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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463654/emergence-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-clone-harboring-a-promiscuous-plasmid-encoding-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-third-generation-cephalosporins
#1
Elizabeth J Klemm, Sadia Shakoor, Andrew J Page, Farah Naz Qamar, Kim Judge, Dania K Saeed, Vanessa K Wong, Timothy J Dallman, Satheesh Nair, Stephen Baker, Ghazala Shaheen, Shahida Qureshi, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Muhammad Khalid Saleem, Zahra Hasan, Gordon Dougan, Rumina Hasan
Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR)...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459597/prevalence-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-non-fermentative-pseudomonas-species-from-clinical-isolates-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#2
M N Islam, D Ahmed, M A Hossain, C R Ahsan, M Yasmin
Antimicrobial drug resistance, a global concern, has been increasing unpredictably in microorganism causing human infections specially among Gram negative non-fermenting Pseudomonas spp. Carbapenems, a beta lactam antibiotics, are the most potent and effective drug usually kept reserved for treating the multi-drug resistant Psedomonas spp and other infections caused by organisms producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC. Clinical utility of carbapenem will reduce when resistant bacteria evolve due to production of carbapenem hydrolyzing Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) which confers high-level resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics except aztreonam...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456528/mutation-in-esbl-plasmid-from-escherichia-coli-o104-h4-leads-autoagglutination-and-enhanced-plasmid-dissemination
#3
Mickaël Poidevin, Mari Sato, Ipek Altinoglu, Manon Delaplace, Chikara Sato, Yoshiharu Yamaichi
Conjugative plasmids are one of the main driving force of wide-spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. They are self-transmittable via conjugation as carrying the required set of genes and cis -acting DNA locus for direct cell-to-cell transfer. IncI incompatibility plasmids are nowadays often associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteria in clinic and environment. pESBL-EA11 was isolated from Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain in Germany in 2011. During the previous study identifying transfer genes of pESBL-EA11, it was shown that transposon insertion at certain DNA region of the plasmid, referred to as Hft, resulted in great enhancement of transfer ability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447913/microbiological-surveillance-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-human-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-in-romagna-northern-italy-august-2016-july-2017
#4
F Del Bianco, M Morotti, M F Pedna, P Farabegoli, V Sambri
OBJECTIVES: To start a surveillance program to investigate the possible diffusion of mobilized colistin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in the Unit of Microbiology of the Great Romagna Hub Laboratory. METHODS: All the colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae, isolated from August 1st 2016 to July 31st 2017, were prospectively evaluated for mcr-1 a mcr-2. Backdated survey of mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5 was performed on the same group of isolates. Species identification was achieved by Vitek MS and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed both with Vitek-2 and Sensititre systems...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446811/nosocomial-infections-current-situation-in-a-resuscitation-unit
#5
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Mouna Oueslati, Meriem Zribi, Foued Daly, Rochdi Nasri, Rahma Mannai, Chadlia Fandri, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: The nosocomial infection (NI) is defined as an infection that is not present or incubating on admission in establishment of care. It can be caused by the patient's germs, care personnel or hospital environment. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are particularly common in intensive care units that lead to a serious infections and increase morbidity, mortality and cost of care. PURPOSE: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of NI, the predisposing factors, the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria and the impact on morbidity and mortality...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429556/infection-with-gram-negative-bacteria-among-children-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital-in-egypt
#6
John Rene Labib, Sally K Ibrahim, Marwa Rashad Salem, Meray Rene L Youssef, Basant Meligy
BACKGROUND: Patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are susceptible to infections with gram-negative bacteria (GNB). METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 2 PICUs at Cairo University Hospitals to determine the incidence and outcome of GNB infections over 1 year. Variables of interest included age, gender, isolated organism, susceptibility to antibiotics, and final outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 1420 patients were admitted to the PICU; of these, 291 developed GNB infections...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428226/intravenous-plus-inhaled-versus-intravenous-colistin-monotherapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether IV plus inhaled combination (IV/INHCC) compared to IV monotherapy (IVCM) was associated with patient outcomes and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections due to MDR/XDR Gram-negative bacteria and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IV/INHCC versus IVCM...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427501/infections-complicating-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424299/medicinal-chemistry-updates-on-bacterial-efflux-pump-modulators
#9
Fernando Andre Pereira Marques Duraes, Madalena Maria Magalhaes Pinto, Maria Emilia Silva Pereira de Sousa
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most pressing health issues of our days. It can arise due to a multiplicity of factors, such as target modification, decrease in the drug uptake, changes in the metabolic pathways and activation of efflux pumps. The overexpression of efflux pumps is responsible for the extrusion of drugs, making antibiotic therapy fail, as the quantity of intracellular antibiotic is not enough to provide the desired therapeutic effect. Efflux pumps can be included in five families according to their composition, nature of substrates, energy source, and number of transmembrane spanning regions...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423995/gold-nanoclusters-for-targeting-mrsa-in-vivo
#10
Yangzhouyun Xie, Yong Liu, Junchuan Yang, Yuan Liu, Fupin Hu, Kui Zhu, Xingyu Jiang
Widespread multidrug resistance caused by the abuse of antibiotics calls for novel strategies and materials. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are scarcely explored for combating multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vivo. We herein synthesize a novel class of AuNCs, namely quaternary ammonia (QA)-capped AuNCs (QA-AuNCs), as potent antibiotics selectively targeting MDR Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in vivo. QA-AuNCs kill bacteria via a combined physicochemical mechanism, and show excellent therapeutic effect on both the skin infection model and the bacteremia model induced by MRSA...
February 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422058/an-evaluation-of-e-coli-in-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-department-at-kamc-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia-retrospective-study
#11
Menyfah Q Alanazi, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Fadilah S Aleanizy
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415212/a-mathematical-model-based-analysis-of-the-time-kill-kinetics-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Huiming Xia, Marie-Eve Beaudoin, Virna J Schuck, Wright W Nichols, Hartmut Derendorf
Objectives: To characterize quantitatively the effect of avibactam in potentiating ceftazidime against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa by developing a mathematical model to describe the bacterial response to constant concentration time-kill information and validating it using both constant and time-varying concentration-effect data from in vitro and in vivo infection systems. Methods: The time course of the bacterial population dynamics in the presence of static concentrations of ceftazidime and avibactam was modelled using a two-state pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model, consisting of active and resting states, to account for bactericidal activities, bacteria-mediated ceftazidime degradation and inhibition of degradation by avibactam...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412182/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-ctx-m-8-ctx-m-55-and-fosa3-co-producing-escherichia-coli-st117-b2-isolated-from-an-asymptomatic-carrier
#13
Miriam R Fernandes, Fábio P Sellera, Quézia Moura, Tiago A Souza, Nilton Lincopan
OBJECTIVES: Asymptomatic carriers can act as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of this study was to describe the draft genome sequence of a MDR Escherichia coli lineage recovered from a fecal sample of a healthy carrier. METHODS: Genomic DNA was sequenced on an Illumina NextSeq platform. Sequence reads were de novo assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench and the whole genome sequence was evaluated through bioinformatics tools available from the Center of Genomic epidemiology and additional in silico analysis...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411661/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#14
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404414/an-optimized-synthetic-bioinformatic-natural-product-antibiotic-sterilizes-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-infected-wounds
#15
Xavier Vila-Farres, John Chu, Melinda A Ternei, Christophe Lemetre, Steven Park, David S Perlin, Sean F Brady
The antibiotic paenimucillin A was originally identified using a culture-independent synthetic-bioinformatic natural product (syn-BNP) discovery approach. Here we report on a bioinformatics-guided survey of paenimucillin A analogs that led to the discovery of paenimucillin C. Paenimucillin C inhibits the growth of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates, as well as other Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In a rat cutaneous wound model, it completely sterilized MDR A. baumannii wound infections with no sign of rebound...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396290/structure-function-and-biosynthetic-origin-of-octapeptin-antibiotics-active-against-extensively-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
Tony Velkov, Alejandra Gallardo-Godoy, James D Swarbrick, Mark A T Blaskovich, Alysha G Elliott, Meiling Han, Philip E Thompson, Kade D Roberts, Johnny X Huang, Bernd Becker, Mark S Butler, Lawrence H Lash, Sónia Troeira Henriques, Roger L Nation, Sivashangarie Sivanesan, Marc-Antoine Sani, Frances Separovic, Haydyn Mertens, Dieter Bulach, Torsten Seemann, Jeremy Owen, Jian Li, Matthew A Cooper
Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic colistin is now widespread and new therapeutics are urgently required. We report the first in toto chemical synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of octapeptins, a class of lipopeptides structurally related to colistin. The octapeptin biosynthetic cluster consisted of three non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (OctA, OctB, and OctC) that produced an amphiphilic antibiotic, octapeptin C4, which was shown to bind to and depolarize membranes. While active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains in vitro, octapeptin C4 displayed poor in vivo efficacy, most likely due to high plasma protein binding...
January 23, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395408/incidence-of-risk-factors-for-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-major-burns-receiving-intensive-care-a-retrospective-single-center-cohort-study
#17
Alexandra Fochtmann-Frana, Christian Freystätter, Vera Vorstandlechner, André Barth, Michael Bolliger, Elisabeth Presterl, Gerald Ihra, Gabriela Muschitz, Martina Mittlboeck, Athanasios Makristathis, Thomas Rath, Christine Radtke, Christina Forstner
OBJECTIVES: The objective was primarily to identify risk factors for bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by different pathogens. METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study was performed on 472 burn patients with an abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI)≥3, a total burn surface area (TBSA)≥10%, and an ICU stay of at least 24h. Risk factors for different BSI pathogens were analyzed by competing risks regression model of Fine and Gray. RESULTS: A total of 114 burn patients developed 171 episodes of BSIs caused by gram-negative bacteria (n=78;46%), gram-positive bacteria (n=69;40%), and fungi (n=24;14%) median after 14days (range, 1-164), 16days (range, 1-170), and 16days (range, 0-89), respectively...
January 29, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386016/phytochemical-investigation-and-antimicrobial-appraisal-of-parrotiopsis-jacquemontiana-decne-rehder
#18
Saima Ali, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Irfanullah, Moniba Sajid, Zartash Zahra
BACKGROUND: Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder. is locally used for skin infections and in wound healing. In this study we have evaluated methanol extract of its leaves and derived fractions against the clinical multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. METHODS: P. jacquemontiana leaves powder extracted with 95% methanol (PJM) and fractionated in escalating polarity of solvents; n-hexane (PJH), chloroform (PJC), ethyl acetate (PJE), n-butanol (PJB) and the remaining as aqueous fraction (PJA)...
January 31, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377374/identification-of-small-molecular-inhibitors-for-efflux-protein-rv2688c-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Rajender Vadija, Kiran Kumar Mustyala, Vasavi Malkhed, Ramasree Dulapalli, Hymavathi Veeravarapu, Ramesh Malikanti, Uma Vuruputuri
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the pathogen, which causes Tuberculosis (TB). Development of Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains in Mtb is due to an efflux mechanism of antibiotics in the bacteria. The efflux pump proteins in the bacteria are implicated in the active efflux of antibiotics. The efflux pump protein, 'Fluoroquinolones export ATP-binding protein Rv2688c' (FEAB), is considered as a potential therapeutic target to prevent Tuberculosis. In the present work, in silico protocols are applied to identify inhibitors for the FEAB protein to arrest the efflux mechanism...
January 29, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373935/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-avibactam-ceftazidime-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Marco Falcone, Pierluigi Viale, Giusy Tiseo, Manjunath Pai
Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor, recently approved for urinary tract infections and complicated abdominal infections. Moreover, it represents a treatment option for patients with hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: The review focuses on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CAZ-AVI in HAP and on preclinical and clinical studies evaluating PK/pharmacodynamics (PD) in this field...
January 31, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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