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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457249/gut-bacteria-of-cockroaches-are-a-potential-source-of-antibacterial-compound-s
#1
Noor Akbar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Mazhar Iqbal, K Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Here, we hypothesized that the microbial gut flora of animals/pests living in polluted environments, produce substances to thwart bacterial infections. The overall aim of this study was to source microbes inhabiting unusual environmental niches for potential antimicrobial activity. Two cockroach species, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar) and Blaptica dubia (Dubia) were selected. The gut bacteria from these species were isolated and grown in RPMI 1640 and conditioned media were prepared. Conditioned media were tested against a panel of Gram-positive (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria, as well as the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii...
February 19, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456212/the-epidemiology-of-acute-peritonitis-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-on-peritoneal-dialysis-in-qatar-an-8-year-follow-up-study
#2
Abdullah Hamad, Hany Ismail, Mohamed Elsayed, Ahmad Kaddourah, Hanaa Ahmed, Rania Ibrahim, Ahlam Ali, Fadwa Alali
Acute peritonitis (AP) is a common and devastating complication in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). We are reporting an epidemiologic study of AP in Qatar over 8-year follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all PD patients in Qatar from 2007 to 2014. The analysis was conducted to report epidemiology, outcome, and associated risk factors of AP. We had 318 AP episodes in 180 patients between 2007 and 2014. Six (3.3%) patients died as a result AP. Six cases of fungal peritonitis were reported...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455272/the-outcome-and-timing-of-death-of-17-767-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-finland-during-1999-2014
#3
Keiju S K Kontula, Kirsi Skogberg, Jukka Ollgren, Asko Järvinen, Outi Lyytikäinen
Few studies covering all patient groups and specialties are available regarding the outcome of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI). We analyzed the role of patient characteristics and causative pathogens of nosocomial BSIs reported by the hospitals participating in national surveillance in Finland during 1999-2014, in terms of outcome, with particular interest in those leading to death within 2 days (i.e. early death). National nosocomial BSI surveillance was laboratory-based and hospital-wide. Data on nosocomial BSIs was collected by infection control nurses, and dates of death were obtained from the national population registry with linkage to national identity codes...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454983/old-and-new-glycopeptide-antibiotics-from-product-to-gene-and-back-in-the-post-genomic-era
#4
REVIEW
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Francesca Berini, Flavia Marinelli
Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Herein, we cover past and present biotechnological approaches for searching for and producing old and new glycopeptide antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454808/a-new-multifunctionalized-material-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-abnormal-osteoclast-activity
#6
Elisa Boanini, Paola Torricelli, Francesca Bonvicini, Maria Cristina Cassani, Milena Fini, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Adriana Bigi
The development of new biomaterials able to favor bone formation and to inhibit bone abnormal resorption is mandatory to face the increasing number of age-related musculo-skeletal disorders. Moreover, the increasing antibiotic resistance of clinically important bacteria, which is among the main causes of implant failure, requires new antimicrobial systems. In this study, we prepared multifunctional materials consisting of hydroxyapatite-zoledronate composite crystals decorated with Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452993/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-tedizolid-implications-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#7
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452341/betadine-and-breast-implants
#8
Mark L Jewell, William P Adams
In the fourth quarter of 2017, the US FDA reviewed and approved a request by one of the breast implant manufacturers for a change in the Directions for Use (DFU) that removed warnings regarding the use of Betadine (povidone-iodine [PI] 10% solution, 1% available iodine [Purdue Frederick Company, Stamford, CT], also available in generic formulations [Aplicare, Inc., Meriden, CT]). Previously, in 2000, there were concerns by the FDA that PI would degrade the silicone elastomer shell. This change in the DFU represents an important advance that will benefit patients through the permitted use of PI to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of implant surfaces...
February 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452196/staphylococcus-aureus-induces-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bfgf-expression-through-the-activation-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factors-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
Jianmei Wu, Yulin Ding, Jinling Wang, Fenglong Wang
Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) are important parenchymal cells of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of BMEC and the roles of the TLR-NF-κBand TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibrosis, BMEC cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression and production of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449395/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-bacillus-pumilus-phage-leo2
#10
Sondos Badran, Nathanael Morales, Phillip Schick, Brandon Jacoby, William Villella, Todd Lorenz
Bacillus spp. are ubiquitous Gram-positive microbes with many ecological and symbiotic interactions and can be pathogens. Phage Leo2 was found to infect a Bacillus pumilus strain isolated from soil. The sequence of phage Leo2 revealed 74 genes; 31% of the genes have associated functions, and 67% of coding regions are unidentified open reading frames.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447471/anti-infection-silver-nanoparticle-immobilized-biomaterials-facilitated-by-argon-plasma-grafting-technology
#11
Ashwin Ambi, Nisharg Parikh, Carolina Vera, Krystal Burns, Naidel Montano, Leonard Sciorra, Jessica Epstein, Debing Zeng, Christian Traba
Many research groups have attained slow, persistent, continuous release of silver ions through careful experimental design using existing methods. Such methods effectively kill planktonic bacteria and therefore prevent surface adhesion of pathogens. However, the resultant modified coatings cannot provide long-term antibacterial efficacy due to sustained anti-microbial release. In this study, the anti-infection activity of AgNP immobilized biomaterials was evaluated, facilitated by argon plasma grafting technology and activated by bacterial colonization...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446935/amine-functionalized-al-mof-y-x-sm-2-o-3-zno-a-visible-light-driven-nanocomposite-with-excellent-photocatalytic-activity-for-the-photo-degradation-of-amoxicillin
#12
Reza Abazari, Ali Reza Mahjoub
A visible light-driven amine-functionalized Al-based MOF # @ y x Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO nanocomposite (NH 2 -MOF # @ y x Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO NCP) was synthesized as an effective photocatalyst for AMX degradation in the presence of ultrasound, in which # is MOF synthesis conditions from MOF I to MOF XII and x and y stand for the weight percentages of Sm 2 O 3 -to-ZnO and Sm 2 O 3 -ZnO-to-MOF, respectively. The β-lactam antibiotic AMX, which is widely used for treating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections in both animals and humans, was employed as a model pollutant...
February 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446842/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-outpatient-acquired-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-children-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#13
Laura J Wozniak, Hannah M Bechtold, Laurie E Reyen, Alvin P Chan, Elizabeth A Marcus, Jorge H Vargas
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the epidemiology and risk factors for the development of outpatient-acquired catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in children receiving home parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to (1) characterize the incidence, clinical presentation, and epidemiology of CRBSIs and (2) identify risk factors for CRBSIs in children receiving home parenteral nutrition. METHODS: A longitudinal database approved by our Institutional Review Board was created to prospectively track CRBSIs in the UCLA pediatric population from January to December 2012...
February 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446459/the-challenge-of-converting-gram-positive-only-compounds-into-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#14
REVIEW
Michelle F Richter, Paul J Hergenrother
Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are on the rise, and there is a lack of new classes of drugs to treat these pathogens. This drug shortage is largely due to the challenge of finding antibiotics that can permeate and persist inside Gram-negative species. Efforts to understand the molecular properties that enable certain compounds to accumulate in Gram-negative bacteria based on retrospective studies of known antibiotics have not been generally actionable in the development of new antibiotics...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444729/gemella-bergeri-infective-endocarditis-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature
#15
S Javed Zaidi, Tarek Husayni, Mary A Collins
Gemella is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. They rarely cause systemic illness but have been recently implicated in several serious infections. We report infective endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeri in a 23-year-old with a bicuspid aortic valve status post-intervention in infancy.
February 15, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434393/the-mycotoxin-zearalenone-hinders-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-and-hyphal-morphogenesis
#16
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yueju Zhao, Jintae Lee
Yeast-mold mycobiota inhabit several natural ecosystems, in which symbiotic relationships drive strategic pathoadaptation. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by diverse mycotoxigenic fungi as a defense against yeasts, though at times yeasts secrete enzymes that degrade, detoxify, or bio-transform mycotoxins. The present study is focused on the in vitro inhibitory effects of zearalenone (ZEN), a F2 mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium and Gibberella species, on different microbial strains. ZEN exhibited no effect on the planktonic growth or biofilms of several Gram positive and negative bacteria at the tested concentrations...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434326/culture-independent-discovery-of-the-malacidins-as-calcium-dependent-antibiotics-with-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#17
Bradley M Hover, Seong-Hwan Kim, Micah Katz, Zachary Charlop-Powers, Jeremy G Owen, Melinda A Ternei, Jeffrey Maniko, Andreia B Estrela, Henrik Molina, Steven Park, David S Perlin, Sean F Brady
Despite the wide availability of antibiotics, infectious diseases remain a leading cause of death worldwide 1 . In the absence of new therapies, mortality rates due to untreatable infections are predicted to rise more than tenfold by 2050. Natural products (NPs) made by cultured bacteria have been a major source of clinically useful antibiotics. In spite of decades of productivity, the use of bacteria in the search for new antibiotics was largely abandoned due to high rediscovery rates2,3. As only a fraction of bacterial diversity is regularly cultivated in the laboratory and just a fraction of the chemistries encoded by cultured bacteria are detected in fermentation experiments, most bacterial NPs remain hidden in the global microbiome...
February 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432939/effect-of-elevated-imipenem-cilastatin-mics-on-patient-outcomes-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections
#18
Milena M McLaughlin, Cristina Miglis, Erik Skoglund, Jamie Wagner, Maria R Advincula, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem MICs are known to predict outcomes for patients with Gram-negative bacteremias. However, limited data exists on how MICs influence such outcomes when organisms are classified as carbapenem resistant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing imipenem/cilastatin MICs on mortality. METHODS: Patients with an imipenem/cilastatin resistant (i.e. MIC>4mg/L), monomicrobial, Gram-negative bloodstream infection were eligible and assessed for baseline characteristics, organ function, microbiological data, timing and type of therapeutic treatment, and in-hospital mortality...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429850/the-first-report-of-human-meningitis-and-pyogenic-ventriculitis-caused-by-streptococcus-suis-a-case-report
#19
Tomonobu Yanase, Daiichi Morii, Satoshi Kamio, Ayako Nishimura, Eri Fukao, Yuri Inose, Yutaka Honma, Nobuo Kitahara, Takayuki Yokozawa, Bin Chang, Toshimi Oda
Streptococcus suis, a gram-positive facultative anaerobe commonly found in pigs, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Herein, we describe a case of a 45-year-old male Japanese meat wholesaler with S. suis meningitis and pyogenic ventriculitis. S. suis was isolated from his blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture, and sequence type (ST) and serotype were confirmed to be ST1 and serotype 2, respectively, by multilocus sequence typing and the Quellung reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed right labyrinthitis and pyogenic ventriculitis...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429440/neonatal-and-paediatric-bloodstream-infections-pathogens-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-and-prescribing-practice-at-khayelitsha-district-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#20
H Crichton, N O'Connell, H Rabie, A C Whitelaw, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). METHODS: We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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