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Maja Turinek, Martina Bavec, Milan Repič, Matjaž Turinek, Andreja Urbanek Krajnc, Christian Moellers, Alba Tres, Franc Bavec
BACKGROUND: Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Surindra Suthar, Bhawna Pandey, Rita Gusain, Rubia Zahid Gaur, Kapil Kumar
This paper reports the results of vermicomposting of water lettuce biomass (WL) spiked with cow dung at ratios of 20, 40, 60, and 80 % employing Eisenia fetida. A total of four treatments were established and changes in chemical properties of mixtures were observed. Vermicomposting caused a decrease in pH, TOC, volatile solids, and C/N ratio by 1.01-1.08-fold, 0.85-0.92-fold, 0.94-0.96-fold, 0.56-0.70-fold, respectively, but increase in EC, totN, totP, totK, totCa, totZn, totFe, and totCu, by 1.19-1.42-fold, 1...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Amalie Thit, Tina Ramskov, Marie-Noële Croteau, Henriette Selck
The use and likely incidental release of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is steadily increasing. Despite the increasing amount of published literature on metal NP toxicity in the aquatic environment, very little is known about the biological fate of NPs after sediment exposures. Here, we compare the bioavailability and subcellular distribution of copper oxide (CuO) NPs and aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq) in the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Ten days (d) sediment exposure resulted in marginal Cu bioaccumulation in L...
August 31, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
T T Yen Le, Milen Nachev, Daniel Grabner, A Jan Hendriks, Bernd Sures
Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Kecskeméti, Beate Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Annette Reineke
Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Sharad P Paul, Justin Matulich, Nick Charlton
One of the problems in planning cutaneous surgery is that human skin is anisotropic, or directionally dependent. Indeed, skin tension varies between individuals and at different body sites. Many a surgeon has tried to design different devices to measure skin tension to help plan excisional surgery, or to understand wound healing. However, many of the devices have been beset with problems due to many confounding variables - differences in technical ability, material (sutures) used and variability between different users...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gianfranco Picone, Alessia Trimigno, Paola Tessarin, Silvia Donnini, Adamo Domenico Rombolà, Francesco Capozzi
The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Alexander Lewis, Catherine K King, Nicole A Hill, Ashley Cooper, Ashley T Townsend, Julie A Mondon
Very little is currently known of subantarctic nearshore invertebrates' sensitivity to environmental metals and the role of temperature in this relationship. This study investigated Cu and Zn toxicity in the common subantarctic intertidal isopod, Exosphaeroma gigas, and the influence of temperature on Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics. Adult E. gigas are insensitive to Cu and Zn at concentrations of 3200 and 7400μg/L respectively in non-renewal tests at 5.5°C (ambient subtidal temperature) over 14days...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ulrich Kutschera
One hundred and 50 years ago (Sept. 1866), Ernst Haeckel published a monograph entitled General Morphology of Organisms, wherein key terms, such as Protista, Monera, ontogeny, phylogeny, ecology and the 'biogenetic law' where introduced. In addition, Haeckel coined the word "biodynamics" as a synonym for "general physiology." In contrast, Rudolf Steiner's "biodynamic agriculture," which originated in 1924, and was promoted via Ehrenfried Pfeiffer's book of 1938 with the same title, is an occult pseudoscience still popular today...
July 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jacek Kromulski, Tadeusz Pawłowski, Jan Szczepaniak, Wojciech Tanaś, Andrzej Wojtyła, Mariusz Szymanek, Jacek Tanaś, Waldemar Izdebski
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Many people are exposed to vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives. The biodynamic responses of the human body in sitting conditions have been widely measured under whole-body vibration (WBV). The measures are most often expressed in terms of force-motion relations at the driving-point, namely, mechanical impedance, apparent mass and absorbed power, and flow of vibration through the body, such as seat-to-head and body segments vibration transmissibility...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Leonardo Ciocca, Achille Tarsitano, Claudio Marchetti, Roberto Scotti
Reconstruction of the condyle after an ablative procedure with the aim of cancer elimination remains surgically challenging. This pilot study focused on mandibular condylar replacement using CAD-CAM temporomandibular prostheses connected to customized reconstructive plates to support free fibula flaps in oncological patients. Five patients underwent mandibular disarticulation resection, and two of them completed their 5-year follow ups. The condylar anatomy, the position of the condyle within the glenoid fossa, and glenoid anatomy were measured by superimposing pre- and postoperative CT images (obtained after 6 months and 5 years of follow up)...
July 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Zhen Zhou, Michael J Griffin
The biodynamic response of the seated human body has been investigated with 20 males exposed to upward and downward shocks at 13 fundamental frequencies (1-16 Hz) and 18 magnitudes (up to ±8.3 ms(-2)). For 1- and 2- degree-of-freedom models, the stiffness and damping coefficients were obtained by fitting seat acceleration waveforms predicted from the measured force to the measured seat acceleration waveform. Stiffness and damping coefficients were also obtained in the frequency domain with random vibration...
May 20, 2016: Ergonomics
R Di Silvestro, A Di Loreto, S Bosi, V Bregola, I Marotti, S Benedettelli, A Segura-Carretero, G Dinelli
BACKGROUND: Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest towards organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management...
May 2, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rym Hadji, Nastassia Urien, Emmanuelle Uher, Lise C Fechner, Jérémie D Lebrun
Although dynamic approaches are nowadays used increasingly to describe metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, the validation of such laboratory-derived modeling is rarely assessed under environmental conditions. Furthermore, information on bioaccumulation kinetics of Pb and the significance of its uptake by dietary route is scarce in freshwater species. This study aims at modeling aqueous and dietary uptakes of Pb in the litter-degrader Gammarus pulex and assessing the predictive quality of multipathway modeling from in situ bioaccumulation data...
July 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ren G Dong, Erik W Sinsel, Daniel E Welcome, Christopher Warren, Xueyan S Xu, Thomas W McDowell, John Z Wu
The hand coordinate systems for measuring vibration exposures and biodynamic responses have been standardized, but they are not actually used in many studies. This contradicts the purpose of the standardization. The objectives of this study were to identify the major sources of this problem, and to help define or identify better coordinate systems for the standardization. This study systematically reviewed the principles and definition methods, and evaluated typical hand coordinate systems. This study confirms that, as accelerometers remain the major technology for vibration measurement, it is reasonable to standardize two types of coordinate systems: a tool-based basicentric (BC) system and an anatomically based biodynamic (BD) system...
September 2015: Safety and Health At Work
A Shahvarpour, A Shirazi-Adl, C Larivière
Unstable sitting on a wobble chair with different balance difficulty levels can be used as an effective tool in exercises as well as evaluation and therapeutic stages of rehabilitation. No data on muscle activity levels and spinal loads are however available to assess its safety compared to other regular daily activities. The goal of this study was to estimate muscle forces and spinal loads in a seated unstable wobble chair task. In vivo 3D kinematics of the trunk and seat collected in an earlier study were used here to drive computational trunk musculoskeletal models of 6 normal and 6 low-back pain subject groups sitting on a wobble chair for a duration of 10s...
April 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Robert G Radwin, Amrish Chourasia, Frank J Fronczak, Yashpal Subedi, Robert Howery, Thomas Y Yen, Mary E Sesto, Curtis B Irwin
The proportion of tool operators capable of maintaining published psychophysically derived threaded fastener tool handle deflection limits were predicted using a biodynamic tool operator model, interacting with the tool, task and workstation. Tool parameters, including geometry, speed and torque were obtained from the specifications for 35 tools used in an auto assembly plant. Tool mass moments of inertia were measured for these tools using a novel device that engages the tool in a rotating system of known inertia...
May 2016: Applied Ergonomics
Ren G Dong, Daniel E Welcome, Thomas W McDowell, John Z Wu
While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Sound and Vibration
Ricardo L Armentano, Daniela Valdez Jasso, Leandro J Cymberknop, Florencia Montini Ballarin, Daniela Velez, Pablo C Caracciolo, Gustavo Abraham
INTRODUCTION: Tissue engineering offers the possibility of developing a biological substitute material in vitro with the inherent properties required in vivo. However, the inadequate performance in vascular replacement of small diameter vascular grafts (VG) reduces considerably the current alternatives in this field. In this study, a bilayered tubular VG was produced, where its mechanical response was tested at high pressure ranges and compared to a native femoral artery. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The VG was obtained using sequential electrospinning technique, by means of two blends of Poly(L-lactic acid) and segmented poly(ester urethane)...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
John F Golding, Michael A Gresty
INTRODUCTION: Motion sickness is often provoked by oscillatory translational (linear) acceleration. For humans, motion frequencies around 0.2-0.3 Hz are the most provocative. A current explanation for this frequency band is that it spans a region of maximum ambiguity concerning the interpretation of vestibular signals. Below 0.2-0.3 Hz, linear accelerations are interpreted as 'tilt', whereas at higher frequencies accelerations are interpreted as 'translation', i.e., linear motion through space...
January 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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