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Elena A Günter, Anatoliy K Melekhin, Vladislav S Belozerov, Boris A Ananchenko, Ekaterina A Martinson, Sergey G Litvinets
The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the surface morphology of the calcium pectinate gel (CaPG) beads as well as the physicochemical characteristics of pectins and the CaPG beads on the adhesive properties of gels against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The adhesion of the bacteria depends on the type of pectin and the surface morphology of the beads. The faster adhesion on CaPG beads appeared to be related to a lower degree of methyl esterification (DE), a higher molecular weight (Mw) and specific viscosity of the pectin and a higher gel strength...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Teisuke Takita, Jun Qian, Hongmin Geng, Zejian He, Sho Nemoto, Mariko Mori, Keisuke Tanaka, Shunji Hattori, Kenji Kojima, Kiyoshi Yasukawa
The collagenase produced by a gram-negative bacterium Grimontia hollisae strain 1706B (Ghcol) degrades collagen more efficiently than that produced by a gram-positive bacterium Clostridium histolyticum (Chcol), which is currently the most widely used collagenase in industry (Teramura et al. (2011) J. Bacteriol.193, 3049‒3056). Here, we compared the Ghcol and Chcol activities using two synthetic substrates. In the hydrolysis of (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl-L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Leu-Gly-L-Leu-[N3-(2,4-dinitrophen-yl)-L-2,3-diaminopropioyl]-L-Ala-L-Arg-NH2, Ghcol exhibited 350-fold higher activity than Chcol in the absence of CaCl2 and NaCl...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Brian E Roe, John W Apolzan, Danyi Qi, H Raymond Allen, Corby K Martin
We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e...
2018: PloS One
Mariano Mascarenhas, Sarah J Fox, Karen Thompson, Adam H Balen
OBJECTIVE: Comparison of live birth rates and the perinatal outcomes after fresh and frozen embryo transfer between time lapse imaging (TLI) and standard culture (SC) incubators. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A single tertiary level IVF unit. POPULATION: Women undergoing IVF between January 2014 and October 2015. METHODS: Comparison was done between 1064 IVF cycles using TLI (TLI cycles) and 818 IVF cycles using SC (SC cycles)...
February 14, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Christopher D Radka, Lauren L Radford, Adriana V F Massicano, Lawrence J DeLucas, Suzanne E Lapi, Stephen G Aller
We demonstrate a scalable method for the separation of the bacterial periplasm from the cytoplasm. This method is used to purify periplasmic protein for the purpose of biophysical characterization, and measure substrate transfer between periplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. By carefully limiting the time that the periplasm is separated from the cytoplasm, the experimenter can extract the protein of interest and assay each compartment individually for substrate without carry-over contamination between compartments...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Cristian Indino, Camilla Maccario, Luigi Manzi, Federico Giuseppe Usuelli
In recent years, regenerative techniques have been increasingly studied and used to treat osteochondral lesions of the talus. In particular, several studies have focused their attention on mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) exhibit morphological characteristics and properties similar to other mesenchymal cells, and are able to differentiate into several cellular lines. Moreover, these cells are also widely available in the subcutaneous tissue, representing 10 - 30% of the normal body weight, with a concentration of 5,000 cells per gram of tissue...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sukhwinder K Bhullar, Deepti Rana, Burçak Kaya Ozsel, Mehmet Orhan, Martin B G Jun, Harpal S Buttar, Serge Ostrovidov, Murugan Ramalingam
In this article, we report a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly method of airbrushing for the fabrication of antibacterial composite nanofibers using Nylon-6 and silver chloride (AgCl). The Nylon-6 is a widely used polymer for various biomedical applications because of its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Similarly, silver has also been known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. In order to enhance the antibacterial functionality of the Nylon-6, composite nanofibers in combination with AgCl have been fabricated using airbrush method...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xuefan Liu, Wei Han, Yanxi Zhu, Hongyun Xuan, Jiaoyu Ren, Jianhao Zhang, Liqin Ge
The consumption of fresh-cut fruits is limited because of the oxidation browning and pathogenic bacteria's growth on the fruit surface. Besides, crack of the fresh-keeping film may shorten the preservation time of fruit. In this work, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film was fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic deposition method. The film was made by carboxy methylcellulose sodium (CMC) and chitosan (CS). The as-prepared PEM film had good anti-oxidative and antibacterial capability. It inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and the antibacterial rate was more than 95%...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xuefeng Peng, Weiwei Cao, Feng Jin, Xi Wang, Qiang Li, Huinan Chen, Xiaodong Xing
Novel bactericidal materials, polycation-based N-halamine functionalized nanodiamonds (PCN-NDs), were fabricated by coating of nanodiamonds (NDs) with quaternarized N-halamine polymers via a facile approach. Chemical modification of the particles was confirmed by FTIR, XPS and TGA. The particle diameters and dispersity of the functionalized NDs were investigated by TEM and DLS measurements. It was found that ND tight core aggregates could be broken into tiny nanoparticles with 40-50 nm through functionalization procedure, which resulted in stable colloidal dispersion solution over one month...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Soo Youn Lee, Simranjeet Singh Sekhon, Mihye Kim, Ji-Young Ahn, Hyung Cheol Kim, Young-Chang Kim, Yang-Hoon Kim
Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 is a Gram-negative bacterium has metabolic capability of producing exopolysaccharide (EPS) as a potential reducing and stabilizing agent for metallic nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, we investigated the genomic and proteomic analysis to verify metabolic pathway and involved genes and enzymes related to EPS biosynthesis in S. chungbukense DJ77. End-sequencing results of randomly selected fosmid library, which were prepared from high molecular weight DNA of S. chungbukense DJ77, showed identity to sequences from genes related the EPS biosynthesis pathways in several bacteria...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kelcilene B R Teodoro, Rafaela C Sanfelice, Luiz H C Mattoso, Daniel S Correa
Cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls, is a biopolymer widely used for industrial applications, including, food, paper and textile fabrication. More recently, hybrid materials composed of cellulose nanostructures and metal nanoparticles have been applied in diverse areas such as medical and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, cellulose-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) hybrid material was synthesized and the influence of cellulose, employed as a stabilizer agent, was investigated. Specifically, cellulose whiskers (CCW) were extracted from commercial cotton fibers by acid hydrolysis route, while the AgNPs were synthesized by reducing silver salt using sodium citrate and/or sodium borohydride in the presence of CCW...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Zhonghua Huang, Mengkun Li, Na Li, Xinyuan Tang, Zhiyu Ouyang
Membrane technology is now being widely used in the field of water treatment for its unique advantages. Layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique is a convenient and versatile method of modified nanofiltration (NF) membranes fabrication, which can be used to control the thickness and the surface properties of membranes by chemical deposition of polyelectrolytes. Herein, a new kind of composite NF membrane with enhanced antibacterial properties was successfully fabricated through LbL self-assembly method, having polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as support layer, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chloride chitosan (HTCC) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as active layer, and epichlorohydrin (ECH) as crosslinking reagent...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Guzel S Isaeva, Sharmila Fagoonee
The unexpected discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has revolutionised the history of microbiology as well as of gastroenterology in the last 30 years, with an invaluable benefit for millions of persons worldwide. The confirmation that this Gram-negative spiral bacterium could live in the stomach has rendered out-of-date the concept of inhospitality of micro-organisms in the gastric environment, after a long history of unheard reports on the presence of spiral bacteria in the stomach. The pathogenicity of H...
February 14, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
February 7, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
F Vetter, C Müller, M Stöckelhuber, F Bracher
Cinnamon is a traditional herbal drug, but more importantly, it is used as a flavor compound in the production of foodstuff. Due to the content of significant concentrations of coumarin in Cassia cinnamon, effective control of the coumarin content in seasonal bakery products like ginger bread and cinnamon biscuits is urgently needed. Here we present a novel, fast and fully validated protocol for the determination of coumarin in marketed bakery products using the QuEChERS sample preparation technique in combination with GC-MS analysis...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Rattan S Rashpa, Vikram K Mahajan, Pankaj Kumar, Karaninder S Mehta, Pushpinder S Chauhan, Ritu Rawat, Vikas Sharma
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated mucocutaneous manifestations significantly impair the quality of life but often remain understudied. They may also vary across regions, socioeconomic and nutritional status, and racial differences. Objectives: To study the patterns of mucocutaneous disorders and their prevalence in CKD patients irrespective of clinical stage or dialysis status. Materials and Methods: 122 (M:F = 77:45) patients aged 21‒85 (Mean ± SD = 57...
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Maarten G K Ghequire, Susan K Buchanan, René De Mot
Bacteria host an arsenal of antagonism-mediating molecules to combat for ecologic space. Bacteriocins represent a pivotal group of secreted antibacterial peptides and proteins assisting in this fight, mainly eliminating relatives. Colicin M, a model for peptidoglycan-interfering bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria, appears to be part of a set of polymorphic toxins equipped with such a catalytic domain (ColM) targeting lipid II. Diversifying recombination has enabled parasitism of different receptors and has also given rise to hybrid bacteriocins in which ColM is associated with another toxin module...
February 13, 2018: MBio
Emily L Gulliver, Amy Wright, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Marianne Mégroz, Oded Kleifeld, Ralf Schittenhelm, David Powell, Torsten Seemann, Juergen Bulitta, Marina Harper, John D Boyce
Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for many important animal diseases. While a number of P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, very little is known about how gene expression and protein production is regulated in this organism. Small RNA (sRNA) molecules are critical regulators that act by binding to specific mRNA targets, often in association with the RNA chaperone protein Hfq. In this study, transcriptomic analysis of the P. multocida strain VP161 revealed a putative sRNA with high identity to GcvB from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
February 12, 2018: RNA
Yu-Wei Lin, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Tony Velkov, Qi Zhou, Jian Li
The efficacy of subcutaneously administered polymyxins against burn wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined in a murine infection model. Subcutaneously administered colistin and polymyxin B achieved a >2-log 10 reduction in the bacterial load for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii infections, while wound infections by K. pneumoniae were less responsive (<1-log 10 reduction). This study highlights the potential therapeutic benefits of parenteral polymyxins for treating burn wound infections...
February 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Frédéric Brunel, Christelle Lautard, Carole di Giorgio, Frédéric Garzino, Jean-Manuel Raimundo, Jean-Michel Bolla, Michel Camplo
We report the synthesis of new mono, di and tri phosphonium ionic liquids and the evaluation of their antibacterial activities on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from the ESKAPE-group. Among the molecules synthesized some of them reveal a strong bactericidal activity (MIC = 0.5 mg/L) for Gram-positive bacteria (including resistant strains) comparable to that of standard antibiotics. A comparative Gram positive and Gram negative antibacterial activities shows that the nature of counter-ion has no significant effects...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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