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Gram negative infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548647/acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-164-consecutive-cases-treated-at-a-referral-center-in-south-korea
#1
S H Jeong, H J Cho, H S Kim, J I Han, D W Lee, C G Kim, J W Kim
PurposeTo identify prognostic factors in patients referred with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, and to evaluate the efficacy of primary vitrectomy as an initial management.MethodsOver an eight-year study period, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 164 patients who were referred with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Treatment generally conformed to standard guidelines, although primary vitrectomy was performed in several eyes with a visual acuity of hand motion or better, depending on the patient's status...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548373/role-of-de-n-acetylase-pgab-from-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-exopolysaccharide-export-in-biofilm-mode-of-growth
#2
Mayilvahanan Shanmugam, Abimbola O Oyeniyi, Chaitra Parthiban, Satish Kumar Gujjarlapudi, Gerald B Pier, Narayanan Ramasubbu
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. Attachment to a biotic surface is a critical first step in the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection process for which exopolysaccharides have been shown to be essential. In addition, the pga operon, containing genes encoding for biosynthetic proteins for poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG), plays a key role in A. actinomycetemcomitans virulence, as a mutant strain lacking the pga operon induces significantly less bone resorption...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546984/the-comparison-of-printed-resources-bacterial-contamination-in-libraries-of-al-zahra-hospital-and-sciences-faculty-of-isfahan-university-and-the-determination-of-their-antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern
#3
Hosein Rafiei, Mostafa Chadeganipour, Rezvan Ojaghi, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Rasool Nouri
INTRODUCTION: During the library loan process, the printed resources can be a carrier of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, it was tried to compare the Bacterial Contamination Rates and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in printed resources of a hospital and a non-hospital library. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Returning books from the Al-Zahra hospital library and library of Sciences faculty of Isfahan University provides the research community...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544761/composites-of-bacterial-cellulose-and-small-molecule-decorated-gold-nanoparticles-for-treating-gram-negative-bacteria-infected-wounds
#4
Ying Li, Yue Tian, Wenshu Zheng, Yan Feng, Rong Huang, Jingxin Shao, Rongbing Tang, Peng Wang, Yuexiao Jia, Jiangjiang Zhang, Wenfu Zheng, Guang Yang, Xingyu Jiang
Bacterial infections, especially multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, are an increasingly serious problem in the field of wound healing. Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) decorated by 4,6-diamino-2-pyrimidinethiol (DAPT)-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-DAPT NPs) is presented as a dressing (BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites) for treating bacterially infected wounds. BC-Au-DAPT nanocomposites have better efficacy (measured in terms of reduced minimum inhibition concentration) than most of the antibiotics (cefazolin/sulfamethoxazole) against Gram-negative bacteria, while maintaining excellent physicochemical properties including water uptake capability, mechanical strain, and biocompatibility...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544681/tenebrio-molitor-gram-negative-binding-protein-3-tmgnbp3-is-essential-for-inducing-downstream-antifungal-tenecin-1-gene-expression-against-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana-jef-007
#5
Yi-Ting Yang, Mi Rong Lee, Se Jin Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Yu-Shin Nai, Jae Su Kim
The Toll signaling pathway is responsible for defense against both Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Gram-negative binding protein 3 (GNBP3) has a strong affinity for the fungal cell wall component, β-1,3-glucan, which can activate the prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade and induce the Toll signaling pathway. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in the Toll signaling pathway. In this study, we monitored the response of 5 key genes (TmGNBP3, TmMyD88, and Tenecin 1, 2, and 3) in the Toll pathway of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor immune system against the fungus Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 using RT-PCR...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542918/multisite-external-validation-of-a-risk-prediction-model-for-the-diagnosis-of-blood-stream-infections-in-febrile-pediatric-oncology-patients-without-severe-neutropenia
#6
Adam J Esbenshade, Zhiguo Zhao, Catherine Aftandilian, Raya Saab, Rachel L Wattier, Melissa Beauchemin, Tamara P Miller, Jennifer J Wilkes, Michael J Kelly, Alison Fernbach, Michael Jeng, Cindy L Schwartz, Christopher C Dvorak, Yu Shyr, Karl G M Moons, Maria-Luisa Sulis, Debra L Friedman
BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. METHODS: A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model...
May 23, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542616/regulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-transcription-by-the-crbs-r-two-component-system-is-conserved-in-genetically-diverse-environmental-pathogens
#7
Kristin Jacob, Anna Rasmussen, Paul Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Mariame Sylla, Cecilia Prado, Elizabeth Daniele, Josh S Sharp, Alexandra E Purdy
The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA), an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542614/evaluation-of-the-sepsis-flow-chip-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-blood-infections
#8
Antonio Galiana, Javier Coy, Adelina Gimeno, Noemi Marco Guzman, Francisco Rosales, Esperanza Merino, Gloria Royo, Juan Carlos Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Blood infections are serious complex conditions that generally require rapid diagnosis and treatment. The big challenge is to reduce the time necessary to make a diagnosis with current clinical microbiological methods so as to improve the treatment given to patients. METHODS: In this study, we assess for the first time the Sepsis Flow Chip assay, which is a novel diagnostic assay for simultaneous rapid-detection of the vast majority of bloodstream pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, in the same assay, and for the detection of most common antibiotic resistance genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#9
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541806/atypical-wound-pathogens
#10
Philip S Barie
BACKGROUND: Atypical wound pathogens may be so described because they are uncommon pathogens of soft tissue among human beings, or because they may be fastidious and difficult to recover/isolate in the laboratory. METHODS: A review of pertinent English-language literature was performed. RESULTS: These wound pathogens are a diverse lot, including aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacilli, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, and bacteria that cannot be characterized conventionally because they lack a cell wall (the Mycoplasmataceae)...
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540585/antibiofilm-activity-and-mode-of-action-of-dmso-alone-and-its-combination-with-afatinib-against-gram-negative-pathogens
#11
Mohd Fakharul Zaman Raja Yahya, Zazali Alias, Saiful Anuar Karsani
Biofilms are complex microbial communities that tend to attach to either biotic or abiotic surface. Enclosed in a self-produced extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, the biofilms often cause persistent infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm activity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and afatinib against Gram-negative pathogens. Test microorganisms used in this study were Escherichia coli ATCC 1299, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028...
May 24, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540152/epidemiological-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-post-traumatic-osteomyelitis-of-limb-fractures-in-southwest-china-a-hospital-based-study
#12
Jiachen Peng, Youliang Ren, Wenbin He, Zhengdao Li, Jin Yang, Yi Liu, Zhonghui Zheng, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie, Youjia Xu
Objective To determine the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics, of patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of extremity fractures, and provide evidence-based guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment, including empiric antibiotic therapy. Methods Human subject research was performed using institutional review board approved protocols. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 5,368 patients diagnosed with extremity traumatic fractures from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015, to identify osteomyelitis patients...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539262/synthetic-anti-endotoxin-peptides-inhibit-cytoplasmic-lps-mediated-responses
#13
Anja Pfalzgraff, Lena Heinbockel, Qi Su, Klaus Brandenburg, Günther Weindl
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-independent recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytosol by inflammatory caspases leads to non-canonical inflammasome activation and induction of IL-1 secretion and pyroptosis. The discovery of this novel mechanism has potential implications for the development of effective drugs to treat sepsis since LPS-mediated hyperactivation of caspases is critically involved in endotoxic shock. Previously, we demonstrated that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-endotoxin peptide, efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and protects against sepsis in vivo...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539041/outer-membrane-vesicles-derived-from-salmonella-enteritidis-protect-against-the-virulent-wild-type-strain-infection-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Qiong Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Xiangmin Zhang, Qing Liu
Food-borne contamination and salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) are a significant threat to human health and poultry enterprises. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are naturally secreted by gram-negative bacteria, could be a good vaccine option because they have many biologically active substances, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and phospholipids, as well as periplasmic components. In the present study, we purified OMVs derived from S. Enteritidis and analyzed their characteristics through silver staining and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536862/mechanisms-of-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-the-monocyclic-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotic-bal30072
#15
Franziska Paech, Simon Messner, Jochen Spickermann, Mathias Wind, Anne-Hortense Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne Therese Witschi, Brett A Howell, Rachel J Church, Jeff Woodhead, Marc Engelhardt, Stephan Krähenbühl, Martina Maurer
BAL30072 is a new monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic under development which provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the absence of liver toxicity in preclinical studies in rats and marmosets and in single dose clinical studies in humans, increased transaminase activities were observed in healthy subjects in multiple-dose clinical studies. We, therefore, initiated a comprehensive program to find out the mechanisms leading to hepatocellular injury using HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), HepaRG cells (inducible hepatocytes derived from a human hepatic progenitor cell line), and human liver microtissue preparations...
May 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535868/helicobacter-infection-significantly-alters-pregnancy-success-in-laboratory-mice
#16
Tara C Bracken, Caitlin A Cooper, Zil Ali, Ha Truong, Julie M Moore
Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data support these claims. We therefore retrospectively investigated the effect of Helicobacter infection on murine pregnancy outcome after the identification of endemic Helicobacter infection in an animal research facility. Multiplex conventional PCR analysis was used to characterize Helicobacter infection status in one inbred and 2 transgenic strains of mice in 2 self-contained rooms assigned to the same investigator...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535303/a-novel-goldnano-carb-test-for-rapid-phenotypic-detection-of-carbapenemases-particularly-oxa-type-in-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#17
Arpasiri Srisrattakarn, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Nicha Charoensri, Jureerut Daduang, Aroonwadee Chanawong
Objectives: To develop a simple gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric test, GoldNano Carb (GoldC), for detecting carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacteria, compared with updated Carba NP (CNP) and CarbAcineto NP (CAcNP) tests by using PCR methods as gold standard. Methods: Ninety-nine carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. isolates and 89 non-CPE isolates were tested by the GoldC and CNP. Additionally, the CAcNP was performed in the Acinetobacter spp...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534071/cloning-of-helicobacter-suis-cholesterol-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-and-production-of-an-antibody-capable-of-detecting-it-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-gastric-tissue-sections
#18
Masatomo Kawakubo, Kazuki Horiuchi, Hitomi Komura, Yoshiko Sato, Masayoshi Kato, Meguru Ikeyama, Mana Fukushima, Shigenori Yamada, Satoshi Ishizone, Takehisa Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi Ota, Junji Sagara, Jun Nakayama
Helicobacter suis (H. suis), formerly called Helicobacter heilmannii type 1 (H. heilmannii), is a gram-negative bacterium of the Helicobacter species. This pathogen infects the stomach of humans and animals such as dogs, cats, pigs, and rodents, the latter giving rise to zoonotic infection. Here, we generated a H. suis-specific antibody useful for immunohistochemistry with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. To do so, we began by cloning the gene encoding H. suis cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT)...
May 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533769/celecoxib-enhances-the-efficacy-of-low-dose-antibiotic-treatment-against-polymicrobial-sepsis-in-mice-and-clinical-isolates-of-eskape-pathogens
#19
Madhavi Annamanedi, Gajapati Y N Varma, K Anuradha, Arunasree M Kalle
Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533681/synergistic-bactericidal-activity-of-chlorhexidine-loaded-silver-decorated-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#20
Meng-Meng Lu, Qiu-Jing Wang, Zhi-Min Chang, Zheng Wang, Xiao Zheng, Dan Shao, Wen-Fei Dong, Yan-Min Zhou
Combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver ions could engender synergistic bactericidal effect and improve the bactericidal efficacy. It is highly desired to develop an efficient carrier for the antiseptics codelivery targeting infection foci with acidic microenvironment. In this work, monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanospheres were successfully developed as an ideal carrier for CHX and nanosilver codelivery through a facile and environmentally friendly method. The CHX-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs@CHX) exhibited a pH-responsive release manner of CHX and silver ions simultaneously, leading to synergistically antibacterial effect against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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