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Ling Xia, Rong Huang, Yinta Li, Shaoxian Song
The effects of growth phase on the lipid content and surface properties of oleaginous microalgae Botryococcus sp. FACGB-762, Chlorella sp. XJ-445 and Desmodesmus bijugatus XJ-231 were investigated in this study. The results showed that throughout the growth phases, the lipid content of microalgae increased. The surface properties like particle size, the degree of hydrophobicity, and the total concentration of functional groups increased while net surface zeta potential decreased. The results suggested that the growth stage had significant influence not only on the lipid content but also on the surface characteristics...
2017: PloS One
Takuya Tomiyama, Kaeko Kurihara, Takahisa Ogawa, Takanori Maruta, Takumi Ogawa, Daisaku Ohta, Yoshihiro Sawa, Takahiro Ishikawa
Wax ester fermentation is a unique energy gaining pathway for a unicellular phytoflagellated protozoan, Euglena gracilis, to survive under anaerobiosis. Wax esters produced in E. gracilis are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols, which are the major constituents of myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Thus, wax esters can be promising alternative biofuels. Here, we report the identification and characterization of wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltrasferase (WSD) isoenzymes as the terminal enzymes of wax ester production in E...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ruma Perveen, Inamuddin, Sufia Ul Haque, Abu Nasar, Abdullah M Asiri, Ghulam Md Ashraf
The proposed work intended to make an intellectual contribution to the domain of green nanotechnology which emphasizes the chemical synthesis of a conducting nanocomposite based on the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (Au) into the redox matrix of polyindole (PIn) along with the subsequent improvement in the overall properties of the composite by the addition of sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO). The bioanode was developed by the deposition of the PIn-Au-SGO nanocomposite with subsequent immobilization of ferritin (Frt) and glucose oxidase (GOx) on the glassy carbon electrode (GC)...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zepeng Kang, Kailong Jiao, Jin Cheng, Ruiyun Peng, Shuqiang Jiao, Zongqian Hu
A novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon composite of PANI1600@CNTs with rhizobium-like structure is prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline monomers around and along the functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and then carbonized at 1600°C for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). The SEM and TEM images clearly show that the carbonized PANI grew seamlessly on the surface of CNTs and presented the rhizobium-like structure. The carbonized PANI acts like conductive "glue" and connects the adjacent tubes together, which can assemble the CNTs into a 3D network...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kinuko Ueno, Yuta Sakai, Chika Shono, Ippei Sakamoto, Kaori Tsukakoshi, Yukako Hihara, Koji Sode, Kazunori Ikebukuro
Cyanobacteria are one of the most attractive hosts for biofuel production; however, genetic approaches to regulate specific chromosomal genes in cyanobacteria remain limited. With the aim of developing a novel method to regulate chromosomal gene expression in cyanobacteria, we focused on riboregulatory technology. Riboregulators are composed of two RNA fragments whose interaction leads to target gene regulation with high specificity. In this study, we inserted a riboregulator sequence upstream of the chromosomal gene encoding AbrB-like transcriptional regulator, cyAbrB2, to investigate the utility of this tool...
October 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Sarah K Hammer, José L Avalos
Isobutanol and other branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs) are promising advanced biofuels derived from the degradation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a particularly attractive host for the production of BCHAs due to its high tolerance to alcohols and prevalent use in the bioethanol industry. Degradation of BCAAs begins with transamination reactions, catalyzed by branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) located in the mitochondria (Bat1p) and cytosol (Bat2p)...
October 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Amal Hamed El-Naggar, Areej Ali Baeshen
Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Dennis L Corwin, Kevin Yemoto, Wes Clary, Gary Banuelos, Todd H Skaggs, Scott M Lesch, Elia Scudiero
Though more costly than petroleum-based fuels and a minor component of overall military fuel sources, biofuels are nonetheless strategically valuable to the military because of intentional reliance on multiple, reliable, secure fuel sources. Significant reduction in oilseed biofuel cost occurs when grown on marginally productive saline-sodic soils plentiful in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of oilseed production on marginal soils in the SJV to support a 115 ML yr(-1) biofuel conversion facility...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
Fabrizio Pucci, Jean Marc Kwasigroch, Marianne Rooman
Motivation: The molecular bases of protein stability remain far from elucidated even though substantial progress has been made through both computational and experimental investigations. One of the most challenging goals is the development of accurate prediction tools of the temperature dependence of the standard folding free energy Δ G ( T ). Such predictors have an enormous series of potential applications, which range from drug design in the biopharmaceutical sector to the optimization of enzyme activity for biofuel production...
June 26, 2017: Bioinformatics
Hye-Na Kim, Sanaz Vahidinia, Amanda L Holt, Alison M Sweeney, Shu Yang
It will be ideal to deliver equal, optimally efficient "doses" of sunlight to all cells in a photobioreactor system, while simultaneously utilizing the entire solar resource. Backed by the numerical scattering simulation and optimization, here, the design, synthesis, and characterization of the synthetic iridocytes that recapitulated the salient forward-scattering behavior of the Tridacnid clam system are reported, which presents the first geometric solution to allow narrow, precise forward redistribution of flux, utilizing the solar resource at the maximum quantum efficiency possible in living cells...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hanyu Wang, Yidan Ouyang, Chang Zhou, Difan Xiao, Yaping Guo, Lan Wu, Xi Li, Yunfu Gu, Quanju Xiang, Ke Zhao, Xiumei Yu, Likou Zou, Menggen Ma
Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA)...
October 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bo Yang, Jin Liu, Xiaonian Ma, Bingbing Guo, Bin Liu, Tao Wu, Yue Jiang, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic microalgae are emerging as potential biomass feedstock for sustainable production of biofuels and value-added bioproducts. CO2 biomitigation through these organisms is considered as an eco-friendly and promising alternative to the existing carbon sequestration methods. Nonetheless, the inherent relatively low photosynthetic capacity of microalgae has hampered the practical use of this strategy for CO2 biomitigation applications. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of improving photosynthetic capacity by the genetic manipulation of the Calvin cycle in the typical green microalga Chlorella vulgaris...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hun-Suk Song, Jong-Min Jeon, Yong Keun Choi, Jun-Young Kim, Wooseong Kim, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Kyungmoon Park, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Yung-Hun Yang
Lignocellulose is now a promising raw material for the biofuel production. However, lignin complex and crystalline cellulose require pretreatment steps for break-down of the crystalline structure of cellulose for the generation of fermentable sugars. However, several fermentation inhibitors are generated with sugar compounds majorly furfural. Mitigation of these inhibitors is focused for further fermentation step. Amino acids were investigated on furfural-induced growth inhibition in E. coli producing isobutanol...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
N A Palmer, A J Saathoff, E D Scully, C M Tobias, P Twigg, S Madhavan, M Schmer, R Cahoon, S E Sattler, S J Edmé, R B Mitchell, G Sarath
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a perennial, polyploid, C4 warm-season grass is among the foremost herbaceous species being advanced as a source of biomass for biofuel end uses. At the end of every growing season, the aerial tissues senesce, and the below-ground rhizomes become dormant. Future growth is dependent on the successful over-wintering of the rhizomes. Although the importance of rhizome health to overall year-upon-year plant productivity has been long recognized, there is limited information on seasonal changes occurring during dormancy at both the transcriptome and metabolite levels...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Muktak Aklujkar, Ching Leang, Pravin M Shrestha, Minita Shrestha, Derek R Lovley
Clostridium ljungdahlii derives energy by lithotrophic and organotrophic acetogenesis. C. ljungdahlii was grown organotrophically with fructose and also lithotrophically, either with syngas - a gas mixture containing hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), or with H2 and CO2. Gene expression was compared quantitatively by microarrays using RNA extracted from all three conditions. Gene expression with fructose and with H2/CO2 was compared by RNA-Seq. Upregulated genes with both syngas and H2/CO2 (compared to fructose) point to the urea cycle, uptake and degradation of peptides and amino acids, response to sulfur starvation, potentially NADPH-producing pathways involving (S)-malate and ornithine, quorum sensing, sporulation, and cell wall remodeling, suggesting a global and multicellular response to lithotrophic conditions...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
David Peris, Roberto Pérez-Torrado, Chris Todd Hittinger, Eladio Barrio, Amparo Querol
Companies based on alcoholic fermentation products, such as wine, beer, and biofuels, use yeasts to make their products. Each industrial process utilizes different media conditions, which differ in sugar content, the presence of inhibitors, and fermentation temperatures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has traditionally been the main yeast responsible for most fermentation processes. However, the market is changing due to the consumer demands or external factors, such as climate change. Some processes, such as biofuel production or winemaking, require new yeasts to solve specific challenges, especially those associated with sustainability, novel flavors, and altered alcohol contents...
October 12, 2017: Yeast
Matthew R Jensen, Brandon R Goblirsch, James K Christenson, Morgan A Esler, Fatuma A Mohamed, Lawrence P Wackett, Carrie M Wilmot
In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encode the enzymes necessary to produce cis -olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A molecules to form a β-keto acid...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Jaire Alves Ferreira Filho, Maria Augusta Crivelente Horta, Lilian Luzia Beloti, Clelton Aparecido Dos Santos, Anete Pereira de Souza
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma harzianum is used in biotechnology applications due to its ability to produce powerful enzymes for the conversion of lignocellulosic substrates into soluble sugars. Active enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are defined as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), and the most abundant family in the CAZy database is the glycoside hydrolases. The enzymes of this family play a fundamental role in the decomposition of plant biomass. RESULTS: In this study, the CAZymes of T...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
Siti N M Rozali, Elham A Milani, Rebecca C Deed, Filipa V M Silva
Spores are the most resistant form of microbial cells, thus difficult to inactivate. The pathogenic or food spoilage effects of certain spore-forming microorganisms have been the primary basis of sterilization and pasteurization processes. Thermal sterilization is the most common method to inactivate spores present on medical equipment and foods. High pressure processing (HPP) is an emerging and commercial non-thermal food pasteurization technique. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of thermal and non-thermal spore inactivation, the in-depth mechanisms of spore inactivation are as yet unclear...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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