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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343241/in-vitro-activity-of-alpha-mangostin-in-killing-and-eradicating-staphylococcus-epidermidis-rp62a-biofilms
#1
Murugesan Sivaranjani, Manivannan Prakash, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Janarthanam Rathna, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Alpha-mangostin (α-MG) has been reported to be an effective antibacterial agent against planktonic cells of many Gram-positive bacteria. However, the antibiofilm potency of α-MG remains unexplored till date. In this study, the antibiofilm and mature biofilm eradication ability of α-MG against Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (ATCC 35984) biofilms were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of α-MG against S. epidermidis RP62A were found to be 1...
March 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343078/development-and-validation-of-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-quantitative-determination-of-polymyxin-b1-polymyxin-b2-polymyxin-b3-and-isoleucine-polymyxin-b1-in-human-plasma-and-its-application-in-clinical-studies
#2
Kim H Hee, Yee K J Leaw, Jun L Ong, Lawrence S Lee
Polymyxin B (PB) is an antibiotic consisting of a cyclic heptapeptide and a tripeptide side chain used in treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Commercial formulations of PB contain multiple structurally related components with major constituents of PB1, PB2, PB3 and ile-PB1. To understand the pharmacokinetics of these major components, we have developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method to quantify PB1, PB2, PB3 and ile-PB1 in human plasma. PB was extracted from plasma by protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid followed by chromatographic separation on Zorbax Bonus-RP column (100mm×2...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342833/a-high-density-cho-s-transient-transfection-system-comparison-of-expicho-and-expi293
#3
Nina K Jain, Susan Barkowski-Clark, Richard Altman, Krista Johnson, Fang Sun, Jonathan Zmuda, Chao Yan Liu, Adriana Kita, Ryan Schulz, Alyssa Neill, Robert Ballinger, Rekha Patel, Jian Liu, Alinafe Mpanda, Brian Huta, Henry Chiou, Walter Voegtli, Tadas Panavas
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the principal mammalian host used for stable cell line generation and biotherapeutic protein production. Until recently, production of milligrams to grams of protein in CHO transient systems was challenging. As such, Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells are the most common mammalian cell type used for transient transfection. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) of a protein are dictated in part by the cell line used for expression, and changes in PTMs have been shown to affect both the activity and biophysical properties of proteins...
March 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342756/photocatalytic-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-chitosan-tio2-nanocomposite
#4
K T Karthikeyan, A Nithya, K Jothivenkatachalam
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide widely used for various biological applications due to their potential benefits. Incorporation of biomaterials with semiconductor has been exploited for waste water treatment and biological applications due to their nanometric sizes and biocompatibility of chitosan. Chitosan-Titanium dioxide (CS-TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized and their optical, structural, spectral, thermal, morphological and elemental analyses were carried out by several techniques. The particle size of the synthesized CS-TiO2 nanocomposite was around 90nm and has a crystalline structure with anatase phase of TiO2...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342707/clinical-characteristics-microbiology-and-outcomes-of-external-ventricular-drainage-associated-infections-the-importance-of-active-treatment
#5
Constantinos Tsioutis, Spyridon A Karageorgos, Soultana Stratakou, Stella Soundoulounaki, Dimitrios Karambetsos, George Kouyentakis, Achilleas Gikas
Data concerning clinical characteristics, microbiology, treatment and outcomes of external ventricular drainage-associated infections (EVDAI) are limited. All hospitalized patients with EVDAI in a University Hospital between January 2009 and December 2015 were retrospective recorded. Only the first episode per patient was included. An antibiotic was considered "active" when its pharmacokinetic properties were appropriate for EVDAI and the implicated microorganism was in vitro susceptible. During the 7-year study period, 36 EVDAI were identified...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342608/production-of-reuterin-in-a-fermented-milk-product-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-inhibition-of-pathogens-spoilage-microorganisms-and-lactic-acid-bacteria
#6
Y Ortiz-Rivera, R Sánchez-Vega, N Gutiérrez-Méndez, J León-Félix, C Acosta-Muñiz, D R Sepulveda
We assessed the antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced in vitro in glycerol aqueous solutions in situ by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 53608 as part of a fermented milk product against starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus), spoilage (Penicillium expansum), pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes), and pathogen surrogate (Escherichia coli DH5α) microorganisms. We also assayed the influence of cold storage (28 d at 4°C) and reuterin on the color and rheology of the fermented milk product...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342335/enhanced-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-thermal-reduced-silver-nanoparticles-supported-by-titanium-dioxide
#7
Yen-Chi Chen, Kuo-Pin Yu
The antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is influenced by many factors, including the particle size, AgNP oxidation state and support materials. In this study, AgNPs are synthesized and supported by two types of TiO2 powders (P25 and Merck TiO2) using two heat-treatment temperatures (120 and 200°C). The formation of well-dispersed AgNPs with diameters ranging from 3.2 to 5.7nm was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the majority of the AgNPs were reduced from Ag(+) to Ag(0) at 200°C...
March 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342310/silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-and-coated-with-pectin-an-ideal-compromise-for-anti-bacterial-and-anti-biofilm-action-combined-with-wound-healing-properties
#8
P Pallavicini, C R Arciola, F Bertoglio, S Curtosi, G Dacarro, A D'Agostino, F Ferrari, D Merli, C Milanese, S Rossi, A Taglietti, M Tenci, L Visai
The synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from Ag(+) has been investigated, with pectin acting both as reductant and coating.∼100% Ag(+) to Ag(0) one-pot conversion was obtained, yielding p-AgNP, i.e. an aqueous solution of pectin-coated spherical Ag nanoparticles (d=8.0±2.6nm), with a<1ppm concentration of free Ag(+) cation. Despite the low free Ag(+) concentration and low Ag(+) release with time, the nature of the coating allows p-AgNP to exert excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm actions, comparable to those of ionic silver, tested on E...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340368/synthesis-molecular-docking-antimycobacterial-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-new-pyrrolo-3-2-c-pyridine-mannich-bases
#9
Gilish Jose, Tholappanavara H Suresha Kumara, Haliwana B V Sowmya, Dharmarajan Sriram, Tayur N Guru Row, Amar A Hosamani, Sunil S More, Bhavya Janardhan, B G Harish, Sandeep Telkar, Yalegara Siddappa Ravikumar
In this report, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine Mannich bases (7a-v). The Mannich bases were obtained in good yields by one-pot three component condensation of pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine scaffold (6a-c) with secondary amines and excess of formaldehyde solution in AcOH. The chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC/MS and elemental analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction has been recorded for compound 7k ([C23H29ClN4](+2), H2O)...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339695/incidence-and-outcomes-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-2007-2015
#10
Sharon B Meropol, Allison A Haupt, Sara M Debanne
Background.: The escalating incidence of invasive disease caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-GNE) is a global concern. Scant published studies in which the epidemiology of these infections in children is described exist; previous studies focused mainly on adults, described circumscribed populations, or lacked clinical detail. The objective of this study was to examine and describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with MDR-GNE infection in children...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#11
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339443/clinical-outcome-of-augmentation-enterocystoplasty-for-patients-with-ketamine-induced-cystitis
#12
Yu Khun Lee, Jia-Fong Jhang, Hann-Chorng Kuo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine abuse has become a global phenomenon in recent years. Ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is a new clinical syndrome which can result in severely inflamed bladder and intractable bladder pain. Currently there is no guideline for managing patients with KC. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical outcome of patients with KC managed with augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective interventional study. SETTING: A tertiary teaching hospital, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339424/comparison-of-weight-loss-ghrelin-and-leptin-hormones-after-ligation-of-left-gastric-artery-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-a-rat-model
#13
Erkan Yardimci, Suleyman Bozkurt, Merve Busra Cengiz, Fatma Umit Malya
BACKGROUND Ligation of the left gastric artery (LLGA), which supplies the fundus of the stomach, may reduce the appetite hormone ghrelin, resulting in weight control. The aim of this study was to compare LLGA and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in terms of postoperative outcomes in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifteen male Wistar albino rats, weighing >350 grams (range 350-525 grams), were enrolled in LLGA (N=5), SG (N=5), and control (N=5) groups. Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and also during the first and fourth week postoperatively to assay ghrelin and leptin hormone levels...
March 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#14
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338958/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-skin-of-hylarana-guentheri
#15
Zhu Dong, Wenjie Luo, Hengren Zhong, Manchuriga Wang, Yanting Song, Shiming Deng, Yingxia Zhang
The cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin of Hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-GHa-GHd and temporin-GUa), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1GUb), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2GHd-2GHj, and brevinin-2GHb). Eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. Synthesized temporin GHa-GHd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungus (Candida albicans)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338745/circadian-oscillations-of-microbial-and-functional-composition-in-the-human-salivary-microbiome
#16
Lena Takayasu, Wataru Suda, Kageyasu Takanashi, Erica Iioka, Rina Kurokawa, Chie Shindo, Yasue Hattori, Naoko Yamashita, Suguru Nishijima, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori
The human microbiomes across the body evidently interact with various signals in response to biogeographical physiological conditions. To understand such interactions in detail, we investigated how the salivary microbiome in the oral cavity would be regulated by host-related signals. Here, we show that the microbial abundance and gene participating in keeping the human salivary microbiome exhibit global circadian rhythm. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of salivary microbial samples of six healthy adults collected at 4-h intervals for three days revealed that the microbial genera accounting for 68...
February 23, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338066/chemical-composition-antioxidant-dna-damage-protective-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-activities-of-cyperus-rotundus-rhizomes-essential-oil-against-foodborne-pathogens
#17
Qing-Ping Hu, Xin-Ming Cao, Dong-Lin Hao, Liang-Liang Zhang
Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#18
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337426/pathogen-identification-in-suspected-cases-of-pyogenic-spondylodiscitis
#19
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Azar D Khosravi, Hamed Goodarzi, Roohangiz Nashibi, Alireaza Teimouri, Azim Motamedfar, Reza Ranjbar, Sara Afzalzadeh, Mehrandokht Cyrus, Mohammad Hashemzadeh
Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337179/characterization-of-a-novel-nicotine-degradation-gene-cluster-ndp-in-sphingomonas-melonis-ty-and-its-evolutionary-analysis
#20
Haixia Wang, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Jiguo Qiu, Longxiang Shi, Zhenmei Lu
Sphingomonas melonis TY utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy through a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (VPP). A 31-kb novel nicotine-degrading gene cluster, ndp, in strain TY exhibited a different genetic organization with the vpp cluster in strains Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae SJY1 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33. Genes in vpp were separated by a 20-kb interval sequence, while genes in ndp were localized together. Half of the homolog genes were in different locus in ndp and vpp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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