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ESBL bacteria

T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Jeremiah Seni, Enock Sweya, Amri Mabewa, Stephen E Mshana, Japhet M Gilyoma
BACKGROUND: Secondary peritonitis is a common surgical emergence with deadly outcomes when not timely and promptly intervened. The emergence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) poses treatment challenge at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC); hence a need to evaluate the magnitude of ESBL so as to guide specific therapy. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015 involving patients with secondary peritonitis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Matti Uhari
Enterobacteriaceae can produce β-lactamases that are capable of hydrolysing extended-spectrum cephalosporins, namely cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and ceftatzidime. Today there are more than 1,600 different known β-lactamases (1) and, although the first reports of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were from Germany and England, ESBL producing bacteria have been particularly common in France (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 20, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Hemlata Hemlata, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Tiwari
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem exacerbated due to selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Of the different mechanisms that led to spread of resistance, one notorious phenomenon is the generation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) preferably TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M. Their production and frequent mobilization through horizontal gene transfer, made bacteria to exhibit resistance against a broad range of antibiotics. Resilient development of resistance among bacteria hampers available treatment options against different infections in the health care system...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Yuji Watanabe, Nozomi Oikawa, Maya Hariu, Ryota Fuke, Masafumi Seki
Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein serve as biomarkers of infection in patients with sepsis/bacteremia. The present study assessed the clinical characteristics of 280 patients with suspected sepsis who were admitted to Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2013. Among the patients, 133 and 147 were positive and negative for PCT, respectively. Patients who were PCT positive were older and more frequently male, had reduced levels of platelets and albumin, and increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, David R Peaper, Dana Towle, María Araque
Enterobacter spp. have emerged as an important group of pathogens linked to outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), usually involving strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to describe the first nosocomial bloodstream infection outbreak caused by Enterobacter ludwigii co-harbouring CTX-M-8, SHV-12 and TEM-15 in a NICU in a Venezuelan hospital. Initial bacterial identification was achieved by VITEK(®)2 system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VITEK(®) MS) and was subsequently confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and hsp60 genotyping...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
A Guzek, Krzysztof Korzeniewski, D Tomaszewski, Z Rybicki, E Zwolińska
The article presents the results of 11-year study (2005-2015) of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for pneumonia in 2033 mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Of 8796 biological samples, consisting mainly of bronchial aspirate (97.9 %), 2056 bacterial strains were isolated and subjected to identification. VITEK 2 was used to determine drug susceptibility (classified according to the EUCAST criteria). ESBL, MBL and KPC-producing strains were identified by means of phenotypic methods using appropriate discs...
October 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maryam Haghighatpanah, Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Ali Mojtahedi, Nour Amirmozafari, Habib Zeighami
Escherichia coli is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance leads to treatment failure of hospital infections caused by E. coli. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is one of the major causes of antibiotic resistance in these bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of patients admitted to six hospitals in the north of Iran. A total of 160 E...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Yasemin Cag, Hulya Caskurlu, Yanyan Fan, Bin Cao, Haluk Vahaboglu
By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Ming-Yi Wang, Jian-Li Geng, Ying-Jian Chen, Yu Song, Mei Sun, Hai-Zhu Liu, Cheng-Jin Hu
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci and ESBL-producing bacteria are the most important resistant pathogens in sepsis. In the study, a new multiplex-touchdown PCR method (MT-PCR) was developed to detect rapidly and simultaneously the presence of mecA, blaSHV , blaCTX-M , blaTEM and blaOXA genes from positive blood culture bottles. The technique showed a sensitivity of 10(3) CFU ml(-1) for mecA detection and of 10(2) CFU ml(-1) for other genes, and 100% specificity in the detection of all genes. All genes were detected in the spiked blood culture bottles artificially contaminated with reference strains...
October 4, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
The isolation rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been increasing in Japan. While the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) for ESBL-producing bacteria is controversial, carbapenems have generally been shown to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine whether the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptibility breakpoint of ≤16/4 μg/mL PIPC/TAZ predicts the clinical usefulness for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Elizaveta M Igumnova, Ekaterina Mishchenko, Tor Haug, Hans-Matti Blencke, Johanna U Ericson Sollid, Elizabeth G Aarag Fredheim, Silje Lauksund, Klara Stensvåg, Morten B Strøm
A library of small aminobenzamide derivatives was synthesised to explore a cationic amphipathic motif found in marine natural antimicrobials. The most potent compound E23 displayed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5-2μg/ml against several Gram-positive bacterial strains, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).E23 was also potent against 275 clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as methicillin-resistant S...
September 20, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Wilma C Hazeleger, Wilma F Jacobs-Reitsma, Heidy M W den Besten
Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. Effective monitoring of Campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. The method of the International Organization for Standardization for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in food (ISO 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of Bolton broth (BB) as selective enrichment medium, including a pre-enrichment step of 4-6 h at 37°C to revive sublethally damaged cells prior to incubation for 2 days at 41...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Song-Tao Han, Ying Fei, Jin-You Huang, Mei Xu, Li-Chan Chen, D Joshua Liao, Yu-Jie Tan
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes that render bacteria resistant to antibiotics are commonly detected using phenotype testing, which is time consuming and not sufficiently accurate. To establish a better method, we used phenotype testing to identify ESBL-positive bacterial strains and conducted PCR to screen for TEM (named after the patient Temoneira who provided the first sample), sulfhydryl reagent variable (SHV), cefotaxime (CTX)-M-1, and CTX-M-9, the 4 most common ESBL types and subtypes. We then performed multiplex PCR with 1 primer containing a biotin and hybridized the PCR products with gene-specific probes that were coupled with microbeads and coated with a specific fluorescence...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
Tatsuya Nakayama, Michio Jinnai, Ryuji Kawahara, Khong Thi Diep, Nguyen Nam Thang, Tran Thi Hoa, Le Kieu Hanh, Pham Ngoc Khai, Yoshinori Sumimura, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Reports of livestock infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) are increasing. Based on interviews conducted over a 6-month period, we found that veterinarians in the Vietnamese province of Thai Binh prefer to prescribe colistin-based drugs (CBD) in chicken farms. We aimed to clarify whether CBD use selects for strains of colistin-resistant ESBL-E. With the cooperation of seven local households, we detected ESBL-E in chickens' feces after treating chickens with CBD...
September 23, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Stefan Schwarz, Virve I Enne, Engeline van Duijkeren
This review, for the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC), gives an overview of the manuscripts related to veterinary bacteriology published in the journal in the past 40 years with a focus on 'One Health' aspects. From 1975 to 2000 the number of manuscripts related to veterinary medicine was limited, but thereafter, the number steadily increased. Most manuscripts published were related to food-producing animals, but companion animals and minor species were also covered...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
J Sharifi-Rad, D Mnayer, A Roointan, F Shahri, S A M Ayatollahi, M Sharifi-Rad, N Molaee, M Sharifi-Rad
The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Clara Atterby, Andrew M Ramey, Gabriel Gustafsson Hall, Josef Järhult, Stefan Börjesson, Jonas Bonnedahl
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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