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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922123/lptd-is-a-promising-vaccine-antigen-and-potential-immunotherapeutic-target-for-protection-against-vibrio-species-infection
#1
Zhenzhong Zha, Chuchu Li, Weiyan Li, Zhicang Ye, Jianyi Pan
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are unique to Gram-negative bacteria. Several features, including surface exposure, conservation among strains and ability to induce immune responses, make OMPs attractive targets for using as vaccine antigens and immunotherapeutics. LptD is an essential OMP that mediates the final transport of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to outer leaflet. The protein in Vibrio parahaemolyticus was identified to have immunogenicity in our previous report. In this study, broad distribution, high conservation and similar surface-epitopes of LptD were found among the major Vibrio species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921342/cross-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection-by-monoclonal-antibodies-against-vibrio-vulnificus-rtxa1-martxvv
#2
Tae Hee Lee, Sun-Shin Cha, Chang-Seop Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Hye Ryun Woo, Kyung Min Chung
Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V...
November 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921270/halogenated-indoles-eradicate-bacterial-persister-cells-and-biofilms
#3
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920982/clinical-implications-of-paracoccus-yeeii-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#4
Jordan Sack, David R Peaper, Pramod Mistry, Maricar Malinis
Infections in patients with cirrhosis are common among those who develop variceal hemorrhage. Prophylactic antimicrobial treatment with third generation cephalosporins is recommended in patients with advanced cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However no infectious source is identified in up to 50% of patients with cirrhosis and clinical sepsis. We report the first case of Paracoccus yeeii bacteremia in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis who presented with variceal hemorrhage. This rare gram negative organism that occurs naturally in the soil has been difficult to isolate until recent technological advances and may not be susceptible to third generation cephalosporins...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920769/transcriptional-profiling-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-genes-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-different-environmental-conditions-identification-of-hp0967-hp0968-system
#5
María G Cárdenas-Mondragón, Miguel A Ares, Leonardo G Panunzi, Sabino Pacheco, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Jorge A Girón, Javier Torres, Miguel A De la Cruz
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315-HP0316, HP0892-HP0893, and HP0894-HP0895...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#6
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919625/an-insight-study-on-hptlc-fingerprinting-of-mukia-maderaspatana-mechanism-of-bioactive-constituents-in-metal-nanoparticle-synthesis-and-its-activity-against-human-pathogens
#7
G Karthiga Devi, K Sathish Kumar, R Parthiban, K Kalishwarlal
The present work reports the development of a Simple, rapid and eco-friendly route for the biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens in the wound infected area. The synthesis was done using Mukia maderasapatna plant extract as a reducing agent. FT-IR analysis reported that the methanol extract was found to contain maximum number of functional groups which is responsible for the reduction of metal ions to metal nanoparticles...
December 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918269/prevention-of-hospital-acquired-bloodstream-infections-through-chlorhexidine-gluconate-impregnated-washcloth-bathing-in-intensive-care-units-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-crossover-trials
#9
Elsa Afonso, Koen Blot, Stijn Blot
We assessed the impact of 2% daily patient bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) washcloths on the incidence of hospital-acquired (HA) and central line-associated (CLA) bloodstream infections (BSI) in intensive care units (ICUs). We searched randomised studies in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) and Web of Science databases up to April 2015. Primary outcomes were total HABSI, central line, and non-central line-associated BSI rates per patient-days. Secondary outcomes included Gram-negative and Gram-positive BSI rates and adverse events...
November 17, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917839/characterization-and-1-57%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution-structure-of-the-key-fire-blight-phosphatase-amsi-from-erwinia-amylovora
#10
Marco Salomone-Stagni, Francesco Musiani, Stefano Benini
AmsI is a low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates the production of amylovoran in the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora, a specific pathogen of rosaceous plants such as apple, pear and quince. Amylovoran is an exopolysaccharide that is necessary for successful infection. In order to shed light on AmsI, its structure was solved at 1.57 Å resolution at the same pH as its highest measured activity (pH 5.5). In the active site, a water molecule, bridging between the catalytic Arg15 and the reaction-product analogue sulfate, might be representative of the water molecule attacking the phospho-cysteine intermediate in the second step of the reaction mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#11
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917170/isolation-and-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-recovered-from-campylobacter-selective-medium
#12
Dinesh M Fernando, Izhar U H Khan, Rakesh Patidar, David R Lapen, Guylaine Talbot, Edward Topp, Ayush Kumar
Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42°C and in the presence of antibiotics) from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916925/microbial-biofilms-in-urinary-tract-infections-and-prostatitis-etiology-pathogenicity-and-combating-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Delcaru, Ionela Alexandru, Paulina Podgoreanu, Mirela Grosu, Elisabeth Stavropoulos, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Veronica Lazar
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy...
November 30, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#14
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916460/the-upregulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-rabbit-uterus-under-the-lipopolysaccaride-induced-reversible-immunoresponse-state
#15
S J Liu, Y Shi, C Liu, M Zhang, Z C Zuo, C J Zeng, G B Zhou, H Xian, T Z Song
The reproductive organs are more likely to develop gram-negative bacterial infection than other internal organs because of direct access to the body surface. The objective of this study was (1) to provide a suitable intravenous injection dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instead of gram-negative bacterial infection in order to induce a reversible immunoresponse state and (2) to examine the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the uterus of rabbits while in an immunoresponse state. Two series of experiments were performed to accomplish these objectives...
November 29, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915108/how-should-we-respond-to-the-emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-humans-and-animals
#16
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Marc Mendelson
OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of antibiotics in humans and animals contributes to growing rates of antibiotic resistance. Previously treatable bacterial infections now require the last line of antibiotics or are untreatable. For carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections the antibiotic of last resort is now often colistin. In this review, we present the evidence for the shifting pattern of colistin resistance and discuss how the international community should respond. METHODS: This is a literature review of colistin resistance...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914962/efflux-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-diverse-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-aquatic-environment
#17
Santosh Kumar Singh, Mitali Mishra, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Harapriya Mohapatra
The peptide drug colistin is commonly used to treat carbapenem resistant gram negative bacterial infections. In the present study, we report efflux mediated colistin resistance in multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to ST200 and ST1296, isolated from a fresh water environment. The isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to human serum, possessed Type 1 fimbriae and harbored blaSHV-34 and blaTEM-1 genes. Our results highlight the evolving nature of these clones in the country. These observations emphasize the need for judicious usage of antibiotics to prevent the imminent danger of losing out on currently available therapeutic options...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#18
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#19
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911925/attenuation-of-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-of-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-carotovorum-through-an-ahl-lactonase-produced-by-lysinibacillus-sp-gs50
#20
Sneha S Garge, Anuradha S Nerurkar
Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism in which Gram negative bacterial pathogens sense their population density through acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and regulate the expression of virulence factors. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs by lactonases, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is thus a potential strategy for attenuating QS regulated bacterial infections. We characterised the QQ activity of soil isolate Lysinibacillus sp. Gs50 and explored its potential for controlling bacterial soft rot of crop plants. Lysinibacillus sp...
2016: PloS One
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