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Mohammed M Naiyer, Sorcha A Cassidy, Andrea Magri, Vanessa Cowton, Kevin Chen, Salah Mansour, Hariklia Kranidioti, Berenice Mbirbindi, Pauline Rettman, Scott Harris, Liam J Fanning, Arend Mulder, Franz H J Claas, Andrew D Davidson, Arvind H Patel, Marco A Purbhoo, Salim I Khakoo
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are rapidly evolving species-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptors associated with protection against multiple different human viral infections. We report that the activating receptor KIR2DS2 directly recognizes viral peptides derived from conserved regions of flaviviral superfamily 2 RNA helicases in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I. We started by documenting that peptide LNPSVAATL from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase binds HLA-C*0102, leading to NK cell activation through engagement of KIR2DS2...
September 15, 2017: Science Immunology
Raymond Sturner, Barbara Howard, Paul Bergmann, Tanya Morrel, Rebecca Landa, Kejuana Walton, Danielle Marks
Accuracy of autism screening using M-CHAT plus the follow-up interview (M-CHAT/F) for children screened positive at 18-months was compared to screening at 24-months. Formal ASD testing was criterion for a community sample of M-CHAT positive children (n = 98), positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.40 for the M-CHAT and 0.58 for the M-CHAT/F. MCHAT/F PPV was 0.69 among children 20+ months compared to 0.36 for <20 months. Multivariate analyses incorporating data from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, M-CHAT and M-CHAT/F results, and M-CHAT items suggest language variables carry greatest relative importance in contributing to an age-based algorithm with potential to improve PPV for toddlers <20 months to the same level as observed in older toddlers...
October 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
David D Schwartz, Jennifer M Katzenstein, Eric J Highley, Deborah L Stabley, Katia Sol-Church, Karen W Gripp, Marni E Axelrad
Dysregulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Costello syndrome (CS) may contribute to increased risk for autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined prevalence of ASD symptoms in 14 individuals (six females) age 1-18 years with molecularly confirmed CS. Caregivers completed the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for ages 0-4 years (n = 7), and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for ages 4 and older (n = 7). Age was associated with meeting ASD criteria: 5/7 (71...
May 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Adeleke O Fowokan, Iris A Lesser, Karin H Humphries, John G B Mancini, Scott A Lear
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed at exploring the relationship between baseline insulin and glucose and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in a multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: Males and females (n = 797) of European, Chinese, South Asian and Aboriginal origin were assessed as part of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (MCHAT) study for socio-demographics, smoking status, fasting insulin and glucose at baseline. IMT, plaque area and total area were assessed after 5 years...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis
Saranya Ravi, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Shivanand Kattimani, Mahadevan Subramanian
This study was carried out to screen children aged 16-30 months, attending pediatric outpatient department of JIPMER, Puducherry, during June to August 2014, for ASD using modified checklist for autism in toddlers-revised (MCHAT-R) and to find association between maternal, birth and postnatal risk factors with risk of ASD. A total of 350 mother-child pairs with children aged between 16 and 30 months were recruited. M-CHAT-R was administered to all mothers to screen for ASD along with risk checklist. Based on screen result children were classified as ASD (high risk) and no ASD (low and medium risk) group...
August 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Soyong Eom, Breanne Fisher, Catherine Dezort, Anne T Berg
AIM: Screening for cognitive impairment, developmental delay, and neuropsychiatric problems is not always performed in children with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess the value of this screening and its validity for determining previously unidentified ('actionable') problems in children with epilepsy. METHOD: New and existing patients with epilepsy were recruited from a hospital-based epilepsy center. The parent of the child completed screening evaluations for development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire [ASQ], 0-66mo), autism (Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers [mCHAT], 16-30mo), social communication (Social Communication Questionnaire [SCQ], ≥4y), and psychiatric concerns (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ], 4-17y)...
November 2014: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Cora M Taylor, Alison Vehorn, Hylan Noble, Amy S Weitlauf, Zachary E Warren
The goal of the current study was to develop and pilot the utility of two simple internal response bias metrics, over-reporting and under-reporting, in terms of additive clinical value within common screening practices for early detection of autism spectrum disorder risk. Participants were caregivers and children under 36 months of age (n = 145) participating in first-time diagnostic appointments across our clinical research center due to developmental concerns. Caregivers were asked to complete the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) as well as a questionnaire embedding six response bias indicator questions...
September 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Laura Weissman, Laura Sices, Marilyn Augustyn
Jacob is a 22-month-old wonderful boy, who is being seen a few months late for his 18-month-old visit because of scheduling snafus, as both parents work outside the home. At this visit, it is routine in our practice to administer the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) and the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). On the PEDS, in response to the question, "Do you have any concerns about how your child talks or makes speech sounds?" the parents respond "He only says 2 words in Hebrew and none in English...
October 2010: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Di Sha, Hong Jin, Richard D Kopke, Jang-Yen Wu
Both the membrane-bound choline acetyltransferase (MChAT) and soluble ChAT (SChAT) were found to be activated by ATP-mediated protein phosphorylation. ATP activation of MChAT but not SChAT was found to depend on the integrity of proton gradient of synaptic vesicles because conditions disrupting the proton gradient also abolished the activation of MChAT by ATP. Among the kinases studied, Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II is most effective in activation of MChAT. Transport of ACh into synaptic vesicles by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is also proton gradient-dependent; therefore we proposed that there is a functional coupling between ACh synthesis and its packaging into synaptic vesicles...
January 2004: Neurochemical Research
A M Issa, S Gauthier, B Collier
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) appears to exist in multiple forms, three of which can be isolated biochemically as cytosolic (cChAT), ionically-membrane bound (ibChAT) and non-ionic membranous (mChAT). In this study, we first examined whether the quantitative distribution of enzyme protein and enzyme activity was the same. Enzyme activity and ChAT protein distributed similarly: the majority of ChAT activity and protein were found in cChAT followed by mChAT and least activity and amount were in ibChAT. Our second objective was to investigate the effects of calyculin A or okadaic acid on the subcellular distribution of ChAT activity and amount from rat hippocampal formation...
August 1999: Neurochemical Research
J H Peng, P L McGeer, E G McGeer
Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC was separated from human caudate/putamen into three fractions by successive extractions into a potassium phosphate buffer, a high salt (NaCl) buffer and a buffer containing 0.6% Triton X-100. The Triton-X-solubilized fraction is the membrane-bound ChAT (mChAT) and represents about 40% of the total ChAT. After centrifugation, mChAT was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 35-65% saturation. The crude enzyme preparation was fractionated in turn on a DEAE-Sepharose, a hydroxylapatite and a phosphocellulose columns...
July 1986: Neurochemical Research
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