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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454276/use-of-mixed-wastewaters-from-piggery-and-winery-for-nutrient-removal-and-lipid-production-by-chlorella-sp-mm3
#1
Vimalkumar Ganeshkumar, Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Rajarathnam Dharmarajan, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
The larger-scale generation of piggery and winery wastewaters and consequent eutrophication are quite alarming, necessitating the use of a cost-effective treatment. This study attempted to remediate wastewaters from piggery and winery mixed in the ratios of 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 100:0 and 0:100, in terms of nutrient removal and subsequent lipid accumulation by soil microalga, Chlorella sp. MM3. The per cent removal of total nitrogen and phosphates by the alga from mixed wastewaters within 10-days ranged between 51 and 89 and 26-49, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454217/morphologies-and-elemental-compositions-of-local-biomass-burning-particles-at-urban-and-glacier-sites-in-southeastern-tibetan-plateau-results-from-an-expedition-in-2010
#2
Tafeng Hu, Junji Cao, Chongshu Zhu, Zhuzi Zhao, Suixin Liu, Daizhou Zhang
Many studies indicate that the atmospheric environment over the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau is influenced by aged biomass burning particles that are transported over long distances from South Asia. However, our knowledge of the particles emitted locally (within the plateau region) is poor. We collected aerosol particles at four urban sites and one remote glacier site during a scientific expedition to the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in spring 2010. Weather and backward trajectory analyses indicated that the particles we collected were more likely dominated by particles emitted within the plateau...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#3
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453723/macroelements-and-heavy-metals-content-in-energy-crops-cultivated-on-contaminated-soil-under-different-fertilization-case-studies-on-autumn-harvest
#4
Marta Pogrzeba, Szymon Rusinowski, Jacek Krzyżak
Heavy metals (HMs) contamination of soils is a major problem occurring worldwide. Utility of energy crops for biofuel feedstock production systems offers a feasible solution for a commercial exploitation of an arable land contaminated with HMs. Experiments involved field testing of Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina pectinata cultivated on HMs-contaminated soil with standard NPK fertilizers and commercially available microbial inoculum. Biomass yield, water content, macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in plant shoots were assessed at the end of the first and the second growing season...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453614/screening-of-isochrysis-strains-and-utilization-of-a-two-stage-outdoor-cultivation-strategy-for-algal-biomass-and-lipid-production
#5
Zheng Sun, Hehong Wei, Zhi-Gang Zhou, Muthupandian Ashokkumar, Jin Liu
Isochrysis is a genus of marine algae without cell wall and capable of accumulating lipids. In this study, the lipid production potential of Isochrysis was assessed by comparing 15 Isochrysis strains with respect to their growth rate, lipid production, and fatty acid profiles. Three best strains were selected (lipid productivity, 103.0~121.7 mg L -1 day -1 ) and their lipid-producing capacities were further examined under different controlled parameters, e.g., growth phase, medium nutrient, and light intensity in laboratory cultures...
February 17, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453513/simultaneous-cell-disruption-and-lipid-extraction-of-wet-aurantiochytrium-sp-krs101-using-a-high-shear-mixer
#6
Minsoo Kwak, Seul Gi Kang, Won-Kyung Hong, Jong-In Han, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgae are regarded as a promising source of biofuels, and the concept of a microalgae-based biorefinery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. From an economic perspective, however, the process remains far from competitive with fossil fuels. This is particularly true of lipid extraction, due in part to the energy-intensive drying step. As a result, wet extraction methods have been studied as an economic alternative. In the present study, a novel extraction approach which utilizes high shear stress mixing was adopted and demonstrated for simultaneous lipid extraction and cell disruption to enable the retrieval of lipids directly from concentrated wet biomass...
February 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449883/production-of-2r-3r-2-3-butanediol-using-engineered-pichia-pastoris-strain-construction-characterization-and-fermentation
#7
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
Background: 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is a bulk platform chemical with various potential applications such as aviation fuel. 2,3-BD has three optical isomers: (2R, 3R)-, (2S, 3S)- and meso-2,3-BD. Optically pure 2,3-BD is a crucial precursor for the chiral synthesis and it can also be used as anti-freeze agent due to its low freezing point. 2,3-BD has been produced in both native and non-native hosts. Several pathogenic bacteria were reported to produce 2,3-BD in mixture of its optical isomers including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449882/mathematical-models-of-lignin-biosynthesis
#8
Mojdeh Faraji, Luis L Fonseca, Luis Escamilla-Treviño, Jaime Barros-Rios, Nancy Engle, Zamin K Yang, Timothy J Tschaplinski, Richard A Dixon, Eberhard O Voit
Background: Lignin is a natural polymer that is interwoven with cellulose and hemicellulose within plant cell walls. Due to this molecular arrangement, lignin is a major contributor to the recalcitrance of plant materials with respect to the extraction of sugars and their fermentation into ethanol, butanol, and other potential bioenergy crops. The lignin biosynthetic pathway is similar, but not identical in different plant species. It is in each case comprised of a moderate number of enzymatic steps, but its responses to manipulations, such as gene knock-downs, are complicated by the fact that several of the key enzymes are involved in several reaction steps...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449880/characterization-and-engineering-of-a-dual-function-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-in-the-oleaginous-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#9
Yulin Cui, Jialin Zhao, Yinchu Wang, Song Qin, Yandu Lu
Background: Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) represent rich sources for engineering microalgal lipid production. The principal activity of DGATs has been defined as a single-function enzyme catalyzing the esterification of diacylglycerol with acyl-CoA. Results: A dual-function PtWS/DGAT associated with diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is discovered in the current study. Distinctive to documented microalgal DGAT types, PtWS/DGAT exhibits activities of both a wax ester synthase (WS) and a DGAT...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449755/catalytic-liquefaction-of-human-feces-over-ni-tm-tio-2-catalyst-and-the-influence-of-operating-conditions-on-products
#10
Wenjia Wang, Lei Yang, Zhaosen Yin, Shengyan Kong, Wei Han, Jinglai Zhang
In this study, human feces were hydrothermal liquefied and converted into biocrude over Ni-Tm/TiO 2 catalyst. The influence of catalysts, reaction temperature, and holding time on the distribution of products and element content of biocrude was assessed. The biocrude yield increased to 53.16% with a reaction temperature of 330 °C, a holding time of 30 min, and adding Ni-Tm/TiO 2 catalyst while the liquefaction conversion peaked at 89.61%. The biocrude had an HHV of 36.64 MJ/kg and was similar to heavy crude oil...
February 1, 2018: Energy Conversion and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449404/draft-genome-assemblies-of-xylose-utilizing-candida-tropicalis-and-candida-boidinii-with-potential-application-in-biochemical-and-biofuel-production
#11
Abhishek Somani, Daniel Smith, Matthew Hegarty, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Sreenivas R Ravella, Joe A Gallagher, David N Bryant
Non- albicans Candida species are growing in prominence in industrial biotechnology due to their ability to utilize hemicellulose. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of an inhibitor-tolerant Candida tropicalis strain (Y6604) and Candida boidinii NCAIM Y01308 T .
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449177/cloning-and-expression-of-an-endoglucanase-gene-from-the-thermotolerant-fungus-aspergillus-fumigatus-dbinu-1-in-kluyveromyces-lactis
#12
Budsayachat Rungrattanakasin, Siripong Premjet, Sudarat Thanonkeo, Preekamol Klanrit, Pornthap Thanonkeo
An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences...
February 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446847/lipidomic-analysis-from-archaea-to-mammals
#13
REVIEW
Tomáš Řezanka, Irena Kolouchová, Lucia Gharwalová, Andrea Palyzová, Karel Sigler
Lipids are among the most important organic compounds found in all living cells, from primitive archaebacteria to flowering plants or mammalian cells. They form part of cell walls and constitute cell storage material. Their biosynthesis and metabolism play key roles in faraway topics such as biofuel production (third-generation biofuels produced by microorganisms, e.g. algae) and human diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger syndrome, or Refsum disease. Current lipidomic analysis requires fast and accurate processing of samples and especially their characterization...
February 15, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445420/a-bionic-system-with-fenton-reaction-and-bacteria-as-a-model-for-bioprocessing-lignocellulosic-biomass
#14
Kejing Zhang, Mengying Si, Dan Liu, Shengnan Zhuo, Mingren Liu, Hui Liu, Xu Yan, Yan Shi
Background: The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass offers a series of challenges for biochemical processing into biofuels and bio-products. For the first time, we address these challenges with a biomimetic system via a mild yet rapid Fenton reaction and lignocellulose-degrading bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (here after B-8) to pretreat the rice straw (RS) by mimicking the natural fungal invasion process. Here, we also elaborated the mechanism through conducting a systematic study of physicochemical changes before and after pretreatment...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444757/a-review-on-the-applications-of-microbial-electrolysis-cells-in-anaerobic-digestion
#15
REVIEW
Zhengsheng Yu, Xiaoyun Leng, Shuai Zhao, Jing Ji, Tuoyu Zhou, Aman Khan, Apurva Kakde, Pu Liu, Xiangkai Li
Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely used for biogas or biofuel generation from waste treatment. Because a low production rate and instability of AD occur frequently, various technologies have been applied to improvement of AD. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), an emerging technology, can convert organic matter into hydrogen, methane, and other value-added products. Recent studies showed that application of MEC to AD (MEC-AD) can accelerate degradation of a substrate (including recalcitrant compounds) and alter AD microbial community by enriching exoelectrogens and methanogens thus increasing biogas production...
February 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444681/fermentative-hydrogen-production-using-pretreated-microalgal-biomass-as-feedstock
#16
REVIEW
Jianlong Wang, Yanan Yin
Microalgae are simple chlorophyll containing organisms, they have high photosynthetic efficiency and can synthesize and accumulate large quantities of carbohydrate biomass. They can be cultivated in fresh water, seawater and wastewater. They have been used as feedstock for producing biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. The production of these biofuels can be integrated with CO 2 mitigation, wastewater treatment, and the production of high-value chemicals. Biohydrogen from microalgae is renewable. Microalgae have several advantages compared to terrestrial plants, such as higher growth rate with superior CO 2 fixation capacity; they do not need arable land to grow; they do not contain lignin...
February 14, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444307/senescence-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-perennial-grasses-for-forage-and-biofuel-production
#17
Jiading Yang, Michael Udvardi
Organ senescence is an important developmental process in plants that enables recycling of nutrients, such as nitrogen, to maximize reproductive success. Nitrogen is the mineral nutrient required in greatest amount by plants, although soil-N limits plant productivity in many natural and agricultural systems, especially systems that receive little or no fertilizer-N. Use of industrial N-fertilizers in agriculture increased crop yields several fold over the past century, although at substantial cost to fossil energy reserves and the environment...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442171/the-role-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-stabilizing-emulsions-of-hexadecane-in-aqueous-media
#18
Aureliano Agostinho Dias Meirelles, Rosiane Lopes da Cunha, Andreas Karoly Gombert
During downstream operations involved in the purification of hydrophobic biofuels produced by microorganisms, undesired stable emulsions may be formed. Understanding the mechanisms behind this stability is a pre-requisite for designing cost-effective strategies to break these emulsions. In this work, we aimed at increasing our knowledge on the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing yeast-containing oil-in-water emulsions. For this purpose, emulsions containing hexadecane and different yeast-based aqueous phases were prepared and analyzed for phase separation, surface charge density, particle size, and rheology...
February 14, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442168/biofuel-production-with-a-stress-resistant-and-growth-phase-independent-promoter-mechanism-revealed-by-in-vitro-transcription-assays
#19
Yi-Xin Huo, Liwei Guo, Xiaoyan Ma
The carbon and energy needed for bioconversion processes face trade-offs between cell reproduction and chemical synthesis. In most processes, microbial cells containing overexpressed pathway enzymes were accumulated in exponential phase before the productions of value-added chemicals dominate the carbon and energy fluxes in stationary phase. The pathway enzymes need to be continuously supplied to compensate their degradation, but the promoters driving their overexpressions are downregulated under stationary phase or stressed conditions...
February 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441127/time-series-lipidomic-analysis-of-the-oleaginous-green-microalga-species-ettlia-oleoabundans-under-nutrient-stress
#20
E K Matich, M Ghafari, E Camgoz, E Caliskan, B A Pfeifer, B Z Haznedaroglu, G E Atilla-Gokcumen
Background: Microalgae are uniquely advantageous organisms cultured and harvested for several value-added biochemicals. A majority of these compounds are lipid-based, such as triacylglycerols (TAGs), which can be used for biofuel production, and their accumulation is most affected under nutrient stress conditions. As such, the balance between cellular homeostasis and lipid metabolism becomes more intricate to achieve efficiency in bioproduct synthesis. Lipidomics studies in microalgae are of great importance as biochemical diversity also plays a major role in lipid regulation among oleaginous species...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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