacteria. Methods: In-frame deletion, site-directed mutagenesis and plasmid transformation were used to generate genetically engineered strains with various resistance mechanisms from a fully susceptible clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae . Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and a mouse infection model were used to test antibiotics against these strains in vitro and in vivo , respectively...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959420/-on-demand-redox-buffering-by-h2s-contributes-to-antibiotic-resistance-revealed-by-a-bacteria-specific-h2s-donor
#18
Prashant Shukla, Vinayak S Khodade, Mallojjala SharathChandra, Preeti Chauhan, Saurabh Mishra, Shivakumara Siddaramappa, Bulagonda Eswarappa Pradeep, Amit Singh, Harinath Chakrapani
Understanding the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will help launch a counter-offensive against human pathogens that threaten our ability to effectively treat common infections. Herein, we report bis(4-nitrobenzyl)sulfanes, which are activated by a bacterial enzyme to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. We found that H2S helps maintain redox homeostasis and protects bacteria against antibiotic-triggered oxidative stress "on demand", through activation of alternate respiratory oxidases and cellular antioxidants...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956539/appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescription-for-targeted-therapy-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-assessment-of-the-most-common-improper-uses-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-southern-italy
#19
Giulio Viceconte, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Vita Dora Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Grazia Tosone, Raffaele Orlando
A huge proportion of antibiotic therapies for infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) are inappropriate. In this study, we described the most common causes of inappropriateness of definitive antibiotic regimes in a large university hospital in southern Italy and we evaluated the impact on microbial eradication, length of stay, 30-day readmission and mortality. We retrospectively assessed 45 patients who received a definitive antibiotic therapy after isolation of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951015/effectiveness-of-an-ultraviolet-c-disinfection-system-for-reduction-of-healthcare-associated-pathogens
#20
Jui-Hsuan Yang, Un-In Wu, Huei-Min Tai, Wang-Huei Sheng
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are significantly associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Environmental cleaning can reduce transmission of these pathogens but is often inadequate. Adjunctive methods are warranted to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection particularly in hospital settings where healthcare-associated infections are of major concern. METHODS: We conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of a mobile, automatic device, Hyper Light Disinfection Robot (model: Hyper Light P3), which utilized ultraviolet-C (UV-C) to kill MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR- Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), Mycobacterium abscessus and Aspergillus fumigatus...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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