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Gram negative infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161657/effects-of-local-lipopolysaccharide-administration-on-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-uterus-and-oviduct-of-rabbit-does
#1
Laura Menchetti, Olimpia Barbato, Iulia Elena Filipescu, Giovanna Traina, Leonardo Leonardi, Angela Polisca, Alessandro Troisi, Gabriella Guelfi, Federica Piro, Gabriele Brecchia
Inflammation of the uterus and oviduct is associated with reduced reproductive performance in humans and domestic animals. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various immune and non-immune cells and play a crucial role in innate immunity. Toll-like receptor - 4 (TLR4) can detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria leading to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of a local inflammation on the expression levels of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12 female rabbits received an intracervical infusion with either saline solution endotoxin-free (carrier, 2 mL; n = 6) or LPS (500 μg diluted in 2 mL of saline solution; n = 6)...
November 5, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161306/comparison-of-methods-for-determining-the-effectiveness-of-antibacterial-functionalized-textiles
#2
Hajo Haase, Lisa Jordan, Laura Keitel, Claudia Keil, Boris Mahltig
Antimicrobial functionalization of textiles is important for various applications, such as protection of textile materials from decomposition, generation of more effective wound dressings, and the prevention of infections or malodors resulting from bacterial growth. In order to test the efficacy of new products, their antibacterial activity needs to be evaluated. At present, several different procedures are being used for this purpose, hindering comparisons among different studies. The present paper compares five of these assays using a sample panel of different textiles functionalized with copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) as antibacterial agents, and discusses the suitability of these methods for different analytical requirements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159897/identification-and-characterization-of-two-variants-of-the-hfq-srna-chaperone-in-the-fish-pathogen-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#3
S H Marshall, P Flores-Herrera, F A Henríquez, F A Gómez
Small RNA and chaperone proteins form synergistic duos that play pivotal roles in controlling gene expression in bacteria. This is the case for Hfq, a highly pleiotropic pretranslational modulator of general protein expression, which responds to harsh environmental conditions and influences fitness and virulence in a wide range of pathogenic Enterobacteria. Given this relevancy, we evaluated the presence and potential role of Hfq in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative bacterium that threatens the sustainability of Chilean salmon production...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159071/first-case-report-of-infection-caused-by-cupriavidus-gilardii-in-a-non-immunocompromised-chinese-patient
#4
Zhen Zhang, Wanyan Deng, Shuling Wang, Lanlan Xu, Ling Yan, Pu Liao
Cupriavidus gilardii was first identified as an aerobic, gram-negative, glucose-nonfermenting rod. C. gilardii has been characterized as an organism with low pathogenicity that causes opportunistic infections and few case reports of infection caused by this organism previously. We encountered the first case of bloodstream infection caused in China by C. gilardii in a 87-year old man without obvious immunodeficiency. The isolate were identified as C. gilardii by 16S rRNA sequencing. The infected patient was treated according to the laboratory's antibiogram of this strain...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158999/recurrent-primary-suprahepatic-abscess-due-to-providencia-stuartii-a-rare-phenomenon
#5
Kyawzaw Lin, Aung Naing Lin, Sandar Linn, Madhavi Reddy, Anjali Bakshi
Gram-negative urease-producing bacilli, Providencia stuartii (P. stuartii), is reported in urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia in humans but they rarely present with a hepatic abscess. We present a rare case of a recurrent suprahepatic cyst due to P. stuartii in a 45-year-old female, intravenous ( IV) heroin abuser with chronic hepatitis B and C. A 45-year-old female with 10 days status post right suprahepatic abscess drainage presented with recurrent, right, upper quadrant abdominal pain for one day...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158431/salmonella-typhimurium-alters-the-extracellular-proteome-of-macrophages-and-leads-to-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-exosomes
#6
Winnie W Hui, Kamil Hercik, Sayali Belsare, Navatha Alugubelly, Beata Clapp, Carlos Rinaldi, Mariola J Edelmann
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative bacterium, which can invade and survive within macrophages. Pathogenic Salmonellae induce the secretion of specific cytokines from these phagocytic cells and interfere with the host secretory pathways. In this study, we describe the extracellular proteome of human macrophages infected with S. Typhimurium, followed by analysis of canonical pathways of proteins isolated from the extracellular milieu. We demonstrate that some of the proteins secreted by macrophages upon S...
November 20, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158205/a-molting-inhibiting-hormone-like-protein-from-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-is-involved-in-immune-responses
#7
Hongliang Zuo, Jia Yuan, Shengwen Niu, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
The molting-inhibiting hormones (MIHs) from the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family are a group of neuropeptides that are implicated in regulation of molting and reproduction in crustaceans. In this study, a novel protein containing a typical crustacean neuropeptide domain was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei. The protein showed high homology with other shrimp MIHs and was then designated as a MIH-like protein (MIHL). Among the detected tissues, the heart expressed the highest level of MIHL. The expression of MIHL could be significantly up-regulated after infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), gram-negative bacterium Vibro parahaemolyticus and gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that MIHL could be involved in immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157899/epidemiology-of-diabetic-foot-infections-in-a-reference-tertiary-hospital-in-india
#8
Sanjith Saseedharan, Manisa Sahu, Roonam Chaddha, Edwin Pathrose, Arun Bal, Pallavi Bhalekar, Priyadharshini Sekar, Padma Krishnan
INTRODUCTION: The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014...
November 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157323/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Charlesnika T Evans, Margaret A Fitzpatrick, Makoto M Jones, Stephen P Burns, Linda Poggensee, Swetha Ramanathan, Sherri L LaVela, Nasia Safdar, Katie J Suda
OBJECTIVE Infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGNOs) have been increasing every year. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of MDRGNOs and factors associated with MDRGNOs in patients with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. METHODS Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record data from 142 VA facilities were evaluated for 19,642 patients with SCI/D. Multivariable cluster-adjusted models were fit to identify factors associated with MDRGNO...
November 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155327/expression-profiles-of-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-from-chinese-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-chinensis-in-response-to-viral-and-bacterial-infections
#10
Yuying He, Wanlong Yao, Ping Liu, Jian Li, Qingyin Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular response to inflammatory cytokines, environmental stress and pathogenic infection, However, compared with mammals and insects, the potential function of p38 MAPK from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) in response to viruses and bacterial infection is limited. In the study, the immune responses of four genes MKK3, MKK4, p38 and ATF-2 from F. chinensis were investigated in defending against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio anguillarum (V...
November 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155272/oral-immunization-with-recombinant-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-ompai-confers-protection-against-aeromonas-veronii-challenge-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#11
Dong-Xing Zhang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Long Chen, Shahrood Ahmed Siddiqui, Chun-Feng Wang, Ai-Dong Qian, Xiao-Feng Shan
Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals, including humans, and natural infection in fish results in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa sites of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. In this study, we generated two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (surface-displayed or secretory) expressing the OmpAI of A...
November 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154808/genetic-host-factors-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-carcinogenesis-emerging-new-paradigms
#12
REVIEW
Michiel C Mommersteeg, Jun Yu, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Helicobacter Pylori is a gram negative rod shaped microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately half the world's population. Infection with c may cause chronic gastritis which via a quite well described process known as Correas cascade can progress through sequential development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to gastric cancer. H. pylori is currently the only bacterium that is classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the WHO, although the exact mechanisms by which this bacterium contributes to gastric carcinogenesis are still poorly understood...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154024/global-antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-pathogens-and-clinical-need
#13
REVIEW
Ursula Theuretzbacher
Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become a serious problem in many regions of the world as it may reduce the treatment options substantially. Carbapenem-resistance is a good marker for such situations and is most prevalent in Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas but also increasingly in Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella. This review gives a rough global picture highlighting the epicentres of resistance. The medical need for novel treatment options globally is undeniable even if many countries with good stewardship and infection control conditions are not highly affected...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152577/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-plays-dual-role-in-host-pathogen-interactions
#14
Jeffrey A Melvin, Jordan R Gaston, Shawn N Phillips, Michael J Springer, Christopher W Marshall, Robert M Q Shanks, Jennifer M Bomberger
Microorganisms exist in a diverse ecosystem and have evolved many different mechanisms for sensing and influencing the polymicrobial environment around them, utilizing both diffusible and contact-dependent signals. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is one such communication system employed by Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to CDI mediation of growth inhibition, recent studies have demonstrated CDI-mediated control of communal behaviors such as biofilm formation. We postulated that CDI may therefore play an active role in host-pathogen interactions, allowing invading strains to establish themselves at polymicrobial mucosal interfaces through competitive interactions while simultaneously facilitating pathogenic capabilities via CDI-mediated signaling...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151895/toll-like-receptor-4-differentially-mediates-intestinal-and-extra-intestinal-immune-responses-upon-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-association-of-il10-mice-with-chronic-colitis
#15
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
Background: Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have become a serious threat particularly in hospitalized patients with immunopathological co-morbidities. The well-balanced interplay between immune cells, pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 sensing lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including PA, and evolving pathways is crucial to prevent the host from invading (opportunistic) pathogens...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151063/predation-among-microorganisms-a-huge-potential-of-interspecies-dependencies
#16
Justyna Kowalska, Marcin Włodarczyk
There are many interactions between species (including bacteria) in the environment. One of them is predation, which always leads to the death of a prey. Described in this review Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (Alfaproteobacteria) are uniflagellate, rod shaped and curved obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria. Both species belong to the group of BALOs (Bdellovibrio and like organisms). B. bacteriovorus use periplasmic predatory strategy and M. aeruginosavorus are epibiotic hunters...
November 3, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149207/evolution-of-the-metabolome-in-response-to-selection-for-increased-immunity-in-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Navdeep Gogna, Rakesh Sharma, Vanika Gupta, Kavita Dorai, N G Prasad
We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149017/the-ms6-mycolyl-arabinogalactan-esterase-lysb-is-essential-for-an-efficient-mycobacteriophage-induced-lysis
#18
Adriano M Gigante, Cheri M Hampton, Rebecca S Dillard, Filipa Gil, Maria João Catalão, José Moniz-Pereira, Elizabeth R Wright, Madalena Pimentel
All dsDNA phages encode two proteins involved in host lysis, an endolysin and a holin that target the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria encode additional proteins, the spanins, involved in disruption of the outer membrane. Recently, a gene located in the lytic cassette was identified in the genomes of mycobacteriophages, which encodes a protein (LysB) with mycolyl-arabinogalactan esterase activity. Taking in consideration the complex mycobacterial cell envelope that mycobacteriophages encounter during their life cycle, it is valuable to evaluate the role of these proteins in lysis...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146531/specific-oxygenation-of-plasma-membrane-phospholipids-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipoxygenase-induces-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-mammalian-cells
#19
Maceler Aldrovandi, Swathi Banthiya, Sven Meckelmann, You Zhou, Dagmar Heydeck, Valerie B O'Donnell, Hartmut Kuhn
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen, which causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromized patients. These bacteria express a secreted lipoxygenase (PA-LOX), which oxygenates free arachidonic acid to 15S-hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid. It binds phospholipids at its active site and physically interacts with lipid vesicles. When incubated with red blood cells membrane lipids are oxidized and hemolysis is induced but the structures of the oxygenated membrane lipids have not been determined...
November 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146454/beyond-immunity-the-imd-pathway-as-a-coordinator-of-host-defense-organismal-physiology-and-behavior
#20
Zongzhao Zhai, Xiaoshan Huang, Yulong Yin
The humoral arm of host defense in Drosophila relies on two evolutionarily conserved NFκB signaling cascades, the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) pathways. The Imd signaling pathway senses and neutralizes Gram-negative bacteria. Its activity is tightly adjusted, allowing the host to simultaneously prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria and tolerate beneficial gut microbiota. Over-activation of Imd signaling is detrimental at least in part by causing gut dysbiosis that further exacerbates intestinal pathologies...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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