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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521000/the-ecology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-esbls-in-the-developed-world
#1
Yohei Doi, Alina Iovleva, Robert A Bonomo
Background: Since the initial appearance in the 1980s, Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) have increased in prevalence and emerged as a major antimicrobial-resistant pathogen. The source of these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the developed world is an area of active investigation. Methods: A standard internet search was conducted with a focus on the epidemiology and potential sources of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the developed world...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520999/travel-acquired-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-impact-of-colonization-at-individual-and-community-level
#2
Paul-Louis Woerther, Antoine Andremont, Anu Kantele
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly increasing global emergency that calls for action from all of society. Intestinal multidrugresistant (MDR) bacteria have spread worldwide with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) as the most prevalent type. The millions of travelers annually visiting regions with poor hygiene contribute substantially to this spread. Our review explores the underlying data and discusses the consequences of the colonization...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515905/colonization-of-long-term-care-facility-patients-with-mdr-gram-negatives-during-an-acinetobacter-baumannii-outbreak
#3
Ines Zollner-Schwetz, Elisabeth Zechner, Elisabeth Ullrich, Josefa Luxner, Christian Pux, Gerald Pichler, Walter Schippinger, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii at two wards caring long term for patients with disorder of consciousness at the Geriatric Health Centers Graz, Austria. During our study we detected two A. baumannii outbreaks. METHODS: In August 2015, we conducted a point-prevalence study...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513576/biofilm-is-a-major-virulence-determinant-in-bacterial-colonization-of-chronic-skin-ulcers-independently-from-the-multidrug-resistant-phenotype
#4
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Farulla, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Matteo Vespaziani, Ilaria Cavallo, Isabella Sperduti, Martina Pontone, Valentina Bordignon, Laura Cilli, Alessandra De Santis, Fabiola Di Salvo, Fulvia Pimpinelli, Ilaria Lesnoni La Parola, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Bacterial biofilm is a major factor in delayed wound healing and high levels of biofilm production have been repeatedly described in multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs). Nevertheless, a quantitative correlation between biofilm production and the profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in delayed wound healing remains to be determined. Microbial identification, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production were assessed in 135 clinical isolates from 87 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were the most represented microorganisms (60...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507106/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-the-combination-of-op0595-and-cefepime-in-a-mouse-model-of-pneumonia-caused-by-esbl-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Kazuaki Takeda, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
Background: OP0595 (RG6080) is a novel diazobicyclooctane that inhibits class A and C serine beta-lactamases. Although the combination of OP0595 and cefepime (FEP) showed good in vitro activity against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens, the effect of the combination therapy against severe infections, such as pneumonia or bacteraemia, remains unknown in vivo.Objectives: In this study, we investigated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the combination therapy of OP0595 and FEP in a mouse model of pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring SHV and CTX-M-9-type ESBLs...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506784/healthcare-personnelintestinal-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#6
Brooke K Decker, Anna F Lau, John P Dekker, Christine D Spalding, Ninet Sinaii, Sean Conlan, David K Henderson, Julia A Segre, Karen M Frank, Tara N Palmore
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the association between patient contact and intestinal carriageof multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) by sampling healthcare personnel (HCP) and staff without patient contact. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited400HCPwho worked in our 200-bed research hospitaland 400 subjectswithout patient contact between November 2013 and February 2015.Participants submitted two self-collected perirectal swabsand a questionnaire...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499129/occurrence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-bacteria-in-the-yodo-river-basin-japan-and-determination-of-beta-lactamases-producing-bacteria
#7
Naoyuki Yamashita, Yohei Katakawa, Hiroaki Tanaka
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are widespread in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to obtain information on the occurrence of bacteria with antimicrobial resistance and their multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) patterns in a river basin in Japan. In addition, the occurrence of fecal bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) in the aquatic environment was determined. Among the Escherichia coli isolates recovered from river samples upstream, 55% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 18% were MAR...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486169/characterization-of-oxa-48-like-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-river-water-in-algeria
#8
Rima Tafoukt, Abdelaziz Touati, Thongpan Leangapichart, Sofiane Bakour, Jean-Marc Rolain
The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a significant problem for healthcare worldwide. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in water environments in Algeria are unknown. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of CPE isolates in the Soummam River in Bejaia, Algeria. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae recovered from twelve samples of river water and showing reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were included in this study. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
April 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484708/activity-of-fosfomycin-and-daptomycin-containing-bone-cement-on-selected-bacterial-species-being-associated-with-orthopedic-infections
#9
Sigrun Eick, Kevin Hofpeter, Anton Sculean, Claudia Ender, Susann Klimas, Sebastian Vogt, Sandor Nietzsche
The purpose of this study was to determine activity of fosfomycin/gentamicin and daptomycin/gentamicin-containing PMMA bone-cement against Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MSSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and E. coli (ESBL; only fosfomycin). Test specimens of the bone cement were formed and bacteria in two concentrations were added one time or repeatedly up to 96 h. All fosfomycin-containing cement killed ultimately all MSSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and E. coli within 24 h; growth of MRSA was suppressed up to 48 h...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484498/evaluating-the-trends-of-bloodstream-infections-among-pediatric-and-adult-patients-at-a-teaching-hospital-of-kathmandu-nepal-role-of-drug-resistant-pathogens
#10
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Hridaya Parajuli, Roshan Pandit, Jyotsna Shakya, Puspa Raj Khanal
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality for patients of all age groups. However, very little is known about the trends of bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibilities among pediatric and adult population from Nepal. In this study, we have investigated the different etiological agents responsible for bloodstream infections among pediatric and adult patients and the role of drug resistant organisms in these infections at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475791/prevention-and-control-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-adult-intensive-care-units-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#11
Nattawat Teerawattanapong, Kirati Kengkla, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Surasak Saokaew, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Background: This study evaluated the relative efficacy of strategies for the prevention of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) in adult intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis was performed; searches of the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) included all randomized controlled trials and observational studies conducted in adult patients hospitalized in ICUs and evaluating standard care (STD), antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), environmental cleaning (ENV), decolonization methods (DCL), or source control (SCT), simultaneously...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475416/specific-clinical-profile-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-general-surgery-patients-with-infections-by-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#12
Ines Rubio-Perez, Elena Martin-Perez, Diego Domingo-García, Damian Garcia-Olmo
BACKGROUND: The incidence of gram-negative multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections is increasing worldwide. This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical profiles, risk factors, and mortality of these infections in general surgery patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All general surgery patients with a clinical infection by gram-negative MDR bacteria were studied prospectively for a period of five years (2007-2011). Clinical, surgical, and microbiologic parameters were recorded, with a focus on the identification of risk factors for MDR infection and mortality...
May 5, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474179/evaluation-of-sampling-locations-in-pregnant-women-and-newborns-for-the-detection-of-colonisation-with-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#13
M Zamfir, A C Adler, S Kolb, A Dammeyer, L Nasri, L Schomacher, B Karlin, M Franitza, S Hörmansdorfer, C Tuschak, G Valenza, U Ochmann, C Herr
Up to now, little has been known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of colonisation of asymptomatic pregnant women with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. In this two-centre cross-sectional study, we evaluated the performance and importance of screening at different times and different locations for colonisation in pregnant women and newborns. Between October 2013 and December 2015, four samples were collected from pregnant women, two from newborns at birth and three from 3-day-old newborns...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464580/-analysis-of-the-spectrum-and-resistance-of-pathogen-causing-sepsis-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#14
H X Ma, L He, S W Cai, X L Xin, H D Shi, L Zhou, X J Shi
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of spectrum and drug resistance of pathogens causing sepsis in patients with severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). Methods: The clinical data of 63 SAP patients with sepsis admitted in Department of Hepatobiliary, People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied. There were 47 males and 16 females, aged from 22 to 73 years, with an average age of (52±11)years. Samples were collected mainly from: (1)pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis and abdominal drainage; (2)bile; (3) blood or deep venous catheter; (4) sputum and tracheal catheter and thoracic drainage; (5) urine...
May 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457027/changing-antimicrobial-resistance-pattern-of-isolates-from-an-icu-over-a-3-year-period
#15
Zarine Khety, Guruparasad Mohanta, Sachin Jain, Sameer Dawoodi
OBJECTIVE: To study the changing patterns of antimicrobial resistance in gram negative bacilli esp. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa species and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a 37 bedded ICU of a private hospital. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by using disk diffusion and Vitek-2 system. RESULTS: A total of 13410 clinical samples were screened over a period of 3 years, among which 16...
February 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456930/mortality-due-to-nosocomial-infection-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae-esbl
#16
Katarzyna Starzyk-Łuszcz, Tadeusz M Zielonka, Joanna Jakubik, Katarzyna Życińska
Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important hospital pathogens, particularly concerning the multidrug-resistant strain ESBL(+). The aim of this study was to evaluate nosocomial infections with K. pneumoniae ESBL(+) in the context of infection location, risk factors, and prognosis. This hospital study was conducted retrospectively and covered a 3 months' period. The infection with K. pneumoniae ESBL(+) was diagnosed in 36 patients (19 women and 17 men) of the mean age of 74.2 ± 14.8 years. The number of infected patients amounted to 2...
April 30, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449019/the-clear-and-present-danger-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-in-new-zealand-time-for-a-national-response-plan
#17
Matthew Blakiston, Helen Heffernan, Sally Roberts, Joshua Freeman
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence)...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446572/evaluation-of-the-accelerate-pheno%C3%A2-system-for-fast-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-from-positive-blood-culture-in-gram-negative-bloodstream-infection
#18
Matthias Marschal, Johanna Bachmaier, Ingo Autenrieth, Philipp Oberhettinger, Matthias Willmann, Silke Peter
Bloodstream infections (BSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistant pathogens limit treatment options, prompting an empirical use of broad-range antibiotics. Fast and reliable diagnostic tools are needed to provide adequate therapy in a timely manner and to enable a de-escalation of treatment.The Accelerate Pheno™ system (Accelerate Diagnostics, USA) is a fully automated test system that performs both identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) directly from positive blood cultures within approx...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446177/the-susceptibility-to-fosfomycin-of-gram-negative-bacteria-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-czech-republic-data-from-a-unicentric-study
#19
Miroslav Fajfr, Miroslav Louda, Pavla Paterová, Lenka Ryšková, Jaroslav Pacovský, Josef Košina, Helena Žemličková, Miloš Broďák
BACKGROUND: Against a background of rapid increase of β-lactamase-producing or multi-resistant pathogenic bacteria and the resulting lack of effective antibiotic treatment, some older antibiotics have been tested for new therapeutic uses. One of these is fosfomycin, to which according to studies these resistant bacteria are very sensitive. Our study was designed because there is no data on the fosfomycin susceptibility rate in the Czech Republic. METHOD: In this study from January 2013 to June 2014 3295 unique isolates of Gram-negative bacteria which had caused urinary tract infections were examined...
April 26, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#20
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
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