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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821948/mucilaginibacter-ginsenosidivorans-sp-nov-isolated-from-soil-of-ginseng-field
#1
Minseok M Kim, Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Wan-Taek Im
A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated Gsoil 3017(T) was isolated from soil of ginseng field and investigated by phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. Strain Gsoil 3017(T) grew at 10-37 °C (optimal growth at 30 °C) and at pH 5.5-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 7) on R2A and nutrient agar without additional NaCl as a supplement. Strain Gsoil 3017(T) possessed β-glucosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to transform ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rd (the three dominant active components of ginseng) to F2 and C-K, respectively...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821836/porv-is-an-outer-membrane-shuttle-protein-for-the-type-ix-secretion-system
#2
Michelle D Glew, Paul D Veith, Dina Chen, Dhana G Gorasia, Ben Peng, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. Major virulence factors named gingipains (cysteine proteinases, RgpA, RgpB and Kgp) are secreted via the Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). These, together with approximately 30 other proteins, are secreted to the cell surface and anchored to the outer membrane by covalent modification to anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) via the novel Gram negative sortase, PorU. PorU is localised on the cell surface and cleaves the C-terminal domain signal (CTD) of T9SS substrates and conjugates their new C-termini to A-LPS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821717/promysalin-is-a-salicylate-containing-antimicrobial-with-a-cell-membrane-disrupting-mechanism-of-action-on-gram-positive-bacteria
#3
Rahul D Kaduskar, Giulia Della Scala, Zaaima J H Al Jabri, Stefania Arioli, Loana Musso, Marco R Oggioni, Sabrina Dallavalle, Diego Mora
Promysalin was previously described as a narrow spectrum molecule with a unique species-specific activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we demonstrate that promysalin is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a microdilution assay. Promysalin acts on Gram-positive bacteria with a mechanism of action involving cell membrane damage with leakage of intracellular components. The evaluation of MICs and MBCs on 11 promysalin analogs, synthesized utilizing diverted total synthesis, allowed the identification of the structural moieties potentially involved in cell membrane interaction and damage...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821711/genetic-cargo-and-bacterial-species-set-the-rate-of-vesicle-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer
#4
Frances Tran, James Q Boedicker
Most bacteria release extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recent studies have found these vesicles are capable of gene delivery, however the consequences of vesicle-mediated transfer on the patterns and rates of gene flow within microbial communities remains unclear. Previous studies have not determined the impact of both the genetic cargo and the donor and recipient species on the rate of vesicle-mediated gene exchange. This report examines the potential for EVs as a mechanism of gene transfer within heterogeneous microbial populations...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821550/crystal-structure-of-the-tetr-family-repressor-alkx-from-dietzia-sp-dq12-45-1b-implicated-in-biodegradation-of-n-alkanes
#5
Jie-Liang Liang, Yuan Gao, Zheng He, Yong Nie, Meng Wang, Jing-Hong JiangYang, Xuejun C Zhang, Wen-Sheng Shu, Xiao-Lei Wu
n-Alkanes are ubiquitous in nature and are widely used by microorganisms as carbon sources. Alkane hydroxylation by alkane monooxygenases is a critical step in the aerobic biodegradation of n-alkanes, which plays important roles in natural alkane attenuation and is used in industrial and environmental applications. The alkane oxidation operon, alkW1-alkX, in an alkane-degrading strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b, is negatively auto-regulated by the TetR family repressor, AlkX, via a product positive feedback mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821446/diet-induced-obesity-alters-memory-consolidation-in-female-rats
#6
P Zanini, B D Arbo, G Niches, D Czarnabay, F Benetti, M F Ribeiro, A L Cecconello
Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which is caused by an energy imbalance between consumed and expended calories. Obesity leads to an inflammatory response that may result in peripheral and central metabolic changes, including insulin and leptin resistance. Insulin and leptin resistance have been associated with metabolic and cognitive dysfunctions. Obesity and some neurodegenerative diseases that lead to dementia affect mainly women. However, the effects of diet-induced obesity on memory consolidation in female rats are poorly understood...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821119/tailoring-of-temperature-and-ph-responsive-cotton-fabric-with-antimicrobial-activity-effect-of-the-concentration-of-a-bio-barrier-forming-agent
#7
Danaja Štular, Ivan Jerman, Barbara Simončič, Brigita Tomšič
A stimuli-responsive cotton fabric was designed using temperature and pH-responsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NiPAAm) and chitosan (PNCS) microgel as a carrier of antimicrobially active 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Si-QAC), which forms a bio-barrier on the fibre surface. The influence of Si-QAC on the moisture management and thermoregulation abilities of the PNCS microgel was investigated. Using a pad-dry cure method, Si-QAC was applied to a 100% cotton fabric model in concentrations ranging from 0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821033/novel-nitroaniline-cellulose-nanohybrids-nitro-radical-photo-release-and-its-antibacterial-action
#8
Prashant Chauhan, Ning Yan
In this study, carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose is surface functionalized by a chromophoric nitro radical (NO) photodonor via covalent bonding. The resulting new photoactive nanohybrid material displays an effective photogeneration of NO radicals upon illumination by light. The release of NO radicals has been chemically detected by various spectroscopic techniques. The bactericidal activity of the novel nanohybrid is effectively demonstrated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria with light...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821027/preparation-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity-of-oxidized-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan
#9
Mingjin Zhu, Liming Ge, Yongbo Lyu, Yaxin Zi, Xinying Li, Defu Li, Changdao Mu
The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821026/ultrahigh-antibacterial-efficacy-of-meropenem-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-a-septic-animal-model
#10
Ayat Abdelkader, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Ola Abdelkader, Mostafa A Hamad, Mahmoud Elsabahy, Omaima N El-Gazayerly
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most significant health challenges worldwide. Meropenem is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic that possesses high activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, it has a short plasma half-life, and thus requiring frequent administration of high doses. For the first time, meropenem-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated as a potential tool to overcome antimicrobial resistance and to improve pharmacokinetics of the drug. Spherical nanosized particles were prepared and demonstrated ultrahigh encapsulation efficiency of meropenem (i...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820897/persistent-infection-due-to-a-small-colony-variant-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-leads-to-pd-1-upregulation-on-circulating-immune-cells-and-mononuclear-infiltration-in-viscera-of-experimental-balb-c-mice
#11
Jia-Xiang See, Samudi Chandramathi, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Jamuna Vadivelu, Esaki M Shankar
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a neglected tropical disease endemic across South East Asia and Northern Australia. The etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei (B.pseudomallei), is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium residing in the soil and muddy water across endemic regions of the tropical world. The bacterium is known to cause persistent infections by remaining latent within host cells for prolonged duration. Reactivation of the recrudescent disease often occurs in elders whose immunity wanes...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820869/necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-high-intestinal-iron-uptake-due-to-genetic-variants
#12
Wolfgang Göpel, Josephine Drese, Tanja K Rausch, Nele Twisselmann, Bettina Bohnhorst, Andreas Müller, Axel Franz, Andreas Ziegler, Christoph Härtel, Egbert Herting
BACKGROUND: Intestinal iron is a nutritional compound, which is essential for enteric microbiota. We evaluated the hypothesis that polymorphisms which are known modifiers of intestinal iron uptake in adults are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants (birth weight below 1,500 grams) were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with known effects on serum iron levels (rs1800562, rs1799945, rs855791) were determined by polymerase chain reaction...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820752/antibiotic-combination-therapy-for-patients-with-gram-negative-septic-shock
#13
Andre C Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820574/thiol-containing-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-resensitize-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-to-meropenem
#14
Kamaleddin Haj Mohammad Ebrahim Tehrani, Nathaniel I Martin
The prevalence of infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) expressing Gram-negative bacteria has grown at an alarming rate in recent years. Despite the fact that MBLs can deactivate virtually all β-lactams antibiotics, there are as of yet no approved drugs available that inhibit their activity. We here examine the ability of previously reported thiol-based MBL inhibitors to synergize with meropenem against a panel of Gram-negative carbapenem-resistant isolates expressing different β-lactamases. Among the compounds tested, thiomandelic acid 3 and 2-merpto-3-phenylpropionic acid 4 were found to efficiently potentiate the activity of meropenem, especially against an IMP producing strain of K...
August 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820410/-changing-of-stillbirth-risks-in-different-options-of-its-registration
#15
S Mamedova
Purpose of the study - comparing of stillbirth rates and some of its risk factors in different options (after 22 and 28 completed weeks of gestation) of its registration. This study was conducted on the basis of a regional prenatal centre. Monitoring was conducted retrospectively with continuous coverage of all cases of completed pregnancy after 22 completed weeks of gestation. Stillbirth coefficient was calculated based on body weight (500 grams or more - I option, and a 1000 grams - II option) based on 100 of all birth cases (corresponding to 500 grams body weight or more, and 1,000 grams or more)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820368/emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-fosfomycin-resistance-genes-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-france
#16
Yahia Benzerara, Salah Gallah, Baptiste Hommeril, Nathalie Genel, Dominique Decré, Martin Rottman, Guillaume Arlet
FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820325/small-alarmone-synthetases-as-novel-bacterial-rna-binding-proteins
#17
Vasili Hauryliuk, Gemma C Atkinson
The alarmone nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and tetraphosphate (ppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, are key regulators of bacterial growth, stress adaptation, antibiotic tolerance and pathogenicity. We have recently shown that the Small Alarmone Synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has an RNA-binding activity (Beljantseva et al. 2017). RelQ's activities as an enzyme and as a RNA-binding protein are mutually incompatible: binding of single-stranded RNA potently inhibits (p)ppGpp synthesis in a sequence-specific manner, and RelQ's enzymatic activity destabilizes the RNA:RelQ complex...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820151/a-literature-review-and-update-on-the-incidence-and-microbiology-spectrum-of-postcataract-surgery-endophthalmitis-over-past-two-decades-in-india
#18
REVIEW
Prajna Lalitha, Sabyasachi Sengupta, Ravilla D Ravindran, Savitri Sharma, Joveeta Joseph, Vikas Ambiya, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the incidence and microbiology of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis in India. METHODS: Systematic review of English-language PubMed referenced articles on endophthalmitis in India published in the past 21 years (January 1992-December 2012), and retrospective chart review of 2 major eye care facilities in India in the past 5 years (January 2010-December 2014) were done. The incidence data were collected from articles that described "in-house" endophthalmitis and the microbiology data were collected from all articles...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820127/mongoliimonas-terrestris-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-desert-soil
#19
Jiao Xi, Yu Wang, Xiaorong Yang, Yu Tao, Yufang Shao, Fuying Feng
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic, non-spore-forming, spherical bacterium (strain MIMtkB18T) was isolated from desert soil collected from part of a Mongolian Plateau, territory of Inner Mongolia, PR China. Cell growth could be observed at 20-45 °C (optimum at 40 °C), at a pH of 6-9 (optimum at pH 8.6) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain MIMtkB18T was most closely related to Methylobrevis pamukkalensis PK2T (94...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820126/adhaeribacter-terrae-sp-nov-a-novel-bacterium-isolated-from-soil
#20
Nabil Elderiny, Jae-Jin Lee, Yeon-Hee Lee, Su-Jin Park, Seung-Yeol Lee, Sangkyu Park, Young-Je Cho, Leonid N Ten, Hee-Young Jung
Strain HY02T was isolated from a soil sample collected at Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-stain-negative, short and rod-shaped. Colonies were red in colour. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Adhaeribacter in the family Cytophagaceae, with the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Adhaeribacter terreus DNG6T (98.08 %). This strain was positive for oxidase but negative for catalase activity and acid production from glucose...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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