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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727895/how-to-become-a-killer-or-is-it-all-accidental-virulence-strategies-in-oral-streptococci
#1
Izabela Sitkiewicz
Streptococci are a diverse group of gram positive microorganisms sharing common virulence traits and similar strategies to escape the oral niche and establish an infection in other parts of the host organism. Invasive infection with oral streptococci is "a perfect storm" that requires the concerted action of multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Our understanding of streptococcal pathogenicity and infectivity should probably be less mechanistic and driven not only by the identification of novel virulence factors...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#2
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727741/antimicrobial-resistance-rates-in-gram-positive-bacteria-do-not-drive-glycopeptides-use
#3
Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Andrea Cona, Parichehr Shamsrizi, Tuba Vilken, Winfred V Kern, Nisar Malek, Evelina Tacconelli
Surveillance data are considered essential to appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and stewardship. The objective of this study was to determine if a change in the rates of antibiotic resistance impacts antibiotic use in European hospitals. Glycopeptides use was selected to study the correlation between resistance rates and antibiotic use because of the restricted spectrum against resistant gram positive bacteria. PubMed, ECDC databases and national/regional surveillance systems were searched to identify glycopeptides´ consumption in defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitant-days (DID) and rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in bloodstream infections (BSIs) in European countries between 1997 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724376/sonication-contribution-to-identifying-prosthetic-joint-infection-with-ralstonia-pickettii-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Rares Mircea Birlutiu, Mihai Dan Roman, Razvan Silviu Cismasiu, Sorin Radu Fleaca, Crina Maria Popa, Manuela Mihalache, Victoria Birlutiu
BACKGROUND: In the context of an increase number of primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasty performed yearly, an increased risk of complication is expected. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains the most common and feared arthroplasty complication. Ralstonia pickettii is a Gram-negative bacterium, that has also been identified in biofilms. It remains an extremely rare cause of PJI. There is no report of an identification of R. pickettii on an extracted spacer loaded with antibiotic...
July 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723950/high-affinity-anti-tim-3-and-anti-kir-monoclonal-antibodies-cloned-from-healthy-human-individuals
#5
Stefan Ryser, Angeles Estellés, Edgar Tenorio, Lawrence M Kauvar, Mikhail L Gishizky
We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i) bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii) hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus and (iii) the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721045/synthesis-construction-and-evaluation-of-self-assembled-nano-bacitracin-a-as-an-efficient-antibacterial-agent-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Wei Hong, Xiang Gao, Peng Qiu, Jie Yang, Mingxi Qiao, Hong Shi, Dexian Zhang, Chunlian Tian, Shengli Niu, Mingchun Liu
Bacitracin A (BA) is an excellent polypeptide antibiotic that is active against gram-positive bacteria without triggering multidrug resistance. However, BA is inactive against gram-negative bacteria because of its inability to cross the outer membrane of these cells, and it has strong nephrotoxicity, thus limiting its clinical applications. Nanoantibiotics can effectively localize antibiotics to the periplasmic space of bacteria while decreasing the adverse effects of antibiotics. In this study, biodegradable hydrophobic copolymers of poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were attached to the N-termini of BA to design a novel class of self-assembled nano-bacitracin A (nano-BAs), and their potential as antibacterial agents was evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721014/determining-optimal-dosing-regimen-of-oral-administration-of-dicloxacillin-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#7
Wei Yu, Jinru Ji, Tingting Xiao, Chaoqun Ying, Jiaheng Fang, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Dicloxacillin, a semisynthetic isoxazolyl penicillin, exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as stability against penicillinases and low level of toxicity. The objective of this study was to obtain optimal dosing regimen of oral administration of dicloxacillin by analyzing the pharmacokinetic (PK) index in healthy volunteers and in vitro antibacterial activity by using Monte Carlo simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 867 clinical isolates from community-onset infections were collected from 31 secondary hospitals in People's Republic of China...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719657/isolation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriophages-against-mdr-bacterial-isolates-from-septic-wound-infections
#8
Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Dakshayani Lomada, Madhava C Reddy, Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka
Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#9
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718238/bacteriology-of-diabetic-foot-in-tertiary-care-hospital-frequency-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-risk-factors
#10
Syeda Sadia Amjad, Jamal Zafar, Nadia Shams
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717040/flucloxacillin-results-in-suboptimal-voriconazole-plasma-concentrations
#11
Eline W Muilwijk, Bart G J Dekkers, Stefanie Henriet, Paul E Verweij, Bregje Witjes, Astrid M L Oude Lashof, Geert H Groeneveld, Johannes van der Hoeven, Jan Willem C Alffenaar, Frans G M Russel, Frank van de Veerdonk, Roger J M Brüggemann
Combining voriconazole and flucloxacillin is indicated in patient cohorts experiencing both invasive aspergillosis and gram-positive infections (e.g. patients with chronic granulomatous disease or post-influenza pulmonary aspergillosis). We report a highly relevant interaction between voriconazole and flucloxacillin resulting in subtherapeutic voriconazole plasma concentrations in more than 50% of patients, posing a severe threat if not managed properly.
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#12
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715789/quantification-of-idp-73152-a-novel-antibiotic-in-plasma-from-mice-rats-and-humans-using-an-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-use-in-pharmacokinetic-studies
#13
Myongjae Lee, Dohee Kim, Jeongcheol Shin, Hee-Yeol Lee, Soobong Park, Hong-Sub Lee, Jae-Hoon Kang, Suk-Jae Chung
IDP-73152, a novel inhibitor of a bacterial peptide deformylase, was recently approved as a new, investigational drug in Korea for the clinical management of infections caused by Gram positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to develop/validate a simple and robust analytical method for the determination of IDP-73152 in plasma samples from rodents and humans, and to assess the feasibility of the assay for use in pharmacokinetic studies using animal models. Plasma samples were processed using a standard method for protein precipitation and an aliquot of the extract then injected onto an UHPLC-MS/MS system...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713774/epic-immune-battles-of-history-neutrophils-vs-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
REVIEW
Fermin E Guerra, Timothy R Borgogna, Delisha M Patel, Eli W Sward, Jovanka M Voyich
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713513/the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization-in-iranian-pregnant-women
#15
Roksana Darabi, Sima Tadi, Mitra Mohit, Erfan Sadeghi, Gita Hatamizadeh, Bahareh Kardeh, Mina Etminan-Bakhsh, Yekta Parsa
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. Although great progress has been made in preventing prenatal GBS, its colonization rate in different regions of Iran remains unknown. AIM: To determine GBS colonization prevalence and its risk factors among Iranian pregnant women. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed on 186 pregnant women, who attended Boo-Ali hospital which is affiliated with Islamic Azad University in Tehran, Iran, from March 2014 to June 2015...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713103/-listeriosis-of-central-nervous-system-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-case-study
#16
Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb, Krzysztof Dąbrowski, Antoni Hrycek
In the recently an increase morbidity inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis was observed. The use of purine analogs and their metabolites are associated with a higher incidence of infections in this group of patients. Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by a relatively anaerobic gram-positive bacteria - Listeria monocytogenes. Common symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but these pathogens can also cause myocarditis, central nervous system infections, including brain abscesses and sepsis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713011/the-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-serine-proteases-and-their-homologs-in-an-endoparasitoid-pteromalus-puparum
#17
Lei Yang, Zhe Lin, Qi Fang, Jiale Wang, Zhichao Yan, Zhen Zou, Qisheng Song, Gongyin Ye
In insects, serine proteases (SPs) and serine protease homologs (SPHs) constitute a large family of proteins involved in multiple physiological processes such as digestion, development, and immunity. Here we identified 145 SPs and 38 SPHs in the genome of an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. Gene duplication and tandem repeats were observed in this large SPs/SPHs family. We then analyzed the expression profiles of SP/SPH genes in response to different microbial infections (Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana), as well as in different developmental stages and tissues...
July 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712037/introduction-of-sample-tubes-with-sodium-azide-as-a-preservative-for-ethyl-glucuronide-in-urine
#18
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann, Ali Al-Ahmad
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710229/pirate-project-point-of-care-informatics-based-randomised-controlled-trial-for-decreasing-overuse-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-gram-negative-bacteraemia
#19
Angela Huttner, Werner C Albrich, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Anne Rossel, Elodie von Dach, Stephan Harbarth, Laurent Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a common community and hospital-associated infection, remains unknown and unstudied via randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This investigator-initiated, multicentre, non-inferiority, informatics-based point-of-care RCT will randomly assign adult hospitalised patients receiving microbiologically efficacious antibiotic(s) for GNB to (1) 14 days of antibiotic therapy, (2) 7 days of therapy or (3) an individualised duration determined by clinical response and 75% reduction in peak C reactive protein (CRP) values...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709667/routine-use-of-topical-bacitracin-to-prevent-sternal-wound-infections-after-cardiac-surgery
#20
Joshua L Chan, Andrada C Diaconescu, Keith A Horvath
BACKGROUND: The development of sternal wound infections remains a serious complication after cardiac surgery. A number of studies have assessed the use of topical antibiotics placed on the sternal edges. We evaluated the routine use of bacitracin ointment applied over the sternotomy skin incision as a prophylactic measure against sternal wound infections. METHODS: A retrospective review of all coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery cases performed at a single institution between 2006 and 2015 was performed (n = 1,495)...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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