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Ahlem Jebali, F Gabriel Acién, Erika Rodriguez Barradas, Eugenia J Olguín, Sami Sayadi, Emilio Molina Grima
This work investigated the production of Scenedesmus sp. in semi-continuous mode in three pilot-scale outdoor raceways (7.2 m2 ) using flue gas for CO2 supply and centrate from the anaerobic digestion of urban wastewater as the sole nutrient source. Experiments were performed at different culture depths, 5, 10 and 15 cm, while evaluating two centrate concentrations (30% and 45%) at dilution rates of 0.2 and 0.3 d-1 . Under optimal conditions of 30% centrate, 0.3 d-1 dilution rate and a 15 cm culture depth, a maximum biomass productivity of 22...
April 17, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Giovanni Fusco, Gero Göbel, Robertino Zanoni, Maria Paola Bracciale, Gabriele Favero, Franco Mazzei, Fred Lisdat
In this study, polythiophene copolymers have been used as modifier for electrode surfaces in order to allow the immobilization of active pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and to simultaneously improve the direct electrical connection of the enzyme with the electrode. Polymer films are electrosynthesized in aqueous solution without the need of surfactants onto carbon nanotubes modified gold electrodes from mixtures of 3-thiopheneacetic acid (ThCH2 CO2 H) and 3-methoxythiophene (ThOCH3 ) using a potentiostatic pulse method...
April 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jayita Chopra, Ramkrishna Sen
Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeast is generally induced by nitrogen starvation, while oxygen saturation can influence biomass growth. Systematic shake flask studies that help in identifying the right nitrogen source and relate its uptake kinetics to lipid biosynthesis under varying oxygen saturation conditions are very essential for addressing the bioprocessing-related issues, which are envisaged to occur in the fermenter scale production. In the present study, lipid bioaccumulation by P. guilliermondii at varying C:N ratios and oxygen transfer conditions (assessed in terms of kL a) was investigated in shake flasks using a pre-optimized N-source and a two-stage inoculum formulated in a hybrid medium...
April 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jack P Wang, Megan L Matthews, Cranos M Williams, Rui Shi, Chenmin Yang, Sermsawat Tunlaya-Anukit, Hsi-Chuan Chen, Quanzi Li, Jie Liu, Chien-Yuan Lin, Punith Naik, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Philip L Loziuk, Ting-Feng Yeh, Hoon Kim, Erica Gjersing, Todd Shollenberger, Christopher M Shuford, Jina Song, Zachary Miller, Yung-Yun Huang, Charles W Edmunds, Baoguang Liu, Yi Sun, Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin, Wei Li, Hao Chen, Ilona Peszlen, Joel J Ducoste, John Ralph, Hou-Min Chang, David C Muddiman, Mark F Davis, Chris Smith, Fikret Isik, Ronald Sederoff, Vincent L Chiang
A multi-omics quantitative integrative analysis of lignin biosynthesis can advance the strategic engineering of wood for timber, pulp, and biofuels. Lignin is polymerized from three monomers (monolignols) produced by a grid-like pathway. The pathway in wood formation of Populus trichocarpa has at least 21 genes, encoding enzymes that mediate 37 reactions on 24 metabolites, leading to lignin and affecting wood properties. We perturb these 21 pathway genes and integrate transcriptomic, proteomic, fluxomic and phenomic data from 221 lines selected from ~2000 transgenics (6-month-old)...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Jinichi Aoki, Toru Kawamata, Asuka Kodaka, Masayuki Minakawa, Nobukazu Imamura, Mikio Tsuzuki, Munehiko Asayama
Biomass yields and biofuel production were examined in a dual (solid and liquid)-phase cultivation system (DuPHA) with the unique filamentous cyanobacteria, Pseudanabaena sp. ABRG 5-3 and Limnothrix sp. SK1-2-1. Continuous circular cultivation was driven under the indoor closed (IC) or indoor opened (IO) conditions and provided biomass yields of approximately 8 to 27 g dry cell weight (DCW) floor m-2 d-1 . Alkanes of heptadecane (C17 H36 ) or pentadecane (C15 H32 ) as liquid biofuels were also recovered from the lower liquid-phase, in which cyanobacteria were dropped from the upper solid-phase and continuously cultivated with a small amount of medium...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Neha Arora, Philip T Pienkos, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri, Michael T Guarnieri
Ongoing global efforts to commercialize microalgal biofuels have expedited the use of multi-omics techniques to gain insights into lipid biosynthetic pathways. Functional genomics analyses have recently been employed to complement existing sequence-level omics studies, shedding light on the dynamics of lipid synthesis and its interplay with other cellular metabolic pathways, thus revealing possible targets for metabolic engineering. Here, we review the current status of algal omics studies to reveal potential targets to augment TAG accumulation in various microalgae...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Nirmal Renuka, Abhishek Guldhe, Radha Prasanna, Poonam Singh, Faizal Bux
Algae are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic organisms comprising eukaryotic green algae and Gram-negative prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which have immense potential as a bioresource for various industries related to biofuels, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and feed. This fascinating group of organisms also has applications in modern agriculture through facilitating increased nutrient availability, maintaining the organic carbon and fertility of soil, and enhancing plant growth and crop yields, as a result of stimulation of soil microbial activity...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Xiaolan Rao, Richard A Dixon
Secondary cell walls mediate many crucial biological processes in plants including mechanical support, water and nutrient transport and stress management. They also provide an abundant resource of renewable feed, fiber, and fuel. The grass family contains the most important food, forage, and biofuel crops. Understanding the regulatory mechanism of secondary wall formation in grasses is necessary for exploiting these plants for agriculture and industry. Previous research has established a detailed model of the secondary wall regulatory network in the dicot model species Arabidopsis thaliana ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ishita Mukherjee, Sushant K Sinha, Supratim Datta, Priyadarsi De
β-Glucosidase (BG) catalyses the hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose and is a rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars towards biofuels. Since the cost of enzyme is a major contributor to biofuel economics, we report the bioconjugation of a temperature responsive polymer with the highly active thermophilic β-glucosidase (B8CYA8) from Halothermothrix orenii towards improving enzyme recyclability. The bioconjugate, with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 33 °C withstands high temperatures up to 70 °C...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Said Abu-Ghosh, Zvy Dubinsky, Gabi Banet, David Iluz
The aim of this work was to examine the potential of the thermophilic green microalga Micractinium sp. to accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) and to develop a light strategy to increase TAG productivity in this alga. To this end, dense cultures of Micractinium sp. were grown at 37 °C under nitrogen (N) starvation and exposed to a light intensity of 1000 µmol photons m-2  s-1 of different light regimes. The highest per-biomass TAG-content and maximal volumetric productivities of TAG were displayed by the cultures grown under flashing light of 5 Hz with 50% duty cycle...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Estrella Duque, Abdelali Daddaoua, Baldo F Cordero, Zulema Udaondo, Carlos Molina-Santiago, Amalia Roca, Jennifer Solano, Eduarda Molina-Alcaide, Ana Segura, Juan-Luis Ramos
The success of second-generation (2G) ethanol technology relies on the efficient transformation of hemicellulose into monosaccharides and, particularly, on the full conversion of xylans into xylose for over 18% of fermentable sugars. We sought new hemicellulases using ruminal liquid, after enrichment of microbes with industrial lignocellulosic substrates and preparation of metagenomic libraries. Among 150 000 fosmid clones tested, we identified 22 clones with endoxylanase activity and 125 with β-xylosidase activity...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Zakir Hossain, Bhinu V-S Pillai, Margaret Y Gruber, Min Yu, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Brassica crops are cultivated widely for human consumption and animal feed purposes, and oilseed rape/canola (Brassica napus and rapa) is the second most important oilseed worldwide. Because of its natural diversity and genetic complexity, genomics studies on oilseed rape will be a useful resource base to modify the quantity and quality of biomass in various crops, and therefore, should have a positive impact on lignocellulosic biofuel production. The objective of this study was to perform microarray analysis on two variable lignin containing oilseed rape cultivars to target novel genes and transcription factors of importance in Brassica lignin regulation for applied research...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xingxuan Chen, Xiahui Wang, Yiyun Xue, Tian-Ao Zhang, Jiajun Hu, Yiu Fai Tsang, Min-Tian Gao
In this study, it was found that the residual stream from pretreatments of rice straw exhibited high antioxidant activity. Assays based on the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method confirmed that the residual stream contained large amounts of phenolic compounds. Three antioxidant assays were employed to evaluate the bioactivity of the residual stream. Strong linear correlations existed among the release of phenolic compounds, saccharification efficiency, and antioxidant activity. The alkaline pretreatment provided a much greater release of phenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids, compared to the acid pretreatment, and consequently, it had stronger linear correlations than the acid pretreatment...
April 16, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ao-Lin Li, Xue-Dan Hou, Kai-Peng Lin, Xuan Zhang, Ming-Hui Fu
Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is a promising and challenging process for production of biofuels and valuable platform chemicals. In this work, rice straw was mainly fractionated into carbohydrate-rich materials (CRMs) and lignin-rich materials (LRMs) by 90% lactic acid/choline chloride (LC)-water solution with different molar ratio of hydrogen bond donor (HBD, lactic acid) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA, choline chloride). It was found that high HBD/HBA molar ratio of DESs was favorable for achieving CRMs and LRMs with high purity, and both HBD and HBA were responsible for effective biomass fractionation possibly due to their synergistic effect on highly efficient breakage of the linkage between hemicellulose and lignin and thus lignin extraction...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Stephan Lane, Jia Dong, Yong-Su Jin
The substantial research efforts into lignocellulosic biofuels have generated an abundance of valuable knowledge and technologies for metabolic engineering. In particular, these investments have led to a vast growth in proficiency of engineering the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consuming lignocellulosic sugars, enabling the simultaneous assimilation of multiple carbon sources, and producing a large variety of value-added products by introduction of heterologous metabolic pathways. While microbial conversion of cellulosic sugars into large-volume low-value biofuels is not currently economically feasible, there may still be opportunities to produce other value-added chemicals as regulation of cellulosic sugar metabolism is quite different from glucose metabolism...
April 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tatsuhiro Nomaguchi, Yoshiaki Maeda, Yue Liang, Tomoko Yoshino, Toru Asahi, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Microalgal biofuels are desirable alternatives for traditional liquid fuels, but further improvements of productivity are necessary for microalgal biofuels to be economically feasible. As strategies for improving lipid productivity, repression of lipid degradation has a great potential because the lipid accumulation level is determined by a balance between lipid synthesis and degradation. However, studies of lipid degradation and its primary functioning enzyme triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases in microalgae are currently limited...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Paavo A Penttilä, Tomoya Imai, Jarl Hemming, Stefan Willför, Junji Sugiyama
The production of biofuels and other chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is limited by the inefficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Here a biomimetic composite material consisting of bacterial cellulose and wood-based hemicelluloses was used to study the effects of hemicelluloses on the enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase mixture. Bacterial cellulose synthesized in the presence of hemicelluloses, especially xylan, was found to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than hemicellulose-free bacterial cellulose...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xia Wang, Qiaoning He, Yongfu Yang, Jingwen Wang, Katie Haning, Yun Hu, Bo Wu, Mingxiong He, Yaoping Zhang, Jie Bao, Lydia M Contreras, Shihui Yang
Biorefinery of biomass-based biofuels and biochemicals by microorganisms is a competitive alternative of traditional petroleum refineries. Zymomonas mobilis is a natural ethanologen with many desirable characteristics, which makes it an ideal industrial microbial biocatalyst for commercial production of desirable bioproducts through metabolic engineering. In this review, we summarize the metabolic engineering progress achieved in Z. mobilis to expand its substrate and product ranges as well as to enhance its robustness against stressful conditions such as inhibitory compounds within the lignocellulosic hydrolysates and slurries...
April 5, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Virinder Sidhu, Dibyendu Sarkar, Rupali Datta, Barry Solomon
Large-scale copper (Cu) mining activities in Michigan's Upper Peninsula produced millions of metric tons of mining wastes also known as stamp sands. The stamp sands containing high concentrations of Cu were disposed of into several lakes connected to the Lake Superior. Eventually, as aquatic organisms in these lakes started to exhibit toxicity symptoms, the stamp sands were dredged and discarded on the lake shores. Consequently, these areas turned into degraded, marginal lands and were collectively classified as a Torch Lake Superfund site by the US EPA...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ryota Miyazaki, Tomohiko Yamazaki, Keiichi Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiro Kojima, Ryutaro Asano, Koji Sode, Wakako Tsugawa
Glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase (G3DH) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of the hydroxy group on the C-3 position of pyranose and shows broad substrate specificity by oxidizing many saccharides. Due to unique site specificity and wide substrate specificity, G3DHs can be used for synthesis of sugar derivatives, anodic catalysis in biofuel cells, multi-sugar analysis using enzyme electrode, and for enzymatic detection of 1,5‑anhydro‑d‑glucitol, a clinical marker for diabetes...
March 7, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
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