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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#1
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#2
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#3
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337426/pathogen-identification-in-suspected-cases-of-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis
#4
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Azar D Khosravi, Hamed Goodarzi, Roohangiz Nashibi, Alireaza Teimouri, Azim Motamedfar, Reza Ranjbar, Sara Afzalzadeh, Mehrandokht Cyrus, Mohammad Hashemzadeh
Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335753/leuconostoc-mesenteroides-periprosthetic-knee-infection-an-unusual-fastidious-gram-positive-bacteria-a-case-report
#5
Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Claudia A Colín-Castro, Melissa Hernández-Durán, Luis E López-Jácome, Silvestre Ortega-Peña, Guillermo Cerón-González, Samuel Vanegas-Rodríguez, Jaime A Mondragón-Eguiluz, Eduardo Acosta-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infections are mainly caused by Gram-positive cocci. Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a rare microorganism mainly causing bloodstream infections. At times, it might be confused with another type of cocci and give rise to misdiagnosed infections. Molecular diagnosis and biofilm production comprise important techniques to guide antibiotic treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old Hispanic female with a previous history of bilateral knee arthroplasty presented with acute right-knee inflammation and gait impairment...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#6
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333193/increased-activity-of-colistin-in-combination-with-amikacin-against-escherichia-coli-co-producing-ndm-5-and-mcr-1
#7
Yu-Feng Zhou, Meng-Ting Tao, Youjun Feng, Run-Shi Yang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun
Objectives: Colistin and carbapenem are two lines of last-resort antibiotics against lethal infections caused by MDR Gram-negative pathogens. The emergence of carbapenemase-positive Escherichia coli with colistin resistance poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Here we report, for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), a novel combination therapy used for the treatment of E. coli co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5. Methods: The MICs of colistin were determined alone and with 1-4 mg/L amikacin...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330738/graft-infection-after-a-bentall-procedure-a-case-series-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#8
I Machelart, C Greib, G Wirth, F Camou, N Issa, J F Viallard, J L Pellegrin, E Lazaro
INTRODUCTION: The Bentall procedure is a cardiac surgery involving graft replacement of the aortic valve, aortic root and ascending aorta. Graft infection after Bentall's procedure (BGI) is infrequent but severe, and often difficult to diagnose and treat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Bordeaux endocarditis database of adult patients admitted to the Bordeaux University Medical Hospital for BGI between 2008 and 2014. Published case reports were identified in the literature...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330520/definitional-change-in-nhsn-cauti-was-associated-with-an-increase-in-clabsi-events-evaluation-of-a-large-health-system
#9
Mohamad G Fakih, Clariecia Groves, Angelo Bufalino, Lisa K Sturm, Ann L Hendrich
BACKGROUND The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) definition was revised as of January 2015 to exclude funguria and lower bacteriuria levels. We evaluated the effect of the CAUTI definition change on NHSN-defined central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) outcomes. METHODS We compared CAUTI and CLABSI NHSN-defined outcomes for calendar years 2014 and 2015 in the adult intensive care units (ICUs) of a single large health system. Changes in the event rates, the associated organisms, and the standardized infection ratio (SIR) were evaluated...
March 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330282/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-antibacterial-activity-of-silver-coated-electrospun-polycaprolactone-gelatine-nanofibrous-scaffolds
#10
Mim Mim Lim, Naznin Sultana
The development of nano-sized scaffolds with antibacterial properties that mimic the architecture of tissue is one of the challenges in tissue engineering. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/gelatine (Ge) (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated using a less toxic and common solvent, formic acid and an electrospinning technique. Nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with silver (Ag) in different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) aqueous solution (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 %) by using dipping method, drying and followed by ultraviolet (UV) photoreduction...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330100/molecular-characterization-and-amplified-ribosomal-dna-restriction-analysis-of-entomopathogenic-bacteria-associated-with-rhabditis-oscheius-spp
#11
Balakrishnan Geetha Sangeetha, Cheruvandasseri Arumughan Jayaprakas, Jinachandrannair Vijayakumari Siji, Moochattil Rajitha, Basheerkutty Shyni, Chellappan Mohandas
Bacterial strains associated with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) Rhabditis (Oscheius) spp. were isolated from infected cadavers of Galleria mellonella. The obtained 18 isolates were subdivided into nine phylogenetically different genera based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. The isolates were affiliated to three different class namely γ-proteobacteria (Enterobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas), β-proteobacteria (Alcaligenes) and Bacilli (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lysinibacillus)...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327156/mycobacterium-goodii-endocarditis-following-mitral-valve-ring-annuloplasty
#12
Rohan B Parikh, Matthew Grant
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium goodii is an infrequent human pathogen which has been implicated in prosthesis related infections and penetrating injuries. It is often initially misidentified as a gram-positive rod by clinical microbiologic laboratories and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe here the second reported case of M. goodii endocarditis. Species level identification was performed by 16S rDNA (ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid) gene sequencing...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326851/evaluation-of-antibacterial-activity-of-the-bark-and-leaf-extracts-of-brosimum-gaudichaudii-tr%C3%A3-cul-against-multidrug-resistant-strains
#13
Joelma da Costa Borges, Michele Cezimbra Perim, Rodrigo Orlandini de Castro, Thiago Antônio de Sousa Araújo, Tadeu José da Silva Peixoto Sobrinho, Ana Carolina Oliveira da Silva, Sandra Maria Botelho Mariano, Solange Cristina Carreiro, Maria Cristina da Silva Pranchevicius
Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul., a plant that belongs to Moraceae family, is found throughout the Brazilian Cerrado. The antimicrobial activities of ethanolic bark and leaf extracts of B. gaudichaudii were tested against multiresistant bacteria isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated by agar disc diffusion (DD) and broth dilution (BD) methods. By BD method, bark (53.85, 45.83%) and leaf (42.31, 50.00%) extracts contained antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria...
March 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325579/burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-china-results-of-the-2015-point-prevalence-survey-in-dong-guan-city
#14
J Wang, J Hu, S Harbarth, D Pittet, M Zhou, W Zingg
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are a major health threat. There are few data about HCAI and antibiotic use in the People's Republic of China in the English literature. AIM: To describe and discuss the prevalence of HCAI and antibiotic use from the 2015 point prevalence survey (PPS) in Dong Guan City. METHODS: In 2015, the Dong Guan (City) Nosocomial Infection Control and Quality Improvement Centre organized its yearly PPS in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Dong Guan City...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321788/characteristics-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis-and-its-effect-on-milk-scc-yield-and-composition
#15
Meng Sun, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Dan Yu, Shiyao Zhang, Saeed U Khan, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321214/exogenous-l-valine-promotes-phagocytosis-to-kill-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#16
Xin-Hai Chen, Shi-Rao Liu, Bo Peng, Dan Li, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Jia-Xin Zhu, Song Zhang, Yu-Ming Peng, Hui Li, Tian-Tuo Zhang, Xuan-Xian Peng
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents a severe threat to public health and causes extensive losses in livestock husbandry and aquaculture. Effective strategies to control such infections are in high demand. Enhancing host immunity is an ideal strategy with fewer side effects than antibiotics. To explore metabolite candidates, we applied a metabolomics approach to investigate the metabolic profiles of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Compared with the mice that died from K. pneumoniae infection, mice that survived the infection displayed elevated levels of l-valine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321212/microbiological-characteristics-and-clinical-features-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infections-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#17
Ruobing Wang, Xuebin Li, Qi Wang, Yawei Zhang, Hui Wang
The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of symptomatic CIED infections are not well described. The present study included patients with CIED infections in China, and their pocket tissues were collected for clinical microbiological determination. A total of 219 patients with CIED infections were investigated; of these patients, 145 (66.2%) were positive for CIED infection in pocket tissue cultures and 24 (11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321210/production-of-ramoplanin-and-ramoplanin-analogs-by-actinomycetes
#18
Mercedes de la Cruz, Ignacio González, Craig A Parish, Russell Onishi, José R Tormo, Jesús Martín, Fernando Peláez, Debbie Zink, Noureddine El Aouad, Fernando Reyes, Olga Genilloud, Francisca Vicente
Ramoplanin is a glycolipodepsipeptide antibiotic obtained from fermentation of Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076 that exhibits activity against clinically important multi-drug-resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-intermediate resistant Clostridium difficile. It disrupts bacterial cell wall through a unique mechanism of action by sequestering the peptidoglycan intermediate Lipid II and therefore does not show cross-resistance with other antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321156/current-knowledge-on-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
REVIEW
Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Rayo Morfin-Otero, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Elvira Garza-González
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320834/early-intracellular-trafficking-of-granulibacter-bethesdensis-in-human-macrophages
#20
Jessica Chu, Margery G Smelkinson, David W Dorward, Kol A Zarember, John I Gallin
Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a primary immunodeficiency marked by a defect in NOX2, the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. Previous studies have shown that NOX2 is essential for killing of G. bethesdensis by neutrophils and monocytes and that bacteriostatic activity of monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) requires NOX2 and IFNγ-pretreatment. To determine if G. bethesdensis evades phagolysosomal killing, a host defense pathway intact in both normal and CGD MDM, or occupies a distinct intracellular niche in CGD MDM, we assessed the trafficking patterns of this organism...
March 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
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