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Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
Ruminating animals, especially cattle lack the carbohydrate active enzyme encoding genes which are required for the degradation of the glycosidic linkages of plant cell wall carbohydrates (such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin). Thus, ruminating animals are completely dependent on the microorganisms (anaerobic bacteria and fungi, methanogenic archaea and protozoa) residing in their rumen (hindgut). In this study, we have retrieved and analyzed the complete genome wide annotations of the Neocallimastigomycota division fungi such as Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallismatix californiae, Orpinomyces sp, Piromyces finnis, Piromyces sp E2...
2018: Journal of Genomics
Zhen Zhu, Guangze Yuan, Xuran Fan, Yan Fan, Miao Yang, Yalei Yin, Jiao Liu, Yang Liu, Xupeng Cao, Jing Tian, Song Xue
Background: The synchronous triacylglycerol (TAG) production with the growth is a key step to lower the cost of the microalgae-based biofuel production. Phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) has been identified recently and catalyzes the phospholipid contributing acyl group to diacylglycerol to synthesize TAG, and is considered as the important source of TAG in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . Results: Using a chimeric Hsp70A-RbcS2 promoter, exogenous PDAT form Saccharomyces cerevisiae fused with a chloroplast transit peptide was expressed in C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Shiou-Chuan Sheryl Tsai
Polyketides are a large family of structurally complex natural products including compounds with important bioactivities. Polyketides are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs), multienzyme complexes derived evolutionarily from fatty acid synthases (FASs). The focus of this review is to critically compare the properties of FASs with iterative aromatic PKSs, including type II PKSs and fungal type I nonreducing PKSs whose chemical logic is distinct from that of modular PKSs. This review focuses on structural and enzymological studies that reveal both similarities and striking differences between FASs and aromatic PKSs...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Leandro José de Assis, Mevlut Ulas, Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Nadia Ali Mohamed El Ramli, Ozlem Sarikaya-Bayram, Gerhard H Braus, Ozgur Bayram, Gustavo Henrique Goldman
The attachment of one or more ubiquitin molecules by SCF (<u>S</u>kp-<u>C</u>ullin-<u>F</u>-box) complexes to protein substrates targets them for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome, allowing the control of numerous cellular processes. Glucose-mediated signaling and subsequent carbon catabolite repression (CCR) are processes relying on the functional regulation of target proteins, ultimately controlling the utilization of this carbon source. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans , CCR is mediated by the transcription factor CreA, which modulates the expression of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant enzymes...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Jing Hou, Heping Zheng, Wen-Shyong Tzou, David R Cooper, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Mahendra D Chordia, Keehwan Kwon, Marek Grabowski, Wladek Minor
Vibrio cholerae, the causative pathogen of the life-threatening infection cholera, encodes two copies of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (vcFabH1 and vcFabH2). vcFabH1 and vcFabH2 are pathogenic proteins associated with fatty acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and potential applications in biofuel production. Our biochemical assays characterize vcFabH1 as exhibiting specificity for acetyl-CoA and CoA thioesters with short acyl chains, similar to that observed for FabH homologs found in most Gram-negative bacteria...
June 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Glycosylated lipids (GLs) are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Takao Ojima, Mohammad M Rahman, Yuya Kumagai, Ryuji Nishiyama, Joemark Narsico, Akira Inoue
Seaweed polysaccharides have been widely used as viscosifier, gelling agents, and stabilizer in the various application fields, e.g., food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and chemical industries. Applications of seaweed polysaccharides are further expanding to versatile directions, e.g., biofuels, bioactive compounds, and functional materials for medical and basic researches. Production of functional oligo- and monosaccharides by the use of specific enzymes is also expected to improve the value of seaweed polysaccharides...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Xiaohu Li, Irini Angelidaki, Yifeng Zhang
Biological conversion of CO2 to value-added chemicals and biofuels has emerged as an attractive strategy to address the energy and environmental concerns caused by the over-reliance on fossil fuels. In this study, an innovative microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC), which combines the strengths of reverse electrodialysis (RED) and microbial electrosynthesis technology platforms, was developed to achieve efficient CO2 -to-value chemicals bioconversion by using the salinity gradient energy as driven energy sources...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Ji-Eun Bae, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Ki Hyun Nam
Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Patrick M Shih
Humans have domesticated many plant species as indispensable sources of food, materials, and medicines. The dawning era of synthetic biology represents a means to further refine, redesign, and engineer crops to meet various societal and industrial needs. Current and future endeavors will utilize plants as the foundation of a bio-based economy through the photosynthetic production of carbohydrate feedstocks for the microbial fermentation of biofuels and bioproducts, with the end goal of decreasing our dependence on petrochemicals...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Agnès Le Masle, Sandra Santin, Léa Marlot, Ludovic Chahen, Nadège Charon
Biomass fast pyrolysis oils contain molecules having a large variety of chemical functions and a wide range of molecular weights (from several tens to several thousand grams per mole). The good knowledge of their complex composition is essential for optimizing the conversion of bio-oils to biofuels, thereby requiring powerful separation techniques. In this work, we investigate the interest of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) as a first dimension for the analysis of a bio-oil. A CPC method is proposed to separate oxygen containing compounds according to their partition coefficients in the solvent system...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Dalila Souza Santos Ferreira, Rodrigo Bentes Kato, Fábio Malcher Miranda, Kenny da Costa Pinheiro, Paula Luize Camargos Fonseca, Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro Tomé, Aline Bruna Martins Vaz, Fernanda Badotti, Rommel Thiago Jucá Ramos, Bertram Brenig, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo, Raquel Guimarães Benevides, Aristóteles Góes-Neto
Herein, we present the draft genome of Trametes villosa isolate CCMB561, a wood-decaying Basidiomycota commonly found in tropical semiarid climate. The genome assembly was 57.98 Mb in size with an L50 of 691. A total of 16,711 putative protein-encoding genes was predicted, including 590 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy), directly involved in the decomposition of lignocellulosic materials. This is the first genome of this species of high interest in bioenergy research. The draft genome of Trametes villosa isolate CCMB561 will provide an important resource for future investigations in biofuel production, bioremediation and other green technologies...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mariusz Kuglarz, Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Katarzyna Dąbkowska, Irini Angelidaki
The aim of this study was to develop an integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production process from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment. Rapeseed straw pretreatment at 20% (w/v) solid loading and subsequent hydrolysis with Cellic® CTec2 resulted in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10% compared to the process with Cellic® CTec2...
May 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ye Xia, Amna Amna, Stephen Obol Opiyo
Plants have a diverse endophytic microbiome that is functionally important for their growth, development, and health. In this study, the diversity and specificity of culturable endophytic fungal communities were explored in one of the most important biofuel crops, switchgrass plants (Panicum virgatum L.), which have been cultivated on a reclaimed coal-mining site for more than 20 years. The endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface-sterilized shoot (leaf and stem), root, and seed tissues of switchgrass plants and then cultured for identification...
2018: PloS One
Bochra A Bahri, Guillaume Daverdin, Xiangyang Xu, Jan-Fang Cheng, Kerrie W Barry, E Charles Brummer, Katrien M Devos
BACKGROUND: Advances in genomic technologies have expanded our ability to accurately and exhaustively detect natural genomic variants that can be applied in crop improvement and to increase our knowledge of plant evolution and adaptation. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), an allotetraploid (2n = 4× = 36) perennial C4 grass (Poaceae family) native to North America and a feedstock crop for cellulosic biofuel production, has a large potential for genetic improvement due to its high genotypic and phenotypic variation...
June 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Prakash Chandra Gorain, Sarban Sengupta, Gour Gopal Satpati, Ishita Paul, Sudipta Tripathi, Ruma Pal
Large influx of excess nutrients into sub-tropical brackish-water habitats is expected to radically affect the algal populations in the heavily populated Sunderbans brackish-water ecozone. Twelve selected brackish-water sites in the Indian Sunderbans were surveyed to investigate the growth performance of mat-forming dominant algal/cyanobacterial macrophytes and their potential for carbon (C) sequestration into hydrologic and pedologic pools. The mats were dominated by particular taxa at different seasons related to physico-chemical properties of the wetland habitats...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Raphael Ferreira, Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Michael Gossing, Florian David, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are valuable versatile compounds that can be used as metabolites for nutrition and health, as well as feedstocks for biofuel production. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the favored microbial cell factory for industrial production of biochemicals, it does not produce large amounts of lipids and TAGs comprise only ~1% of its cell dry weight. Here, we engineered S. cerevisiae to reorient its metabolism for overproduction of TAGs, by regulating lipid droplet associated-proteins involved in TAG synthesis and hydrolysis...
June 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Xiongming Du, Shouye Liu, Junling Sun, Gengyun Zhang, Yinhua Jia, Zhaoe Pan, Haitao Xiang, Shoupu He, Qiuju Xia, Songhua Xiao, Weijun Shi, Zhiwu Quan, Jianguang Liu, Jun Ma, Baoyin Pang, Liru Wang, Gaofei Sun, Wenfang Gong, Johnie N Jenkins, Xiangyang Lou, Jun Zhu, Haiming Xu
BACKGROUND: Cottonseed is one of the most important raw materials for plant protein, oil and alternative biofuel for diesel engines. Understanding the complex genetic basis of cottonseed traits is requisite for achieving efficient genetic improvement of the traits. However, it is not yet clear about their genetic architecture in genomic level. GWAS has been an effective way to explore genetic basis of quantitative traits in human and many crops. This study aims to dissect genetic mechanism seven cottonseed traits by a GWAS for genetic improvement...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
David Kainer, Eric A Stone, Amanda Padovan, William J Foley, Carsten Külheim
Unlike agricultural crops, most forest species have not had millennia of improvement through phenotypic selection, but can contribute energy and material resources and possibly help alleviate climate change. Yield gains similar to those achieved in agricultural crops over millennia could be made in forestry species with the use of genomic methods in a much shorter time frame. Here we compare various methods of genomic prediction for eight traits related to foliar terpene yield in Eucalyptus polybractea , a tree grown predominantly for the production of Eucalyptus oil...
June 11, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Faten Hassan Hassan Abdellatif, Jérôme Babin, Carole Arnal-Herault, Laurent David, Anne Jonquieres
Membranes made from cellulose acetate grafted with imidazolium or ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) containing different anions were considered for ethyl tert-butyl ether biofuel purification by pervaporation. The new cellulosic materials were obtained after bromide (Br- ) exchange by different anions (Tf2 N- , BF4 - , AcO- ). IL structure-membrane property relationships revealed that the membrane properties were strongly improved by varying the anion structure, molecular size and hydrogen bonding acceptor ability β in the Kamlet-Taft polarity scale...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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